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SEMINAR ON ROCKET ENGINE

BHARAT J SHETTY 4NM08ME026

contents
History of rockets Types of rocket Types of rocket engine Combustion Categories of rocket engine Working of a rocket engine Rocket burn sequence Uses Technology Mechanical issues Conclusion

What is Rocket?
A rocket or rocket vehicle is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle which obtains thrust from a rocket engine.

Rocket engines work by action and reaction Rocket engines push rockets forwards simply by throwing their exhaust backwards extremely fast Application of Rockets are used in fireworks, weaponry, ejection seats, launch vehicles for artificial satellites, human spaceflight and exploration of other planets

History of rocket
A common claim is that the first recorded use of a rocket in battle was by the Chinese in 1232 against the Mongol hordes at Kai Feng Fu. Rocket technology first became known to Europeans following its use by the Mongols Genghis Khan when they conquered parts of Russia, Eastern, and Central Europe. In 1792, the first iron-cased rockets were successfully developed used militarily by Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan, rulers of the Kingdom of Mysore in India against the larger British East India Company forces during the Anglo-Mysore Wars

Modern rockets were born when Robert Goddard attached a supersonic (de Laval) nozzle to a liquid-fuelled rocket engine's combustion chamber.

Types of Rocket
Tiny models such as balloon rockets, water rockets, skyrockets or small solid rockets Missiles, space rockets such as the enormous Saturn V used for the Apollo program Rapid escape systems such as ejection seats and launch escape systems , space probes.

TYPES OF ROCKET ENGINE


3 Basic Types of Rockets Solid Rockets: consist entirely of solid propellants stored in the combustion chamber casing. Liquid Rockets: use one or more liquid propellants that are held in tanks prior to burning. Hybrid Rockets: have a solid propellant in the combustion chamber and a second liquid or gas propellant added to permit it to burn.

COMBUSTION

For combustion to occur Fuel ,oxygen, source of heat is supplied and in return exhaust and heat is released The fuel can be a solid, liquid, or gas The oxidizer can be be a solid, liquid, or gas Hydrogen- carbon is used as a fuel. Exhaust will be water and carbon dioxide Exhaust also includes nitrous oxide (21% 0xygen and 78%carbon dioxide) Igniter is used for combustion to take place which is mounted on the launch pads

Categories of a rocket engine


Liquid rockets Solid rockets

Liquid rockets
Fuel and oxygen are stored separately Combustion can be stopped by turning of the fuel supply Pump is used to supply the fuel and oxygen Complex and heavier because of the pump

Solid rockets
fuel and oxygen are mixed together and packed into a solid cylinder Once the combustion take place it cannot be stopped

Working of a rocket engine

The engine casing consist of which contains the nozzle, propellants, and other explosive charge. nozzle, a relatively simple device used to accelerate hot gases and produce thrust

The hot gases are produced by the solid propellant, shown in green. An electric igniters' is used to launch a rocket engine When the flame front reaches the far left of the propellant, thrust goes to zero Delay charge, colour blue, begins to burn During the delay, no thrust is produced and the rocket coasts up to its maximum altitude. The length of the delay varies between engines from 2 to 8 seconds The ejection charge, shown in red, is ignited. This produces a small explosion which ejects hot gas out the front of the engine Engine mount, ejects the nose cone, and deploys the parachute for a safe recovery.

Rocket burn sequence


On a typical model rocket engine, a small cone is formed in the propellant on the nozzle end of the engine. As the fuel burns, the size of the cone increases until it hits the engine casing (about time = .2 on this engine). Between

Between time = .2 and .5, the shape of the cone flattens out and the area and thrust decreases because the burn rate also depends on the curvature of the surface. By time = .5, the cone has become a flat flame front which proceeds on down the engine until the propellant is used up at time = 2. Between .5 and 2, the thrust is constant;

pe = exit pressure po = free presure

ae = exit area

Uses
1. MILITARY Military weapons use rockets to propel warheads to their targets. Anti tank and anti aircraft missiles use rocket engines to engage targets at high speed at a range of several miles. Intercontinental ballistic missiles can be used to deliver multiple nuclear 2.SCIENCE AND RESEARCH Sounding rockets are commonly used to carry instruments above the surface of the Earth, the altitudes between those reachable by weather balloons and satellites. Warheads thousands of miles. Rocket may be used to soften a hard parachute landing immediately before touchdown .

uses
3. SPACEFLIGHT Rockets are also used to launch emergency flares. Some crewed rockets, notably the Saturn V and Soyuz have launch escape systems. Solid rocket propelled ejection seats are used in many military aircraft to propel crew away to safety from a vehicle when flight control is lost. 4. RESCUE Rockets are also used in some types of consumer and professional fireworks.

Forces on a rocket in flight


Flying rockets are primarily affected by the following: Drag if moving in atmosphere Lift; usually relatively small effect except for rocket-powered aircraft Thrust from the engine Gravity from celestial bodies

Technology
Energy
Rocket launch vehicles take-off with a great deal of flames, noise and drama, and it might seem obvious that they are grievously inefficient. The energy density of a typical rocket propellant is often around one-third that of conventional hydrocarbon fuels; the bulk of the mass is oxidizer. Energy from the fuel is lost in air drag and gravity drag and is used for the rocket to gain altitude and speed. However, much of the lost energy ends up in the exhaust.

Mechanical issues
At high pressure combustion chamber undergo stresses Due to high temp the material have a low tensile strength At temp gradients the inner liner expands causing internal stresses

CONCLUSION
With the progress of our civilization and technology , rocket technology is developed to improve other technology for the development of the future. But sometimes rocket is used as weapon, and also it causes many environmental problems. It depends on the human whether it gives beautiful life or takes lives as weapon of destruction.

References
History of Liquid Rocket Engines by George Sutton http://en.wikipedia.org

http://www.howstuffworks.com
http://books.google.com

http://nasa.gov
Dr. Joe Majdalani has written a journal about propulsion of a rocket engine

American, Robert Goddard with his Liquid fuelled rockets

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