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Chapter 12: Advanced Operating Systems

IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4.0

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Purpose of this Presentation


To provide to instructors an overview of Chapter 12: List of chapter objectives Overview of the chapter contents, including
student worksheets student activities student labs

Reflection/Activities for instructors to complete to prepare to teach


Additional resources

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Chapter 12 Objectives
12.1 Select the appropriate operating system based on customer needs

12.2 Install, configure, and optimize an operating system


12.3 Describe how to upgrade operating systems 12.4 Describe preventive maintenance procedures for operating systems 12.5 Troubleshoot operating systems

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Chapter 12 Worksheets, Activities, and Labs


12.1.2 Activity: Network Protocols
12.2.2 Lab: Advanced Installation of Windows XP 12.2.3 Lab: Create a Partition in Windows XP Pro

12.2.4 Lab: Customize Virtual Memory Settings


12.2.5 Lab: Install an Alternate Browser (Optional) 12.2.6 Activity: E-Mail Protocols 12.4.1 Lab: Schedule Task Using GUI and at Command 12.5.3 Lab: Fix an Operating System Problem 12.5.3 Remote Technician: Fix an Operating System Problem
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Brands and Versions of Operating Systems


Various brands of operating systems
Microsoft Windows Apple Mac OS

UNIX and Linux

Several versions or distributions


Windows 2000 Professional Windows XP Home, Professional or Media Center Editions Windows Vista Home Basic, Business and Premium Editions

Compare OS versions or editions to find the best one for your customer

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Select the Appropriate Operating System


Select hardware that meets or exceeds the minimum requirements for the OS
Remote Desktop
Microsoft

Network Sharing
YES

Scalable CPU Support


YES

EFS Support
YES

Enhanced Security
YES

Windowsxp
Professional
Microsoft

YES

Windowsxp
Home Edition
Microsoft

No

YES

No

No

No

Windowsxp
Media Center Edition
Microsoft

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

Windows2000

Add-On

YES

YES

YES

YES

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Operating Systems Capabilities


An operating system is the interface between the user and the computer.
Provides a bridge between the hardware and applications

Creates a file system to store data


Manages applications Interprets user commands

Operating systems have minimum requirements for hardware.

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Network Operating System (NOS)


A network operating system (NOS) is an operating system that contains additional features to increase functionality and manageability in a networked environment. Examples of network operating systems:
Windows 2000 Server Windows 2003 Server UNIX Linux Novell NetWare Mac OS X
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Server NOS
The NOS is designed to provide network resources to clients:
Server applications, such as shared databases
Centralized data storage Directory services that provide a centralized repository of user accounts and resources on the network, such as LDAP or Active Directory Network print queue Network access and security Redundant storage systems, such as RAID and backups
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Network Protocols
Network operating systems provide several protocols designed to perform network functions.
Defines how files are exchanged on the web Provides services for file transfer and manipulation

Retrieves e-mail messages from an e-mail server


Resolves URLs for websites to their IP addresses

Automates assignment of IP addresses


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Install, Configure, and Optimize an OS


To install Windows XP Professional:

Insert the installation CD


An installation wizard asks a series of questions The wizard completes the installation automatically

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Default and Custom Installations


A default installation requires minimal user interaction. A custom installation allows the user to customize the regional settings and the network settings. The technician can automate and customize a Windows XP Pro installation to include the following features:
Productivity applications, such as Microsoft Office Custom applications Support for multiple languages OS Deployment Feature Pack using Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS) Hardware device drivers
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Windows XP Custom Install Methods


Unattended installation from a network distribution point using an answer file. Image-based installation using Sysprep and a diskimaging program, which copies an image of the operating system directly to the hard drive with no user intervention. Remote installation using Remote Installation Services (RIS), which can download the installation across the network. OS Deployment Feature Pack using Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS), which can dramatically simplify deployment of an operating system across the organization.
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Disk Structure
Create, view, and manage disks, directories, and files Types of partitions on a hard drive:
Primary partitions Extended partitions Logical drives

NOTE: Only one partition may be designated as the active partition for booting the system. In most cases, the C: drive is the active partition and contains the boot and system files.

Additional partitions can be created as needed for organizing files or dual-booting.


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Disk Management Utility


Create, view, and manage disks, directories, and files Used to display information and perform services such as partitioning and formatting disks in Windows

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File Systems of Windows XP


Create, view, and manage disks, directories, and files Partitions are formatted with a file system. Two file systems available in Windows XP:
FAT32 NTFS - greater stability and security features

The type of file system, NTFS or FAT32, provides the rules that files within each directory must follow.

