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HUMAN BEHAVIOUR AND ITS CLASSIFICATION PSYCHOANALYTIC MODEL EXISTENTIAL MODEL BEHAVIOURISTIC MODEL COGNITIVE MODEL

BEHAVIOUR IS CAUSED BY INSTINCTS, GENETIC BACKGROUND AND PERSONALITY TRAITS THAT ARE FORMED AT AN EARLY STAGE. ALTHOUGH CHANGE IS POSSIBLE BUT IS DIFFICULT BEHAVIOUR IS MOSTLY LEARNED THROUGH INTERACTION WITH ENVIRONMENT. PRESENT RATHER THAN PAST EVENTS ARE IMPORTANT. ONE IS CAPABLE OF CHANGE

MODELS OF OB
AUTOCRATIC
BASIS OF MODEL POWER

CUSTODIAL
ECONOMIC RESOURCES

SUPPORTIVE
LEADERSHIP

COLLEGIAL
PARTNERSHIP

SYSTEM
TRUST/ COMMUNITY/ MEANING CARING/ COMPASSION

MANAGERIAL ORIENTATION

AUTHORITY

MONEY

SUPPORT

TEAMWORK

EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION

OBEDIENCE

SECURITY AND BENEFITS

JOB PERFORMANCE

RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOUR

PSYCHOLOGIC AL OWNERSHIP

EMPLOYEE
PSYCHOLOGICAL

RESULT EMPLOYEE NEEDS MET

DEPENDENCE ON BOSS

ORGANISATION

DEPENDENCE ON

PARTICIPATION

SELFDISCIPLINE

SELFMOTIVATION

SUBSISTENCE

SECURITY

STATUS AND RECOGNITION

ACTUALISATION

SELF-

WIDE RANGE

PERFORMANCE RESULT

MINIMUM

PASSIVE COOPERATION

AWAKENED DRIVES

MODERATE ENTHUSIASM

PASSION AND COMMITMENT TO


ORGANISATION

GOALS

WHAT MAKES US DIFFERENT FROM ONE ANOTHER?

Some individuals has a unique patterns of

Enduring thoughts
Feelings

Behaviors
Actions

that persists over time and across situations


that characterize a person

PERSONALITY

An individuals unique patterns of enduring thoughts, feelings, behaviors and actions that persists over time and across situations and that characterize a person

What is Personality?

The inner psychological characteristics that determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment.

The Big Five Personality Dimensions

Adapted from "An Introduction to the Five-Factor Model and its Applications" by Robert R. McCrae and Oliver P. John. From Journal of Personality, 60:2, pp. 175-216.

PERSONALITY INCLUDES

EXTERNAL APPEARANCES AND BEHAVIOUR INNER AWARENESS OF SELF AS A PERMANENT ORGANISING FORCE THE PARTICULAR ORGANISATION OF MEASURABLE TRAITS, BOTH INNER AND OUTER

DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY

BIOLOGICAL
(HEREDITY, BRAIN, PHYSICAL FEATURES)

CULTURAL

FAMILY
(SOCIALISATION, IDENTIFICATION)

SITUATIONAL

CLASSES OF PERSONALITY THEORIES

Psychodynamic theories Humanistic theories Trait theories Cognitive-social learning theories

Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalysis
Freuds term for his theory of personality and his therapy for treating psychological disorders Freud believed that there are three levels of awareness in consciousness: the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious Freud focused on the unconsciousdrives, desires, needs, and conflicts which we are unaware of guide behavior Freuds view of humanity is deterministic (little free will) and pessimistic

Sigmund Freud The conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious


Conscious
The thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories of which a person is aware at any given moment

Preconscious
The thoughts, feelings, and memories that a person is not consciously aware of at the moment but that may be brought to consciousness

Unconscious
For Freud, the primary motivating force of behavior, containing repressed memories as well as instincts and wishes that have never been conscious

THE STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY


Freuds Personality Structure of the Mind Conscious: Mental events we are aware of. Top 1/3 of the iceberg! Unconscious: Thoughts, feelings, and memories hidden from view. Bottom 2/3 of the iceberg!

CAR LUNCH

TRUCK LUNCH

The Unconscious
Deep dark sea of secret urges, wishes, and drives. --Kassin Motivated by two instincts:
1. Life Instincts: Food, water, sex.

2. Death Instinct: Self-destructive impulses. Return to a calmer state. Directed aggression toward others.

Sigmund Freud Freud proposed personality


Id
The unconscious system of the personality, which contains the life and death instincts and operates on the pleasure principle

three

systems

of

Ego
The rational, largely conscious system of personality, which operates according to the reality principle

Superego
The moral system of the personality, which consists of the conscience and the ego ideal

The Id
It is the most primitive part of personality. Unconscious reservoir of instincts, and libido (instinctual force/unresponsive to demands of reality) Operates on the pleasure principle! Like an infant --- immediate gratification!

