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CONCURRENT DESIGN: AN OVERVIEW

M.Tech(CAD/CAM)-I

e-Science

Development of manufacturing technology

Manufacturing Technology

e-Manufacturing Digital enterprise CAX & engineering tools TQM, MRP II & engineering tools TQM & engineering tools CAD/CAM, DNC & robotics

Agile Manufacturing Concurrent Engineering

Just-In-Time Lean Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

High precision Automation

Group technology & CNC, robotics Production line & automation

Flexible Manufacturing Mass Production Towards 21st Century

From Design To Manufacture

Manufacture Idea

Design Specifications

Design Evolution: Pyramids


Mastaba

Design Evolution: Pyramids


Step Pyramid

Design Evolution: Pyramids


Bent Pyramid

Advanced Classroom Design

New Product Development (NPD)


Why?
The long-term success and viability of a company depends on its ability to:
Produce better products than its competitors Satisfy the changing market demand

The development of new products is an important strategic option The Cycle-Time of new products is reduced continuously
The new products are gaining an increasing market share

NPD Stages
Stages in New Product Development (NPD)

1. Opportunity identification 2. Concept development 3. Product design 4. Process design 5. Commercial production

NPD objectives
Reduce the time Reduce the time of product of product introduction introduction Maximize the product quality
DQE

NPD NPD Objectives Objectives

Respond to customer needs

Maximize Maximize productivity productivity

NPD Success Factors


Product fit with market needs Product fit with internal functional strength Technological superiority of the product Marketing synergy Use of a formal new product process Favorable competitive environment Design Quality - Environment

Two approaches of NPD


Opportunity Opportunity identification identification Concept Concept development development Traditional Product Development

Product Product Opportunity Opportunity design design identification identification Process Process Concept design Concept design development development Commercial Commercial Product production Product Concurrent production design design Product Process Process Developmen design design t Commercial Commercial Savings production production

Traditional product Development (TPD)


or sequential design
Each department does its work and passes off the product to the next Department for the next step in the process

Common problems

unsuitable product to be produced the necessary equipment is not available unsatisfactory design assembly problems the available equipment, tools and devices are not reused

TPD: Arguments against



Too costly Too long The design of the product is finalised when it is known how it will be made Design alternatives are eliminated in the interest of time one narrow idea is pursued Rigid sequence of decisions in the design process Information is lost as the design progresses Each group sees the other as enemy Each group becomes highly specialized in its own analytical method Resulting poor design, quality, environment

Concurrent Product Development (CPD)


or concurrent engineering, integrated product Economics development, Marketing
Production Design

Stylists, designers, marketers, economists and engineers work together and information flows between them, yet their respective roles remain distinct

Definition: "a systematic approach to integrated product development that emphasizes the response to customer expectations.
It embodies team values of cooperation, trust, and sharing in such a manner that decision making proceeds with large intervals of parallel working by all life-cycle perspectives early in the process, synchronized by comparatively brief exchanges to produce consensus. Cleetus (CERC), 1992

Concurrent Product development (CPD)

CPD formulation map


Objective: Strategy:
Simultaneous consideration of all aspect of NPD

A way of improving Product Introduction

Other equally valid strategies e.g. improved quality

Tactics:
A Collection of Tools and Techniques Company e.g. QFD, SPC Generic

greater creativity/ better design better specification/ environmental posture Company Specific
e.g. Teams Parallels Tasks

N.J. BROOKES, C.J. BACKHOUSE,Understanding concurrent engineering implementation: a case study approach

Benefits of CPD based on


Early Problem-discovery Early decision making Work structuring Teamwork Affinity Knowledge Leveraging Common-understanding Sense of ownership Constancy-of-purpose

CPD Benefits (1)

Product development cycle time reduction (40

60%) Quality improvement (200-600%) Manufacturing costs reduction (30-40%) Engineering changes reduction (more than 50%) Scrap and rework reduction (up to 75%) Error prevention Customer satisfaction

CPD Benefits (2)

Increased Productivity (20-110%)



Increased Investments return (20-120%) Reduced risk Design compatibility with production facilities Enhanced team work, cooperation and collaboration Emergence of strong and confident managerial and scientific teams