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File Extensions
Create, view, and manage disks, directories, and files
Windows file systems require at least three characters after the last period (.) of a file extension
Valid file name: My_file.txt Invalid file name: My_file.xt

By default, Windows does not display the file extension


This practice can cause security problems Some viruses are executable files disguised as a non-executable file

To avoid this security breach, you should always show file extensions:
Start > Control Panel > Folder Options > File Types tab > Advanced > Always show extension

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System Tools
Optimize the performance of operating systems To maintain and optimize an operating system:
Disk error checking which can scan the hard drive for file structure errors Hard drive defragmentation consolidates files for faster access

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Virtual Memory
Optimize the performance of operating systems

Swap file uses free space on the hard drive to temporarily store segments of an application or data
The OS uses the swap file to mimic RAM To adjust the size of the swap file, you must be logged in as an administrator Typically, you should let Windows manage the size of the swap file

Increasing the size of the swap space is not always helpful and may slow down the computer

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Virtual Memory Settings in Windows XP

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Disk Defragmenter
Optimize the performance of operating systems
Disk Defragmenter makes files on the hard drive contiguous and speeds up the reading of files.
To defragment a drive
Double-click My Computer on the desktop

Right-click the drive that you want to optimize


Choose Properties. On the Tools tab, click Defragment Now

Temporary Files are used by many programs


Designed to be automatically deleted later Some must be deleted manually. Check these locations: C:\temp, C:\tmp, C:\windows\temp, C:\windows\tmp, C:\documents and settings\%USERPROFILE%\local settings\temp
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Services
Optimize the performance of operating systems
Services are a type of application that runs in the background and waits for requests
Only necessary services should be started

Services may be enabled if clients need them


Services may be stopped for troubleshooting purposes

Four settings, or states, used to control services:


Automatic - Starts when the PC starts Manual - Administrator must enable or disable the service Disabled - Administrator may disable or stop a service Stopped - The state of a service that has been disabled
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Optimize Web Browser and Email


Optimize the performance of browsers
Web browsers and e-mail
Typically the most-used applications Optimizing them should increase the computers performance

Microsofts Internet Explorer (IE), general settings:


Change the homepage and browser appearance

View or delete the information saved by the browser:


History Passwords Cookies are information transmitted between a Temporary Web-form information web browser files a web server with the purpose of and Cookies tracking user information to customize the page delivered to the user.
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Internet Explorer Browser Options


To access these settings:
Open an IE window Go to Tools menu

Select Internet Options

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Caching in a Web Browser


Caching is a feature of the web browser
Speeds up access to previously visited websites IE copies the images or the HTML files of visited sites Files are retrieved from the local cache rather than downloaded

Cached files may become outdated or large. Adjustable settings are:


Refresh at every visit to the page Refresh every time you start IE Refresh automatically

Never refresh

To access the cached settings in IE:


Tools > Internet Options > General tab > Temporary Internet Files > click Settings
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Configure Email Client Software


Use the following information to set up an email account in the email client software: Display name E-mail address Type of incoming mail server
(POP3 or IMAP)

Incoming mail server name


Outgoing mail server name Username

Account password
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Email Protocols
Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3)
Downloads email from a server to manipulate and store on local computer.

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)


Accesses email on a server to manipulate and store on the server. User can also decide to download the email to local computer.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)


Sends text-only email across a TCP/IP network and is, normally, used with POP3 or IMAP.

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)


Transmits audio, video, pictures, word processor documents, applications. Normally, used in conjunction with SMTP.
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Set Display Properties


Set screen resolution and update video driver Screen resolution
Determines the number of pixels displayed. A higher number of pixels will display a better picture.

Refresh rate
The rate the screen image is refreshed. Refresh rates are measured in Hertz (Hz) or times per second.

Display colors
Colors created by varying the light intensity of the three basic colors.

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Upgrade the Video Driver


The Windows default video driver may work, but may not provide all performance options. To upgrade the driver:
Download most recent driver Remove the current driver Disable anti-virus software

Install the new driver


Enable anti-virus software Restart the computer

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Troubleshoot Video Driver Issues


Set screen resolution and update video driver
Troubleshooting problems after installing video driver
Example: After performing the graphical performance steps and restart the computer, you are unable to view the screen.

