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AIRCOM International to Orange

Drive test Call Failure Analysis

17/04/2012

Presentation Outline and Status


Methodology

Pilot
Neighbours Performance Counters

Services
Alarms Access Drive Data Analysis CM Service Test Nos Script bugs 6650 ISHO

Net. Issues
CC Disc Power Spikes HC Failures Inter RNC HO TCH/BCH

RRC Stp
RRC Access RRC Active

Common Alarms
Common Failures

Key
SHO New Draft Complete ISHO

17/04/2012

This Presentation

Shows how to find network problems from failures observed during a drive test from the collected log files Failures:
Call Setup failure
Different phases being analysed Main Reasons analysed

Dropped calls

17/04/2012

Successful Call Attempt Layer 3 Messages

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Before Call Attempt - 1


Most important factor when a mobile is making an attempt is to ensure that the signal received is adequate to make that attempt
There should be sufficient 3G coverage (Ec/Io RSCP) in order to make a successful attempt (not a great Path Loss) Mobile sends RRC Connection Request message while the reception of RRC Connection Setup does not take place.

Two possibilities

Node B (cell) doesnt receive RRC Connection Request message UE does not receive RRC Connection Setup message due to excessive path loss

The problem here is genuine coverage so it is important to make sure closest site is transmitting properly or alternatively propose a new one

A cell can only cover a certain area


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Before Call Attempt - 2


Ensure that when the call attempt is initiated, it is made to the correct cell
Correct cell reselection in idle mode is crucial when the UE is moving through the 3G network Neighbours are important in idle mode as well so it is essential to verify that the correct relations have been made

Check previous cell on which UE has camped on and verify with the scanner data which one the new selected cell should be
Camping to overshooting cells can cause problem

Cell availability must also be checked (with scanner measurements) to ensure that closest site is up and running

If the closer cell is up and running then neighbour relations must be checked (ADJS Table for Nokia RAN)
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Call Attempt Starts


Mobile is sending RRC Connection Request message If the cell/RNC doesnt respond with an RRC Connection Setup message then the mobile will wait for a specific amount of time, and make the request again. The total number of requests and the wait time is specified by the network.
This usually happens because:

RNC is not able to receive the message due to a possible faulty synchronisation on the Iub (DAC Word/10 Mhz) Sleeping cell problem

Service level counters can provide reasons for such failures (RRC ACC Fail)

Cell can also respond with RRC Connection Reject Message where usually the cause is congestion due to loading or high UL noise (AC)
Commissioning file check (MHA setting) External interference Possible increase in Prx target Autotuning deactivated (hanging resource)

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Call Attempt Starts (examples)

RRC Connection Reject

No Response to RRC Connection Request

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RRC Active State


We are in this state when RRC Connection is Active After that we are in the RAB setup phase After MM CM Service request message it is possible to receive a MM CM Service reject message this would be a Core Network problem

This is an example for a video call

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RRC Active State (2)


After security procedures RAB Setup should take place When the hardware processing capacity of the BS is reached at a particular time then NW will send a CC Disconnect with reason no circuit/channel available. This is the most common reason for CC Disconnect Other reason can be failure to allocate channel on the called number (171,150)

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RRC Active State (2)

Following this and the security procedures is that Radio Bearer Setup:
Radio Bearer Setup message sent from the network takes mobile to RAB access

phase at which

UE might fail to receive or even fail to respond this can be either UE problem or coverage problem (usually this never takes place) UE responds with Radio Bearer Setup complete which takes the call to RAB Active phase

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RAB Active State


When RAB Setup is complete then the messages recorded can be the same as the ones in the middle of a call until the point when CC Alerting message is received on the DL (sometimes immediately Connect) this message makes the call setup attempt successful From the moment of the RRC Connection Request message until CC Alerting message usual mobility management activities and messages

such as Measurement Report and Active Set update can be exchanged between UE and network.

During this time there can be a drop in the radio link the same way as it can happen in the middle of the call (dropped call) due to low coverage, missing neighbours, failed SHO etc

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Failures due to system/other reasons - 1


Call Setup Failures can also occur due to other reasons:
User not responding

In this case there is a DL CC Release message, happens when called mobile fails to return a page (user not responding) In this case there is also a DL CC Release message with cause service option not supported this happens when the called mobile has made reselection to a 2G site There can be also a CC Release message in the DL with the following reasons:

Called mobile in 2G (video calls only)

Resource problem

Temporary failure/resource unavailable

These are usually Node B/RNC/MSC system problems

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Failures due to system/other reasons (examples)

No user responding

User busy

Called UE in 2G (video)

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Failures due to system/other reasons - 2


While being in the call setup phase there can also be an RRC Connection Release message but usually and if there isnt a higher layer release here, the cause is unspecified For these Call Setup Failures it is important to have the traces from the RNC (Iub?) as well because it is not an easy task to identify the reason of this problem from the DT files

Site issues
It is important that there is a record of the sites that seem to have repeated problems. These sites usually have failures on every drive that takes place around their area. In the drive test trace these can be random drops while call is during the setup procedure. It is required most of the times that site visit takes place in order to ensure that everything is in place. This happens when all other sources of information (please read next slide) do not indicate a problem

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CSF Analysis Summary


CSF
Adequate RSCP?
Yes No

Stronger cell from Scanner?


