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Bluetooth Technology

Presenters: Mohamed Ahmed and Muaz

What is Bluetooth?
Designed to be used to connect both mobile devices and peripherals that currently require a wire Simplifying communications between: - devices and the internet - data synchronization

USB without wires

Short range wireless radio technology - operate range of 10 meters

Executive Summary
Bluetooth technology is finally here. Originally conceived as a low-power short-range radio technology designed to replace cables for interconnecting devices such as printers, keyboards, and mice, its perceived potential has evolved into far more sophisticated usage models. The requirement to do this in a totally automated, seamless, and user-friendly fashion, without adding appreciable cost, weight, or power drain to the associated host is an enormous engineering challenge
Bluetooth devices can form piconets of up to seven slaves and one master, enabling discovery of services and subsequent implementation of many varied usage models including wireless headsets, Internet bridges, and wireless operations such as file exchange, data synchronization, and printing.

Cordless Computer

The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) was founded by Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba in February 1998 to develop as open specification for short-range wireless connectivity. Key Features: Robustness, low complexity, low power and low cost Main Strength: Ability to simultaneously handle both data and voice transmissions such as headset for voice calls.

- The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is formed with five companies. - The Bluetooth SIG welcomes its 400th member by the end of the year. - The name Bluetooth is officially adopted

- The Bluetooth 1.0 Specification is released. - The Bluetooth SIG hosts the first UnPlugFest for member engineers.

First mobile phone. - First PC Card. - Prototype mouse and laptop demonstrated at CeBIT 2000. - First Headset.

- First printer. - First laptop. - First hands-free car kit. - First hands-free car kit with speech recognition.

- First keyboard and mouse combo. - First GPS receiver. - Bluetooth wireless qualified products now number 500. - First digital camera.

- First MP3 player. - Bluetooth Core Specification Version 1.2 adopted by the Bluetooth SIG. - Shipment of Bluetooth enabled products hits rate of 1 million per week. - First FDA-approved medical system.

Telephones Headsets Computers Computer accessories LAN peripherals Multimedia Devices Etc

The Promise of Bluetooth


The promise of Bluetooth is extremely ambitious. If Bluetooth lives up to its potential, it will revolutionize the way people interact with information technology. Originally conceived as a low-power short-range radio technology designed to replace cables for interconnecting devices such as printers, keyboards, and mice, its perceived potential has evolved into much more.

Bluetooth is a standard for tiny, radio frequency chips that can be plugged into your devices

These chips were designed to take all of the information that your wires normally send, and transmit it at a special frequency to something called a receiver Bluetooth chip.

When device is put in discoverable mode, each device only knows about itself.

INQUIRY identifies who else is in the range

PAGING creates a link between a device

EXPANDING creates link between following devices

An Engineering Challenge
The demands of creating Bluetoothenabled products are very challenging. Consider the following Bluetooth must have a very flexible application topology. For example, you might want your PDA to be able to communicate with any nearby printer, but do you want your cell phone to send its audio to any nearby hands-free headset? . Bluetooth must be automatically configurable. If a Bluetooth product cant figure out whom it should and shouldnt talk to and how, the marketplace will consider it too complicated to use.

An Engineering Challenge Contd


Bluetooth must have quality of service (QoS) features to support voice. No one wants cell phones with shorter battery life, so the power required to support Bluetooth capability must be very low. No one wants PDAs that are larger, so adding Bluetooth capability to a device should not noticeably increase its size In order to replace cables, Bluetooth cannot cost more than cables. This means that Bluetooth technology cannot add more than RM15 to the cost of the host device.

Advantages (+):

Wireless (No Cables)


No Setup Needed Low Power Consumption (1 Milliwat)

Industry Wide Support

Disadvantages (-)
Short range (10 meters)

Small throughput rates


Data Rate 1.0 Mbps Mostly for personal use (PANs) Fairly Expensive

Bluetooth Security
Bluetooth security, when compared with WLAN security, is both more complex and simpler. It is more complex in the sense that there are many different options for security based on different application scenarios. It is simpler in the sense that, for the most part, they are transparent to the user. With WLANs it is up to the network administrator to add security at higher levels. With Bluetooth, since the Bluetooth spec includes all levels, higherlevel security features are already built into the devices when appropriate. Bluetooth security includes both authentication and confidentiality, and is based around the SAFER+ encryption algorithm. SAFER+ is a block cipher, but in this application is implemented as a stream cipher. SAFER+ was thoroughly analyzed and tested during the NISTs search for a national encryption standard. Although some versions were found to have very minor weaknesses, the 128-bit version as used in Bluetooth is considered very strong.

Security Features
specification includes security features at the link level. supports authentication (unidirectional or mutual) and encryption. devices transmit on the heavily used, unlicensed 2.45 GHz radio band ( the same used by microwaves.) to keep transmission from breaking up, frequency hopping is employed.

Security Modes
Bluetooth security is divided into three modes:
Security Mode 1: non-secure Security Mode 2: service level enforced security Security Mode 3: link level enforced security

Security Architecture

Security Implementation within the Architecture


Two possible security modes for devices: Trusted Device Three levels of security for services: Authorisation Required

Such a device would have access granted to trusted devices access to all services for which the trust relationship has been Authentication Required set. the remote device must be

Untrusted Device
Such a device would have restricted access to services.

authenticated

Encryption Required
The link must be changed to encrypted mode, before access to the service is possible

Potential Weaknesses
PIN code problems Spoofing due to non-secret link key Spoofing Bluetooth device addresses

Common concern is that carrier waves inhabit the same band as that of microwave ovens Transmitting power is much too weak to affect humans Exposure to Bluetooth radio frequencies does not result in heating of the body However, long exposure to radio fields can result in some people no longer being able to tolerate the waves This is where the future development for Bluetooth will head, in making sure this form of communication is safe

Current concern of using electronic devices while driving The law prohibits the use of talking/texting on your cell phone while driving. Bluetooth is the solution to this safety concern This added law is sparking an increase in sales of electronic products, assisting the downturned economys in a regrowth.

Conclusion
Bluetooth is a wireless technology that was developed to be very low cost in hopes that it would become widely used. It is still yet to be seen whether or not it will become the standard that the initial SIG had hoped it would become.

Sources
http://www.howstuffworks.com/index.htm http://www.palowireless.com/bluetooth/ http://www.ensc.sfu.ca/~ljilja/cnl/presentations/jeffrey/bt presentation/tsld005.htm http://www.futureshop.ca/learnmore/BuyersGuide/en/ele ctronics_bluetooth.asp?logon=&langid=EN&dept=0&WLBS =fsweb23&test%5Fcookie=1 http://www.bluetooth.com