To investigate the problem and restore the settings:


Reboot the computer again

During the boot phase, use the F8 key


Enter the boot options when prompted Select the Enable VGA Mode to boot using a 640 x 480 resolution

Once the operating system is loaded:


Select Roll Back Driver from graphics card Properties Research possible driver issues
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Dual-Boot Process
Installation of a second operating system
There is a dual-boot process for multiple operating systems on a computer.

During the dual-boot process:


The boot.ini file indicates that more than one OS is present You are prompted to choose the OS that you want to load

To create a dual-boot system in Microsoft Windows:


More than one hard drive or a hard drive with more than one partition Install the oldest OS on the primary partition or the hard drive marked with an active partition Install the second OS on the second partition or hard drive The boot files are automatically installed in the active partition
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The boot.ini File


Installation of a second operating system During installation, the boot.ini file is created on the active partition to allow choice of OS to boot. boot.ini can be edited to change
the order of the operating systems
the length of time to select an OS (default is 30 seconds)

To edit the boot.ini file:


Right-click My Computer > Properties > Advanced Tab. In the Startup and Recovery area, select Settings. Click Edit.

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Upgrading Operating Systems


Describe how to upgrade operating systems
Operating systems must be upgraded periodically
To remain compatible with the latest hardware and software
Because support for older OS is eventually withdrawn

A Windows XP upgrade can be performed from a CD or over a network

Ensure that the new OS is compatible with the computer


Use Microsoft Upgrade Advisor to scan the system for incompatibility issues before upgrading Upgrade Advisor is free and downloadable from the Microsoft Windows website

Backup all data prior to beginning the upgrade


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Preventive Maintenance for OS


Automating scheduled updates Installing service packs Using Restore Points if necessary to restore the system to a previous state

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Schedule Automatic Tasks and Updates


Scheduled Tasks utility is a Windows-based GUI utility.

Use the Scheduled Tasks utility to automate:


Disk cleanup Backup Disk defragmenter Starting other applications

To open the Scheduled Tasks wizard:


Select Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Scheduled Tasks Double-click Add Scheduled Task
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Schedule Automatic Tasks and Updates


CLI automatic updates in the command line. Use the at command to automatically schedule a command, a script file, or an application to run at a specific date and time. To use the at command, you must be logged in as a member of the Administrators group. To learn more about the at command, choose Start > Run. At the CLI prompt, type cmd, and then press Return. At the command prompt, type at/?

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Automatically Update Windows XP


Schedule automatic tasks and updates Settings to choose from regarding Windows XP updates:
Automatic (need to specify a date and time)

Download updates for me, but let me choose when to install them
Notify me but don't automatically download or install them Turn off Automatic Updates

To access Automatic Updates:


Select Start > Control Panel > double-click Automatic Updates

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Restore Points
Set restore points Restore points return the OS to a predefined point in time.

If installation of an application or a hardware driver causes problems, try uninstalling the application or driver
If uninstalling does not help, try to restore the computer to an earlier time when the system worked properly To access the System Restore utility:
Select Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > System Restore
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Windows XP Restore Points


Set restore points
Windows XP may create restore points:
When an install or upgrade takes place Every 24 hours, if the computer is running Manually, at any time

Restore points contain information about the system and registry settings used by the Windows OS.
System restore does not back up personal data files or recover corrupted or deleted personal files.

To backup data, use a dedicated backup system, such as a tape drive, CDs, or even a USB storage device.

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Troubleshooting Process
Step 1 Gather data from the customer

Step 2 Verify the obvious issues


Step 3 Try quick solutions first Step 4 Gather data from the computer Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution Step 6 Close with the customer

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Level-one Technician Gathers Data


Step 1: Gather data from the customer Description of problem by the level-one helpdesk technician:
Customer cannot surf the Internet or access any network resources.
Customer can login to the network using other computers. Customer has verified that their username, password, and domain name are correct.

The helpdesk technician was unable to resolve the problem, so the work order is escalated to a level-two technician.
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Level-two Technician Gathers Data


Step 1: Gather data from the customer Level-two technician asks open-ended questions:
Which specific network resources are you trying to access with your desktop computer? Are there any network resources that you can access? When were you last able to access the network from your desktop?

Level-two technician draws these conclusions:


In the office, no resources can be accessed. When using the modem to connect, no problems are experienced. The problems started just after a new update was installed.
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Level-two Technician Gathers Data


Step 1: Gather data from the customer
Technician asks closed-ended questions:
Is your network cable plugged in? Does anyone else have this problem? Have you changed your password recently?

Have you received any error messages on your computer?