No Yes

No

Physical antenna reconfiguration, Addition of new site

Adequate Ec/Io?
Yes

Addition of Neighbour

No

RRC Cx Reject received?


No

Yes

Admission Control?

Yes

Check noise levels, Autotuning

RRC Cx Setup received?


Yes

No

Check Node B (Configuration, Iub/10 MHz, DAC Word, Cell Resource counters, Alarms)

RB Setup received ?
Yes

No

Admission Control?
No

Yes

Check noise levels, Autotuning, Channel Availability

Issue TT, Further investigation Check failure cause (Not radio related)

Call drop during setup?


Yes

No

Dropped call process AIRCOM International 2004

Coverage Related Dropped Calls


Pilot RSCP
Node Bs cannot cover indefinitely Excessive path loss results in poor Radio coverage levels UE will lose synchronisation and will not be able to sustain the call These issues are resolved by:

Antenna tilt/relocation (higher mast or closer to rooftop edge)


New Site

On the call trace these appear usually as either sharp transitions to idle mode or after a high number of measurement reports (requesting weak cells)

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Coverage Related Dropped Calls


Pilot Ec/Io
In order for an adequate connection to take place at least one radio link needs to have good Signal to Noise Ratio this is expressed by the Pilot Ec/Io There are cases where a certain Pilot quality is not achieved due to the nature of WCDMA technology

Overshooting sites (Pilot Pollution)


Uneven Node B deployment (Pilot dominance)

No clear dominant cell in the area due to inter-site distance resulting in poor Ec/Io

SAM2-CPICH_Scan_EcIo_SortedBy_EcIo_0 (dB)

Below -16.0 (0) >= -16.0 to < -14.0 (1448) >= -14.0 to < -12.0 (6329) >= -12.0 to < -10.0 (14009) >= -10.0 to < -8.0 (28704) >= -8.0 to < -6.0 (56383) Above -6.0 (176519)

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Handover related drop calls


Missing neighbours can result in a failed connection This is the dominant cause of dropped calls in a well covered region Missing neighbours are easy to identify from DT log files but scanner measurements need to be collected.

In Ec/Io measurements from UE level appears to be decreasing very low until dropped call takes place.
Immediately after dropped call Ec/Io becomes much stronger due to cell reselection
Dropped call occurs here for 3G mode UE

Missing neighbours

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Handover related drop calls (system)


It is possible for SHO to fail even when neighbour relations are present This can happen due to:
Site issues (Channel elements, AC, Alarms, transmission) Iur problems (can be quite common)

UE measured Ec/Io is appearing the same as in the case of a missing

neighbour

Dropped call occurs here

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Handover related drop calls (Dual mode)


When mobile is in dual mode it is possible to handover to 2G system First mobile will enter compressed mode (Physical Channel Reconfiguration) so that it can measure the 2G cells In order to find missing 2G neighbours then the Measurement Control message, after entering compressed mode has to be examined for the correct BCCH ARFCNs

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Dropped Call Analysis Summary


DC
Compressed mode?
No Yes

Adequate 2G Coverage?
Yes

No

Physical antenna reconfiguration, Addition of new site (2G)

2G Neighbour List Correct? Active Set Adequate RSCP-Ec/Io?


Yes No No

Yes

Check inter-system issues, BCCH/TCH clash

Add missing neighbours

Stronger cell in Monitored Set?


Yes

No

Stronger cell from Scanner?


Yes

No

Physical antenna reconfiguration, Addition of new site

Add missing neighbours


No

Measureme nt Report Sent?


Yes

Check UE

Site on different RNC?


No

Yes

Check Iur

Check Node B (Configuration, Iub/10 MHz, DAC Word, Cell counters, Alarms) AIRCOM International 2004

Information needed during Analysis

When performing call setup - or any kind of Drive test log file analysis the following information should be at the disposal of the engineer. It is apparent that this information must be updated as often as possible to ensure analysis accuracy:
1. Site Availability Status 2. RNC dump/RNC Browser Access

3. Counter information
4. Site configuration (MHA, WSP, ATM, DAC, etc) 5. Reference database (ex. sites and neighbours) 6. Trouble ticket and maintenance Status 7. Integration plan 8. Drive test team report, comments and observations

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