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Basic Properties of Dental Materials

Prof. K.A. Wettasinghe

Biological Properties
Non-toxic - Patient - Dentist - Staff Non-irritant Non-allergenic Non-mutagenic / carcinogenic

Mercury Acids - Phosphoric - Hydrochloric - Hydrofluoric Nickel containing alloys Dusts H 2O 2

Mechanical Properties
Strain
Is the change in length that a material undergoes when a force is applied to it It is dimensionless because it has length per units of measurement Is often expressed as a percentage Tension / Compression Elastic / Plastic

F Stress =F/A

Strain = l/ l

Stress
It is the internal reaction to an externally applied load and is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the external load. Force / area N/m2 Compression / tension / shear

tension

compression

torque

Torsion results in shear strains.

Fixed end

Stress-strain relationship
Stress and strain are not independent and unrelated properties. The relationship between stress and strain is often used to characterize the mechanical properties of a material.

Stress-Strain relationship
stress

Y P T

strain
Stress-Strain plot obtained from a simple compressive or tensile test

Modulus of Elasticity
Measure of the relative stiffness or rigidity of a material The unit values are those of force per area Modulus of Elasticity=Stress/Strain This only applies the elastic portion of the stress-strain diagram On the diagram the modulus is indicated by the slope of the linear part of the line Youngs modulus of elasticity

Material

Youngs Modulus GN/m2


11.1 11.0 80.0 2.3 20.00 20.00 78-103 36-50

Enamel Composite filling material Dental ceramic Denture base acrylic Stainless steel Co-Cr alloy Gold alloy Amalgam

Stress-Strain relationship

stress

Y P T

strain
Stress-Strain plot obtained from a simple compressive or tensile test P Proportional limit E Elastic limit Y Yield point T Total failure

Modulus of Elasticity
Measure of the relative stiffness or rigidity of a material. The unit values are those of force per area.

Modulus of Elasticity=Stress/Strain This only applies to the elastic portion of the stress-strain diagram On the diagram the modulus is indicated by the slope of the linear part of the line
Youngs modulus of elasticity

Material

Youngs modulus GN/m2


11.1 11.0 80.0 2.3 20.00 20.00 78-103 36-50

Enamel Composite filling material Porcelain Denture base acrylic Stainless steel Co-Cr alloy Gold alloy Amalgam

Ductility - the ability of a material to undergo permanent tensile deformation without fracture
Malleability - the ability of a material to undergo permanent compressive deformation without fracture or rupture

Ultimate tensile/ compressive strength


Material Tensile strength (MPa)
98 10 48-69 414-828 34-62 28 40 421

Compressive strength (MPa)


297 400 310-483 ---200-345 97 150 ----

Human dentin Human enamel Dental amalgam Gold alloys Composite Unfilled acrylic plastic Porcelain (feldspathic) Nickel-chromium alloy

Resilience
The amount of energy a material can absorb before permanent deformation - Area under P

Toughness
. before fracture - Total area upto T

Impact strength
Application of a sudden force - Charpy - Izod

Notched specimens

Fracture toughness Resistance of a material to fracture under a sudden impact or the amount of energy absorbed by a material when it is stressed to a point just shy of its fracture point

Tear strength Resistance to tearing Fatigue strength Repetitive application of a small load

Hardness
Resistance to scratching or denting The value of hardness is referred as the hardness number Depends on the method used for evaluation
Brinell Vickers Knoop

Hardness tests

Brinell

Vickers

Knoop

Increasing hardness for Vickers test

Abrasion resistance

Time dependent properties


Flow/Creep Is an undesirable permanent deformation

When a constant force is maintained, certain materials continue to permanently deform Compressive stresses that can cause flow is created during biting

RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
Science of flow & deformation Mix Fluid paste Solidify - Change of viscosity

Working time - Time for manipulation Setting time - Reach initial / final set Command Setting

THERMAL PROPERTIES
Extremes of temperature inside mouth Thermal conductivity Thermal diffusivity - Rapidity of warming up of a material Thermal expansion Clinical implications - Filling materials - Denture bases

LIGHT, COLOUR AND AESTHETICS


Visible light Blue light 380-780nm 470-480nm for LC units

Primary colours - Blue, green, red

Transmission of light Refraction Absorption

Scattering

Colour: physical aspects


A colour of an object will depend on,

Colour of the light source


Nature of the object

Metamerism - A colour appear different depending on the light source Fluorescence


Absorb and emit a different wave length - Teeth absorb UV (400nm) & emit light of 400-450nm

Colour: Physiological and psychological aspects

Defective colour vision

High sensitivity to green Colour fatigue

Optical illusions

Measurement of colour
1. 2.

HUE

- Shade

CHROMA VALUE

- Saturation of a colour 3.

- Darkness or lightness of a colour

Polymers
Polymer

Monomer
Polymerization

Condensation Reactions
- A smaller molecule is eliminated

Free Radical Addition Reactions - No molecules are eliminated

Activation and Initiation Free radicals very reactive molecules with unpaired electrons H2O2 H2O + O. (R.)

Activation of initiator - Heat, UV light, chemicals

Examples - Heat / chemicals for acrylic

- Benzoil Peroxide and P-toluidine for LC composites

Polymer Structure & Properties


- Degree of polymerization - Molecular weight - Physical properties 1) Elastomers or rubbers 2) Hard amorphous polymers
Tg Glass transition temperature

Effect of molecular weight


MW Entanglement Rigidity Strength Tg.

Effect of cross linking


Cross linking Harder Brittle Solvent resistant Tg.

Plasticizers Liquids that penetrate and make it more flexible and rubbery Co-polymers Two or more monomeric units are there - Tailor made properties

Metals
Properties of metals
Hard, lustrous , dense, conductors, opaque, ductile & malleable
Electro positive - + in solution

Forming & Shaping of Metals


1) 2) 3)
4)

Casting Cold working Powder Metallurgy - TC burs Electro forming - Electro plating

Nature of Metallic Bonding


Loose outer electrons to give positive ions

Solid metal positive ions held in a cloud of free electrons - High heat & electricity conduction

Spacing of atoms Crystalline solids - Atoms are regularly arranged in a crystal lattice Unit cell The smallest unit

14 different C.L.s 1) Body centered cube - Atoms at each corners of a cube and one in the middle

eg. Iron below 9100C

2)

Face centered cube Atoms at each corner and center of each six faces eg. Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, Pd Iron above 9100C Hexagonal Zn, Mg

3)

Crystal imperfections
Defects & impurities strength fractures