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GREEN BY DESIGN

Pratt & Whitneys Green Engine Program


Columbia University Industrial Ecology Course February, 2001
Pratt & Whitney - United Technologies Corporation

Pratt & Whitney Bob Tierney

Todays topics...
United Technologies Corporation Pratt & Whitneys Green Engine Program Our conception of Life Cycle Assessment Elimination of hazardous materials from life cycle Strategic thoughts on implementing green

Progress !!
Lead air emissions Lead in childs blood CO emissions Auto hydrocarbons Lakes/ rivers Bald eagle Sewage
U.S. data unless noted

98% decrease 82% decrease 30% decrease 98% decrease 60% fully meet water stds. off endangered species list

1970-95 1976-95 1970-92 1970-95

100% treated in US (EU -72%)

Progress ??
Electricity use per capita Aluminum consumption CO2 concentration Waste to landfills Ozone hole 21 % increase 1977-87

1200% increase 1970-88 7% increase 34% increase 60% deeper 1975-95 1970-90 1970-95

U.S. data unless noted

The Master Equation

Global Envi. Impact

= Population X

Resource use Person

Unit of Waste X Unit of Resource

Drivers for Green


State of the environment Customers Bottom line (Green = $$$$) Top Line Growth Wall St. Politics/ Regulations UTC Policy/ 10X Goals

Local Restrictions Increasing at an Accelerating Rate *


Noise Abatement Procedures Curfews

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1970

Charges Levels Quotas Budgets Ch. 2 Phase-out Ch. 2 Restrictions Ch. 3 Restrictions

Number of Restrictions

1980
Year

1990

2000

* Based on 594 airports in Boeing database http://www.boeing.com/assocproducts/noise/list.html

2/22/00

25

Green Engine Program is structured as a matrix organization


Design Suppliers

Management

Green Factory
Customer Requirements/ Communications

Technology

Life Cycle Assessment: The Stages


For the sake of simplicity the life cycle is divided into unit processes usually broken down as follows: premanufacture, manufacture, distribution and installation, use and service, and end of life management. Each unit process is then evaluated in three areas: safety, conservation, and pollution. The inputs and outputs of each life stage are the criteria for evaluation.

Pre-Manu facture

Manufacturing

Distribution

Use & Service Reuse

Recovery Management

Remanufacture Revert

CO2 Emissions
Factory vs. Use
120 MILLION METRIC TONS OF CO2 100 80 60 40 20 0

55X

UTC P&W FLEET

Develop Process Map with the Goes-Ins and the Goes-Outs


Inputs Process or Activity Product or Service Raw Materials Chemicals Energy Fuels Electricity Actions of People, Equipment, Machines Reactions of Chemicals and Materials By-products Injuries Illnesses Inefficiencies Air Emissions Water Discharges Solid/Liquid Waste Outputs

Tap Into Existing Data Sources


Degreasing 4% Misc.. Sources 32% Machining & Metalworking 8% Painting 14% Plating 5% Material Handling 37% All Other Injuries 43% Ergonomic Injuries 57%

Stripping 9% Cleaning & Rinsing 11% Surface Preparation & Treatment 17% Maintenance & Service 11%

Manufacturing & Assembly 26%

Hazardous waste sent off Hazardous waste sent off site by process source site by process source

Injuries by type Injuries by type and operation and operation

Is it Good, Bad or Ugly?


EH&S IMPACTS LIFE STAGE
PREMANUFACTURE MANUFACTURE DISTRIBUTION & INSTALLATION USE & MAINTENANCE END OF LIFE
MAKE PRODUCTS & WORKPLACE SAFE PROTECT ENVIRONMENT CONSERVE RESOURCES

Elements of a Green Engine


Vision: Pratt & Whitney sets the Standard for Green
Has the lowest possible Emission Impact during use Is manufactured and serviced using Green Processes Is Material Efficient (Metal Buy-to-fly, Propellant Yield ) Contains Green Materials Has lowest possible Noise Impact Is designed with Human Factors in mind

Is Energy Efficient during use (Fuel Burn)

Involves Green Suppliers and Partners Is Designed for Serviceability, Reusability, Recyclability

Has least possible Factory Impacts

Understanding Impacts is Key to Continuous Improvement

Job Ticket/ SRD/ CRD LCA Goals Design Standard Work Design Specifications Procurement Process

Operating Procedures

End of Life

Service

Use

Distribute

P&W Manufacturing

Supplier Manufacturing

Environment, Safety, Natural Resources Impact

Knowing Where to Apply the Green Pressure Points


Customer Reqmt Team

Technology Team
Job Ticket/ SRD/ CRD

Supplier Team

LCA

Goals Design Standard Work Design Specifications Procurement Process

Design Team

Green Factory Team

Operating Procedures

End of Life

Service

Use

Distribute

P&W Manufacturing

Supplier Manufacturing

Environment, Safety, Natural Resources Impact

LCA as Part of Integrated Program Deployment (IPD)


PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TECHNICAL SUPPORT

PLANNING

DEFINITION

VALIDATION

DELIVERY

SUPPORT

Product Requirements Objectives & Targets EH&S ANNUAL PLANNING& EVALUATION EH&S ANNUAL PLANNING& EVALUATION

Market Feedback Analysis Aspects & Impacts

Baseline LCAs are the Standard by Which Future Products Are Compared
Large Gas Turbine Engine General Aviation Engine Liquid Rocket (expendable & serviceable) Solid Rocket (expendable & serviceable)

What is a Life Cycle Assessment?


Qualitative process used to assess EH&S impacts of product during its lifecycle

What does it provide?


Relative magnitude of EH&S impacts Areas of information gaps Priorities for green design Priorities for green technology development

And.
Raises consciousness of organization

Materials/ Processes of Concern

MATERIALS OF CONCERN FOR GAS TURBINE AND ROCKET PROPULSION SYSTEMS

Materials Of Concern Hazardous Materials Index Product Comparisons Standard Work Green Technology Goals Summary

Materials Of Concern
Objectives Identify hazardous material risks across the enterprise Provide a deliverable for incorporation into standard work Create a green index to drive green technology plan Rationale Appearance of targeted materials on one or more industry, customer or regulatory list(s) of hazardous materials Relevance to Pratt & Whitney product lines or processes Potential linkage to product and process design callouts

Definition Of Categories
Prohibited
high risk materials not permitted in new design and development

Restricted
high risk materials that can only be used with appropriate levels of approval plan must be established to validate alternate green material

To Be Reduced
materials known to have detrimental environmental, health and safety impacts.

Materials of Concern
Prohibited
Arsenic & compounds Asbestos Benzene Beryllium Cadmium & compounds Chlorinated solvents Ethyl alcohol Ethylene glycol ether compounds Formaldehyde Mercury & compounds Methanol (methyl alcohol) Methylene chloride Class I ozone depleting substances Radioactive materials, including Thoriated (TD) nickel Toluene diisocyanate

Restricted
Chromium, hexavalent Class II ODS Cyanides Dimethylformamide HCFC-14 lb & HCFC-22 Hydrazine Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen fluoride gas Lead & compounds Manmade fibers, e.g., cristobalite, fiberfrax MDA (4, 4-Methylenedianiline) Methyl alcohol (methanol) Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, 2butanone) Methyl iso-butyl ketone (MIBK, 4-methyl-2-pentanone) Phenol Styrene Toluene Xylene

To Be Reduced
Acetone Ammonia Butyl alcohol Ethyl benzene n-Hexane Hydrochloric acid Isocyanates n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone Isopropyl alcohol Nickel plate Nitric acid Petroleum distillates (e.g., naptha, mineral spirits, stoddard solvent, varsol, evaporative lubricants) Phosphoric acid Sec-butyl alcohol Sulfuric acid 1, 2, 4Trimethylbenzene

Hazardous Materials Index


Purpose
provide metric to define greenness of products link materials to specifications/design callouts

Assign toxicity values to materials & process specifications based on Purdue University rankings Quantify green indices based on Pratt & Whitney Canada algorithm:

Ih =

T*nP/N

where: Ih = Hazardous Material Index T = toxicity value of specification nP = number of part numbers that call out specification

Hazardous Materials Index


Implementation

Establish metrics/set goals Establish signoff/approval protocols Control via standard work

Restricted Materials of Concern - Current Status of Various Engine Programs


Hazardous Materials Index

30 25 20 15 10 5 0
JT8D-219 PW2037 PW4168 Goal
Technology Opportunity

Standard Work
Materials Of Concern
Contains background, contacts and protocols References material and process specification list Links to data base containing materials of concern, toxicity rating detail, identified by specifications Links to menu for selection of alternate materials and processes, cross-referenced by specification

Materials of Concern List with Specification Number


Specification Number Hazardous Material

PWA-316 PWA-333 AMS-3110 QQ-P-416 PWA-315 PWA-1469-3 AMS-3242

Lead Xylene, Toluene Chromium, Toluene Cadmium None None None

Green Technology Goals


Goals established based on driving down product hazardous materials index Goal for legacy products will be based on designing out prohibited materials Goal for new designs will be based on eliminating the use of restricted materials

Summary
Comprehensive effort to identify hazardous material risks across the Pratt & Whitney enterprise Risks defined by levels of concern Standard work tool for designers established Goals in process of being defined Hazardous Materials Index will drive technology

Rod Elkington, Chairman:

Tomorrows economy will be about increasing returns where we learn to exploit virtuous cycles rather than manage vicious ones.