Id
Contains primitive drives or instincts including life instincts eros and death instincts thanatos libido: energy generated by the sexual drive, a life instinct pleasure principle: the id seeks to maximize pleasure and minimize pain primary process thought: id operates on a very basic primitive type of thought. The id is mostly unconscious

The Superego
Our conscience, moral values. The internalization of societal rules, regulations. What we would like to be - goals and ambitions. Superego forces the ego to consider ideal behaviors (how we ought to behave). It judges our actions, gives us guilt or pride.

Superego Operates at all 3 levels of consciousness Contains the internalized values of family and society It is highly moralistic, like a strict parent
GUILT

originates in the superego EGO IDEAL - part of the superego, an idealized image of what we think we should be

The Ego
Conscious perceptions, thoughts, memories. The gatekeeper of personality. Makes decisions about the pleasures pursued by the id and the moral dictates of the superego. Operates on the reality principle! Develops during childhood experiences with social surroundings/responsibilities.

Ego Operates at all consciousness 3 levels of

Reality principle: ego strives to satisfy id needs within the constraints of the real world and the superego Secondary process thought: ego uses a more sophisticated, realistic way of thinking and solving problems

A Representation of the Interrelationships among the Id, Ego, and Superego

Gratification

ID System 1

EGO System 3

SUPEREGO System 2

Sigmund Freud

FREUDS STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY

Prentice Hall, 1999

Freudian Theory and Product Personality

Consumer researchers using Freuds personality theory see consumer purchases as a reflection and extension of the consumers own personality

AD PORTRAYING THE FORCES OF THE ID

Sigmund Freud Evaluating Freuds contribution


Unconscious forces may motivate behavior Emphasizing the influence of early childhood experiences on later development Psychoanalysis is still viewed as a useful therapeutic technique

Carl Jung
Disagreed with Freud
the sexual instinct is not the main factor in personality the personality is not almost completely formed in early childhood

Carl Jungs Analytic Psychology

Argued that people are born with a general life force for:
Growth-oriented resolutions of conflicts The productive blending of basic impulses with real-world demands

People develop, over time, differing degrees of introversion or extraversion


Also differing tendencies to rely on specific psychological functions such as thinking versus feeling

Carl Jung Personality consists of three parts


Ego
the rational, largely conscious system of personality, which operates according to the reality principle all of the thoughts and experiences that are accessible to the conscious, as well as repressed memories and impulses Contains images and ideas (archetypes) that are common to all humans. These have developed over our evolutionary history and are present at birth Archetype, an inherited tendency to perceive and respond in particular ways to universal human situations (Joseph Campbell)

Personal unconscious

Collective unconscious

Jungs 2 Divisions of the Unconscious

Personal unconscious
Contains each individuals repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas

Collective unconscious
Contains images and ideas (archetypes) that are common to all humans. These have developed over our evolutionary history and are present at birth

SOME ARCHETYPES
Mother: a protective presence, source of life Hero: one who overcomes Persona: our public self (literally mask) Anima: The expression of feminine traits in the male (love, nurturance, sensitivity) Animus: The expression of masculine traits in the female (assertiveness, competitiveness) Shadow: similar to Freuds id, the dark side of our personality Self: Functions as a mid-point of personality. Exists at birth as an archetype that is a prototypal image of the latent purpose of human nature.

Jungs Personality (Psychological) Types


Functions are fundamental cognitive processes

Four function are identified

Sensing - tells us something exist Thinking - tells us what something is Feeling - tells of if it is agreeable or not Intuiting - provides hunched when facts are absent

Thinking and feeling use judgment are are Rational Functions Sensing and intuiting use perception are are Irrational Functions

Carl Jung Personality functions


Extroversion vs Introversion (orientation) Sensing vs Intuition (data collection) Thinking vs Feeling (making judgments) Judging vs Perceiving (preferred function)

Temperaments
SP (sanguine, artist) SJ (melancholy, guardian) NT (choleric, rational) NF (phlegmatic, idealistic)

EXTROVERT VS. INTROVERTS EXTROVERT


LIKES VARIETY OF ACTION TEND TO WORK FASTER. DISLIKES COMPLICATED PROCEDURE. GOOD AT GREETING PEOPLE IMPATIENT WITH SLOW JOBS INTERESTED IN RESULTS DONOT MIND INTERRUPTION ANSWERING THE TELEPHONE

INTROVERT
LIKES QUIET/CONCENTRATION METICULOUS. DISLIKES SWEEPING STATEMENTS. HAVE TROUBLE IN REMEMBERING NAMES AND FACES DONOT MIND WORKING ON SINGLE PROJECT FOR LONGER TIME INTERESTED IN IDEAS OF DISLIKES TELEPHONE INTRUISION AND INTERRUPTIONS