Technician gets this information:


Customer's computer experiences unexpected errors. Customer reports an on-screen error regarding the OS; unsure of details.

Technician draws these conclusions:


Focus on an operating system problem.
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Verify the Obvious Issues


Step 2: Verify the obvious issues Technician asks some general questions and some related to the functioning of the OS:
Is the power turned on? Has any software been added or upgraded? Has any hardware been added or removed? Is the NIC link light on? Is the NIC listed in the Device Manager as a properly working device?

Do the mouse and keyboard work?


Have any cables been added or disconnected?
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Conclusions from Checking the Obvious


Step 2: Verify the obvious issues Technician gets this information:
The computer can connect successfully by modem.
The computer cannot connect to any network resources. Other computers can access network resources. All cables are connected properly. There is no link light on the NIC.

Technician draws these conclusions:


Problem may be a bad cable, bad NIC, or a driver problem.

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Quick Solutions
Step 3: Try quick solutions first
Technician tries these quick solutions:
Reboot Install a known good network cable to this computer Boot in safe mode using the F8 menu Boot to last known good configuration using the F8 menu Boot from startup disk Ensure IP address information is correct for this computer

Technician follows these best practices:


Documents results of each solution tried Undo failed solutions before trying the next solution

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Gather Data from the Computer


Step 4: Gather data from the computer
Technician gathers data:
Repeats some of the tests done by the level-one technician.

To look for OS problems, technician examines system files and runs diagnostic software.

Technician gets this information:


An automatic system update was performed recently.

Conclusion:
The update may be causing the problem.

Technician takes this action:


Ask customer to look for restore points at the time of the update.

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Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution


Step 5: Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Technician records these notes:
Computer worked on Tuesday, but not on Wednesday. Automatic system update ran at midnight Tuesday.

Restore points were automatically created prior to the installation of the update.

Technician decides on a solution:


Restore the computer to the state it was in before the automatic system update ran on the computer.

Technician takes this action:


Ask customer to use the System Restore application.
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Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution


Step 5: Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Customer takes this action:
Chooses Restore my computer to an earlier time option.

Chooses the restore point created before the update was installed.
Reboots computer.

Results of the solution:


Computer operates normally.

Likely cause of the problem:


A patch that was installed through an automatic update disabled network connectivity.

To prevent the problem from occurring again:


Set Automatic Updates to require permission of the network administrator or the user.
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System Restore Point Screens


Step 5: Evaluate the problem and implement the solution

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Close with the Customer


Step 6: Close with the customer
Technician discusses results with customer:
If possible, verbally verify the solution with the customer. If possible, allow customer to demonstrate that the repair has solved the problem. If customer is not available, technician should inform the customer of the work that was performed.

If the solution is acceptable, the technician can finish the documentation and close the work order. Documentation should include:
A restatement of the problem Steps taken in the troubleshooting process, and the solution Time needed to solve the problem
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Closed Work Order


Step 6: Close with the customer Make two copies of the final work order and documentation
One for the customer
One for the technician

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Common Problems and Solutions


Problem Symptom
You have a dual-boot system, but you are unable to access the second operating system. A screen goes blank after you install an updated graphics driver. A customer plans to install Windows XP on 100 computers in a branch office over a weekend, but is very concerned about how much time it will take. The customer is receiving warnings about the hard drive becoming too full. A customer receives error messages that an application will not launch because a required service is not running.
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Possible Solution
Make sure the boot.ini is not corrupt and verify that it is correct. If the new driver is bad, boot to VGA mode and use Roll Back Driver to restore the previous driver. Advise the customer that the installation CD will take too long. Consult with customer about one of the automated installation solutions. Run the Disk Cleanup utility to delete temporary files. Ask the customer for the name of the service in the error message and restart the service.
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Fix an Operating System Problem


Now that you understand the troubleshooting process, it is time to apply your listening and diagnostic skills. The first lab is designed to reinforce your skills with the operating system. You will check restore points before and after using Windows Update. The second lab is designed to reinforce your communication and troubleshooting skills. This lab includes the following steps:
Receive the work order Research the problem Take the customer through various steps to try and resolve the problem Document the problem and the resolution
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Chapter 12 Summary
Ensuring that you understand the technology needs of the customer Knowing the differences between common operating systems Matching the customer needs to the proper technologies Knowing the different methods to install an operating system Knowing how to upgrade different operating systems

Understanding how preventive maintenance can avoid problems


Knowing which preventive maintenance procedures are appropriate for the customer

Knowing how to troubleshoot operating system problems


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Q and A

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