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SPHERICAL

TRIGONOMETRY
Sphere

Small
Circle
Great Circle
z
x
y
Pole
Axis

The intersection of a plane with a sphere is a circle.

Great Circle If the plane passes through the center of the sphere
(Radius of the great circle = Radius of the sphere)

Small Circle If the plane does not pass through the center of the sphere
(Radius of the small circle < Radius of the sphere)

Axis of the Circle Line through the center of the sphere perpendicular to the plane
of a circle

Poles two points


where the axis
pierces the sphere
O
Sphere

Distance between two points that lies on a circle


or sphere:

Circle:


arc
S r
Sphere:
arc
not greater than a semicircle
Spherical Triangle
O
A
B
C
a
c
b

expressed in angular units, or linear (i f r is known)


equal to the angle w/c the arc subtends at the center of sphere

Surface of a sphere bounded by 3 arcs of great


circles.

For each Spherical : there corresponds a trihedral


angle

Sum of Angles can be > 180 degrees

Spherical Excess:
111 E A B C + +
Spherical Triangle

O
A
B
C
a
c

Sphere
Lhuiliers Formula

When the 3 sides, are known, the excess can be


determined.
55
1
Surface Area 1R
1
1
Surface Area
1
11
1
111
E
R
R E
Area

Area in spherical degrees of a spherical triangle


( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1 1 1 1 1
tan tan tan tan tan
1 1 1 1 1
1
1
E s s a s b s c
a b c
_ 1 1 1


1 1 1
, ] ] ]
+ +
NAPIERS RULE OF CIRCULAR PARTS
66
a
b
co-A
co-c
co-B
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )





g
g
g
sin tan tan cos cos
sin tan tan cos cos
sin tan tan cos cos
sin tan tan cos cos
sin tan tan cos cos
a b co B co A co c
b co A a co c co B
co B a co c co A b
co c co A co B a b
co A b co c a co B

The sine of any part of the diagram


equals the product of the tangents of the
adjacent parts and the product of the
cosines of the opposite





g
g
sin tan cot sin sin
sin cot tan sin sin
cos tan cot sin cos
cos cot cot cos cos
cos tan cot cos sin
a b B A c
b A a c B
B a c A b
c A B a b
A b c a B

O
B
C
a
c
b

Spherical Triangle
A
Right Spherical Triangles
Formula for solving right spherical Triangles
77

O
A
B
C
a
c
b

A
B
C
Spherical Triangle
SPHERICAL TRIANGLE

Characterized by 3 sides and 3 angles

Part of the surface of a sphere, and the sides are not straight
lines but arcs of great circles.circles
A
C
c
B
b
a

The interrelations between angles and sides of a spherical


triangle are described by laws of sines, laws of cosines for
sides, laws of cosines for angles, Napiers analogies and
Gauss Formula
SPHERICAL TRIANGLE
A
C
c
B
b
a
Laws of Sines
sin sin sin
sin sin sin
a b c
A B C

Laws of Cosines for
Sides
cos cos cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin cos
a b c b c A
b c a c a B
c a b a b C
+
+
+
Laws of Cosines for
Angles
cos cos cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin cos
A B C B C a
B C A C A b
C A B A B c
+
+
+
Examples
1010
( )
.) In a spherical , , . Find a, b, 1 11 11 11 B. C A c
C
.) Given: , , 1 11 111 111 C A a
SOLUTIONS TO OBLIQUE TRIANGLES

No right angles

Types:
1111
Sine
Law
Given 2 angles and a
side
Given 2 sides and an
opposite angle
Cosine
Law
Given 2 sides and an
included angle
3 sides
AAS
or
ASA
SSA
SAS
SSS
SPHERICAL TRIANGLE
A
C
c
B
b
a
Laws of Sines
sin sin sin
sin sin sin
a b c
A B C

Laws of Cosines for
Sides
cos cos cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin cos
a b c b c A
b c a c a B
c a b a b C
+
+
+
Laws of Cosines for
Angles
cos cos cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin cos
A B C B C a
B C A C A b
C A B A B c
+
+
+
OTHER FORMULAS

Law of Tangents

Half-angle
Formulas
1313
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1
tan tan
1 1
1 1
tan tan
1 1
A B a b
A B a b

+ +
tan 1
tan
sin( ) 1
tan 1
tan
sin( ) 1
tan 1
tan
sin( ) 1
r
A
s a
r
B
s b
r
C
s c

1
tan tan cos( )
1
1
tan tan cos( )
1
1
tan tan cos( )
1
a R S A
b R S B
c R S C


Half-side formulas

Napiers Analogies
1414
( )
( )
1
tan
sin
1
( ) 1
1
sin
tan
1
A
s b
s a
B

( )
( )
( )
1 1
sin tan
1 1
( ) 1
1 1
sin tan
1 1
A B a b
A B c

+
( )
sin
1 1
( ) tan tan 1
sin 1 1
s c
A B
s

( )
( )
( )
1 1
cos tan
1 1
( ) 1
1 1
cos tan
1 1
A B a b
A B c
+

+
( )
( )
( )
1 1
sin tan
1 1
( ) 1
1 1
sin cot
1 1
a b A B
a b C

+
( )
( )
( )
1 1
cos tan
1 1
( ) 1
1 1
cos cot
1 1
a b A B
a b C
+

+
CASES I. Three Sides given
Example:
1515
Solve the triangle . ', . ', . 1111 1 1111 1 1111 1' a b c
CASES II. Three angles given

Solution can be effected by the half-side


formulas

Checked by the law of sines

Computational set-up is the same as for


Case I.
CASES III: 2 sides and included angle
given (a, b, C)

Find (A+B) and (A-B) from Napiers analogies. A


and B can be found:

and

Side c can also be found from Napiers analogies:

or

Solution may be checked by the law of sines.


( )
( )
( )
1 1
sin tan
1 1
( ) 1
1 1
sin cot
1 1
a b A B
a b C

+
( )
( )
( )
1 1
cos tan
1 1
( ) 1
1 1
cos cot
1 1
a b A B
a b C
+

+
( )
( )
( )
1 1
sin tan
1 1
( ) 1
1 1
sin tan
1 1
A B a b
A B c

+
( )
( )
( )
1 1
cos tan
1 1
( ) 1
1 1
cos tan
1 1
A B a b
A B c
+

+
CASES III: 2 sides and included angle
given (a, b, C)
pl
Solution:
Solve the triangle :
. ', 111111
. ', 1111
. ' 11111
b
c
A



LAW OF SINES

Yields 2 right spherical triangles ADC and BDC,

by Napiers Rule:

Similarly, arc through Vertex B, perpendicular to side b:

Therefore:
1919
sin sin sin sin sin sin
:
sin sin
sin sin
h a B h b A
Equate
a b
A B

sin sin
sin sin
a c
A C

sin sin sin


sin sin sin
a b c
A B C

sines of the sides of a spherical triangle and the sines
of the corresponding opposite angles are in
proportion
LAW OF COSINES

Law of Cosines for Sides

Law of Cosines for Angles


2020
cos cos cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin cos
a b c b c A
b c a c a B
c a b a b C
+
+
+
cos cos cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin cos
cos cos cos sin sin cos
A B C B C a
B C A C A b
C A B A B c
+
+
+