Influencing agents of CPD: 7Ts

Prasad, CE Fundamentals Book [1997]

Influencing agents of CPD: 7Ts

Tasks - Parallel tasks Teams - Inter-disciplinary work groups, decomposition of tasks Techniques - Design-for-manufacture techniques Technology - PDM, EDI etc. Time reduction of the product design and manufacturing cycle time Tools - software, hardware, and networks Talents Learning the new work model

The Context of CPD


The big picture view of the CE model

Supply Chain Context

Company Context

Supply Chain Context

Environmental Context
MITCHELL FLEISHER and JEFEREY K. LIKER, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING EFFECTIVENESS

The context of CPD (1)


The internal company context

People

skills, job design, reward systems, motivation relationships, project management structure, job
description, coordination mechanisms, performance measurement systems

Organization

Technology

communication technology, design technology, program


management technology, environmental tecchnology

The context of CPD (2)


The environmental context
Industry Macro-environment Global environment

The supply chain context


Customers and suppliers have critical role in development of new products

How to Achieve CPD? Change Methodology


The CE Change Methodology: a process for changing the context in your company to make it easier to do Concurrent Development

Scope the Project

Assess the AS - IS situation

Design the new system

Implementing the New CPD system

MITCHELL FLEISHER and JEFEREY K. LIKER, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING EFFECTIVENESS

CPD change methodology


(1) Scope the project
Clarify Project Concept Secure Sponsorship from Top Management

Develop Vision & Boundaries

Develop Project Action Plan


MITCHELL FLEISHER and JEFEREY K. LIKER, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING EFFECTIVENESS

CPD change methodology


(2) Assessment of the AS - IS situation
Measure Performance

Measure Process & Structure

Consolidation

Benchmark others
MITCHELL FLEISHER and JEFEREY K. LIKER, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING EFFECTIVENESS

CPD change methodology


(3) Design the new CE system

Characterize Environment CE Work Process Internal Organization Supplier Relations People Systems

Consolidate & Feedback Technology

Develop Design Principles

Design Process & Structure

MITCHELL FLEISHER and JEFEREY K. LIKER, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING EFFECTIVENESS

CPD change methodology


(4) Implementation

Review Guidance Team Membership

Sell the CE System

Develop Chunking Strategy.

Pilot and Capture Learning

Modify CE System Design.

Broaden Rollout

MITCHELL FLEISHER and JEFEREY K. LIKER, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING EFFECTIVENESS

Implementing CPD to SMEs


Create a cross-disciplinary team (5-20 members)
Teams feature high-bandwidth technical communication Trade-offs should be resolved by mutual understanding Design and production issues should be considered simultaneously Teams should have common goals

Management initiatives for a successful implementation


Improving cross-functional integration
Setting and analysing goals Directing and controlling integration Encouraging communication and awareness

Fostering design for excellence


Applying best design practices Facilitating design generation analysis

Encouraging DQE

Barriers to Implementation
Barriers to implementation come from two fronts: The natural resistance of organizations to change The lack of information available to assist in implementing that change Common errors

Information waves Time loss risk Repetition cost augmentation Concurrent chaos Accumulation of errors

Process Systems Engineering:

See the BIG Picture in the Small Pieces


Finding the right piece and seeing how it fits is the key. Many may look attractive, but they may not answer to our current needs.

References
Mitchell Fleisher and J. K. Liker, Concurrent engineering effectiveness, Hanser Gerner Publications. A. Gunasekaran, (1998), Concurrent engineering: a competitive strategy for process industries , Journal of the Operational Research Society, 49. Suk-Ki Hong and Marc J, Schniederjans, Balancing concurrent engineering environmental factors for improved performance, Int. J. Prod.Res., 38(8) Bob Filipczak, (1996), Concurrent engineering: A team by any other name?, Training (Minneapolis, Minn.) 33 N. J. Brookes & C. J. Backhouse, Understanding concurrent engineering implementation: A case study approach, Int. J. Prod. Res., 36 (11). D.N. Ford and D. Sterman, Overcoming the 90% Syndrome: Iteration Management in Concurrent Development Projects, Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications.