NRP P.S. : G851110051 : BIOKIMIA


AP Biology

Nucleic Acids
Information storage

AP Biology


Nucleic Acids

 Function:

genetic material
 stores information  genes  blueprint for building proteins

DNA  RNA  proteins


 transfers information  blueprint for new cells  blueprint for next generation

AP Biology proteins




AP Biology

Nucleic Acids  Examples:  RNA (ribonucleic acid)  single helix  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)  double helix  Structure:  monomers = nucleotides AP Biology DNA RNA .

G or U part! phosphate (PO4) group Are nucleic acids charged molecules? AP Biology .Nucleotides  3 parts nitrogen base (C-N ring)  pentose sugar (5C)   ribose in RNA  deoxyribose in DNA  Nitrogen base I’m the A.T.C.

Types of nucleotides  2 types of nucleotides different nitrogen bases  purines  Purine = AG Pure silver!  double ring N base  adenine (A)  guanine (G)  pyrimidines  single ring N base  cytosine (C)  thymine (T)  uracil (U) AP Biology .

Nucleic polymer  Backbone sugar to PO4 bond  phosphodiester bond   new base added to sugar of previous base  polymer grows in one direction  N bases hang off the sugar-phosphate backbone Dangling bases? Why is this important? AP Biology .

Pairing of nucleotides  Nucleotides bond between DNA strands H bonds  purine :: pyrimidine  A :: T   2 H bonds  G :: C  3 H bonds Matching bases? Why is this important? AP Biology .

DNA molecule  Double helix  H bonds between bases join the 2 strands  A :: T  C :: G H bonds? Why is this important? AP Biology .

can rebuild the whole Matching halves? Why is this a good system? AP Biology . can build other  have one.Copying DNA  Replication  2 strands of DNA helix are complementary  have one.

When does a cell copy DNA?  When in the life of a cell does DNA have to be copied?  cell reproduction  mitosis  gamete production  meiosis AP Biology .

DNA replication “It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material.” James Watson Francis Crick 1953 AP Biology .

Watson and Crick … and others… 1953 | 1962 AP Biology .

Maurice Wilkins… and… 1953 | 1962 AP Biology .

Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958) AP Biology .

Interesting note…  Ratio of A-T::G-C affects stability of DNA molecule   2 H bonds vs. 3 H bonds biotech procedures  more G-C = need higher T° to separate strands  high T° organisms  many G-C  parasites  many A-T (don’t know why) AP Biology .

Another interesting note…  ATP Adenosine triphosphate  modified nucleotide  adenine (AMP) + Pi + Pi + AP Biology + .


Let’s build some DNA. baby! AP Biology .

RNA & DNA  RNA  single nucleotide chain double nucleotide chain  N bases bond in pairs  DNA  across chains  spiraled in a double helix  double helix 1st proposed as structure of DNA in 1953 by James Watson & Francis Crick (just celebrated 50th anniversary in 2003!) AP Biology .

Information polymer  Function  series of bases encodes information  like the letters of a book  stored information is passed from parent to offspring  need to copy accurately  stored information = genes  genetic information Passing on information? Why is this important? AP Biology .

AP Biology .

AP Biology .

DNA stands for: D: Deoxyribose N: Nucleic A: Acid DNA is too small to see. but under a microscope it looks like a twisted up ladder! Every living thing has DNA. a tree. a mushroom and a beetle!!!! AP Biology . That means that you have something in common with a zebra.

AP Biology .

Let’s get DNA from an onion! AP Biology .

Add ½ teaspoon of meat tenderizer to cup marked “soap and enzymes” 5. Label your cups “CONTROL” and “SOAP AND . Add onion juice to both cups 3.Materials  Onion  Salt  Dishwashing liquid  Meat tenderizer  Rubbing alcohol ENZYMES” 2. wait 10 minutes 1. Stir AP Biology gently. Add dishwashing soap to cup marked “soap and enzymes” 4.

DNA is made up of steps and rails of a ladder. This is a rail This is a step Green can only go with Red Purple can only go with Yellow AP Biology .

Let’s make our own DNA molecule. (In candy!) AP Biology .

The marshmallows connect the two sides of the ladder with a toothpick (think of the marshmallows as the two parts of velcro) 3.Instructions Materials  Two pieces of licorice  6 toothpicks  12 different coloured marshmallows (4 different colours) 1. The licorice is the DNA “backbone” (or the sides of the ladder) 2. Remember only certain colours can “stick” together in DNA Red goes with Orange AP Biology Yellow goes with Green .

You can tell people apart by their fingerprints… Because everyone’s fingerprints are different! AP Biology .

DNA is like a fingerprint because everyone’s is a little different! How does the police look at DNA to figure out who committed a crime? AP Biology .

The DNA gets cut up by special scissors!!! AP Biology .

The scissors can only cut the same colour! AP Biology .

AP Biology .All of the cut up pieces of DNA are different sizes.

LITTLE AP Biology BOTTOM .(Little pieces are fast. so they move faster to the bottom.) BIG TOP A special machine sorts the DNA by size.

We are ALL a little bit different! BIG LITTLE Miss Ellis’ DNA Sara’s DNA AP Biology .

How do we tell people apart just by their DNA anyways??? AP Biology .Soooo….

Our DNA has different sizes of pieces so it makes a different pattern when it’s all cut up. Miss Ellis’ DNA Sara’s DNA AP Biology .

Miss Ellis Sara AP Biology This is what it really looks like!!! .

Can you guess which one is Sara and which one is Miss Ellis? Miss Ellis ? Sara Is the red box around Miss Ellis’ DNA or around Sara’s DNA? AP Biology .

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