ACT QUICKLY AND EVEN SOMETIMES WITHOUT THINKING


LIKE TO HAVE PEOPLE AROUND COMMUNICATE FREELY

THINK A LOT BEFORE THEY ACT, SOMETIMES WITHOUT ACTING


WORK CONTENDTEDLY A LONE PROBLEMS IN COMMUNICATING

SENSING TYPES VS.INTUITIVE TYPES SENSING


DISLIKES NEW PROBLEMS UNLESS THERE ARE WAYS TO SOLVE THEM LIKES ESTABLISHED WAY OF DOING THINGS ENJOYS USING LEARNED SKILLS STEADY AND REALISTIC AT WORK REACH CONCLUSION STEP BY STEP PATIENT WITH ROUTINE DETAILS IMPATIENT WITH COMPLICATED DETAILS GENERALLY NOT INSPIRED SELDOM MAKES ERROR OF FACTS TEND TO BE GOOD AT PRECISE WORK

INTUITIVE
LIKES SOLVING NEW PROBLEMS

DISLIKES DOING THINGS REPEATEDLY


ENJOYS LEARNING NEW SKILLS VIGOROUS AT WORK WITH BREAKS REACH CONCLUSION QUICKLY IMPATIENT WITH ROUTINE DETAILS ARE PATIENT WITH COMPLICATED SITUATIONS FOLOW INSPIRATIONS GOOD OR BAD FREQUENTLY MAKES ERROR OF FACTS DISLIKE TAKING TIME FOR WORK

THINKING TYPES VS. FEELING TYPES

THINKING TYPE
DONOT SHOW EMOTION READILY AND ARE OFTEN UNCOMFORTABLE DEALING WITH PEOPLES FEELING MAY HURT PEOLES FEELINGS WITHOUT KNOWING IT LIKES ANALYSIS AND PUTTING THINGS INTO LOGICAL ORDER. CAN GET ALONG WITHOUT HARMONY TEND TO DECIDE IMPERSONALLY, SOMETIMES PAYING INSUFFICIENT ATTENTION TO PEOPLES WISHED

FEELING TYPE
TEND TO BE VERY AWRE OF OTHER PEOPLE AND THEIR FEELING

ENJOY PLEASING PEOPLE EVEN IN UNIMPORTANT THINGS


LIKE HARMONY. EFFICIENTLY MAY BE BADLY DISTRIBUTED BY OFFICE FEUDS OFTEN LET DECISIONS BE INFLUENCED BY THEIR OWN OR OTHER PEOPLES PERSONAL LIKES AND WISHES NEED OCCASSIONAL PRAISE DONOT TELL UNPLEASANT THINGS MORE PEOPLE-ORIENTED, RESPOND EASILY TO PEOPLES VALUES TEND TO BE SYMPATHETIC

NEED TO BE TREATED FAIRLY


ABLE TO REPRIMAND PEOPLE ANALYTICAL. RESPOND EASILY TO PEOPLES THOUGHTS TEND TO BE FIRM MINDED

JUDGING TYPES VS PERCEPTIVE TYPES

JUDGING TYPE

PERCEPTIVE TYPES

WORK BEST WHEN CAN PLAN WORK ADAPT WELL TO CHANGE AND FOLLOW THE PLAN LIKE TO GET THINGS SETTLED AND DONOT MIND LEAVING THINGS FINISHED OPEN FOR ALTERATION MAY DECIDE THINGS TOO QUICKLY MAY HAVE TROUBLE MAKING DECISIONS DISLIKE TO INTERRUPT THE PROJECT START TOO MANY PROJECTS AND HAVE DIFFICULTY TO FINISH THEM MAY NOT NOTICE NEW THINGS THAT MAY POSTPONE UNPLEASANT NEED TO BE DONE THINGS WANT ONLY ESSENTIALS NEEDED TO WANT TO KNOW ALL ABOUT A NEW BEGIN THEIR WORK JOB TEND TO BE SATISFIED ONCE THEY TEND TO BE CURIOUS AND REACH A JUGGMENT WELCOME NEW INFORMATION

Functions and Attitudes Interact to Form 8 Personality Types


Extravert-Thinking Type
Objective data used to order external world Abstract ideas accepted if transmitted from without Scientist, mathematicians, engineers

Extravert-Feeling Type

Concerned with tradition, standards and values Focus on interpersonal relationships Responds emotionally to objective reality

Functions and Attitudes Interact to Form 8 Personality Types

Extravert-Sensing Type

Interested in facts and concrete reality Oriented toward the here-and-now Pragmatic and hardheaded Relies on intuition and hunched Little concern with the conventions and morality of others Can be imaginative and creative Gamblers, entrepreneurs, speculators

Extravert-Intuiting Type

Functions and Attitudes Interact to Form 8 Personality Types


Introvert-Thinking Type

Concerned with abstraction, theory and questions Relates to world in a highly subjective, creative way Inventors and philosophers Oriented towards subjective factors Difficulty conforming and accepting views of others Often viewed as egotistical and defensive

Introvert-Feeling Type

Functions and Attitudes Interact to Form 8 Personality Types Introvert-Sensing Type


Highly subjective Thinking/feeling on a primitive level Difficulty adapting to settings that reinforce logic & reason Often artistic
Mystical, prophetic dreamers Valued and respected in primitive cultures May become withdrawn

Introvert-Intuiting Type