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Summer training SEMINAR on diesel locomotive works, Varanasi
Summer training SEMINAR
on
diesel locomotive works, Varanasi

Introduction

  • It is a production unit owned by Indian railways , for which it manufactures dieselelectric locomotive and its spares parts.

  • To meet the increased transportation needs of the Indian railways it was established in collaboration with M\s ALCO( American Locomotive Company), USA.

  • Founded in 1961, the D.L.W. rolled out its first locomotive three year later, on January 3, 1964. It manufactures locomotives which are variants based on the original ALCO design dating to 1960s and the GM EMD design of the 1990s.

  • It has supplied locomotives to other countries such as Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Tanzania and Vietnam etc.

components in diesel engine

1. Valves :

For a two-stroke engine, there may simply be an exhaust outlet

and fuel inlet instead of a valve system.

2. Exhaust systems: The exhaust system frequently contains devices to control pollution, both chemical and noise pollution.

  • 3. cooling systems: Combustion generates a great deal of heat, and

some of this transfers to the walls of the engine. Cooling systems usually employ air or liquid (usually water) cooling.

  • 4. Piston: It is located in a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. Its

purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod. In two-stroke engines the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall.

  • 5. Crank shaft: Most reciprocating internal combustion engines end up turning a shaft. This means that the linear motion of a piston must be converted into rotation. This is typically achieved by a crankshaft.

  • 6. Starter systems : All internal combustion engines require some form of system to get them into operation. Most piston engines use a starter motor powered by the same battery as runs the rest of the electric systems.

  • 7. Lubrication Systems: Internal combustions engines

require lubrication in operation that moving parts slide smoothly over each other. Insufficient lubrication subjects the parts of the engine to metal-to-

metal contact, friction, heat build-up etc.

basic concepts

Diesel engine
Diesel
engine

Alternator

basic concepts Diesel engine Alternator rectifier governor Traction control Front Rear traction traction motor motor bogie

rectifier

basic concepts Diesel engine Alternator rectifier governor Traction control Front Rear traction traction motor motor bogie
basic concepts Diesel engine Alternator rectifier governor Traction control Front Rear traction traction motor motor bogie

governor

basic concepts Diesel engine Alternator rectifier governor Traction control Front Rear traction traction motor motor bogie

Traction

control

basic concepts Diesel engine Alternator rectifier governor Traction control Front Rear traction traction motor motor bogie
basic concepts Diesel engine Alternator rectifier governor Traction control Front Rear traction traction motor motor bogie
basic concepts Diesel engine Alternator rectifier governor Traction control Front Rear traction traction motor motor bogie
basic concepts Diesel engine Alternator rectifier governor Traction control Front Rear traction traction motor motor bogie
basic concepts Diesel engine Alternator rectifier governor Traction control Front Rear traction traction motor motor bogie
basic concepts Diesel engine Alternator rectifier governor Traction control Front Rear traction traction motor motor bogie

Front

Rear

traction

traction

motor

motor

bogie

bogie

basic concepts Diesel engine Alternator rectifier governor Traction control Front Rear traction traction motor motor bogie
basic concepts Diesel engine Alternator rectifier governor Traction control Front Rear traction traction motor motor bogie
basic concepts Diesel engine Alternator rectifier governor Traction control Front Rear traction traction motor motor bogie

alternator

Alternators generate electricity by the same principle as DC generators,

namely, when the magnetic

field around a conductor

changes, a current is induced in the conductor according

to faraday’s law of

electromagnetic induction.

alternator Alternators generate electricity by the same principle as DC generators, namely, when the magnetic field

Governor

A device used to measure and regulate the speed of an engine.

The microcontroller based governor consists of a control unit mounted in the drive cab and an actuator unit mounted on the engine.

The governor controls the engine speed based on throttle handle position.

Engine RPM is measured by a Tacho generator or engine speed sensor mounted on the engine.

Air pressure is measured through a pressure sensor mounted in air manifold, and movement of fuel rack is limited as a function of this pressure so as to prevent incomplete combustion, black smoke, excessive engine temperature,

fuel wastage etc.

Control unit features

16 bit microcontroller based

design

No need of regular maintenance.

Effective control for complete combustion of fuel improves fuel efficiency and reduces pollution.

Continuous display of engine status parameters.

Online fault diagnostics and fault message display.

Control unit features • 16 bit microcontroller based design • No need of regular maintenance. •

THROTTLE

  • It is the mechanism by which the flow of a fluid is managed by constriction or

obstruction.

  • An engine's power can be increased or decreased by the restriction of inlet gases.

  • A throttle position sensor (TPS) is a sensor used to monitor the position of

the throttle in an internal combustion engine.

  • The sensor signal is used by the engine control unit (ECU) as an input to its control system. The ignition timing and fuel injection timing are altered depending upon the position of the throttle, and also depending on the rate of change of that position.

  • Engine control units control engines by determining the amount of fuel, ignition timing and other parameters, by monitoring an engine through sensors, and reading values from multidimensional maps.

Traction motor

Electric motor providing the primary rotational

torque of a machine, usually for conversion into

linear motion.

DC series-wound motors, running on approximately 600 volts.

The availability of high-powered semiconductors such as thyristors has now made practical the use of much simpler, higher-

reliability AC induction motors.

Traction motor • Electric motor providing the primary rotational torque of a machine, usually for conversion

POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

1. DC SYSTEM:

  • Employed until the late 20th century in diesel-electric traction units.

  • With DC, the most popular line voltages for overhead wire supply systems have been 1,500 and 3,000.

  • The disadvantages of DC are that expensive substations are required at frequent intervals.

  • The low-voltage, series-wound, DC motor is well suited to railroad traction, being simple to construct and easy to control.

2. AC Traction:

  • Three-phase AC motor traction became practicable in the 1980s.

  • With AC, especially with relatively high overhead-wire voltages (10,000 volts or above), fewer substations are required.

  • With commercial-frequency, AC systems, there are two practical ways of taking power to the locomotive driving wheels:

  • Thyristor or chopper are used to control the current supply to the motor.

  • For railroad traction the AC motor is preferable to a DC machine on several counts. It is an induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor , and it has no commutator or brushes and no mechanically contacting parts except bearings, so that it is much simpler to maintain and more reliable.

3. Multi system: Because of the variety of railway electrification systems,

which can vary even within a country, trains often have to pass from one

system to another. One way this is accomplished is by changing locomotives at the switching stations.

Telephone exchange

  • The exchange is also provided with rack type Main Distribution Frame (M.D.F.). This has capacity to mount fuse mounting with fuses and test jacks.

  • The exchange is designed to perform satisfactorily for a line loop resistance of 1000 ohm for each subscriber.

  • The local loop is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the telecommunications service provider's network.

  • The exchange works on D.C. supply of 50 volts obtained from battery set which is connected in parallel to the charger which is operating on 230 volts A.C.

  • The voltage required when two subscriber talks is 12 volts.

Important parts in exchange

1. Battery charger :

Charger operates on 230volts A.C. supplied to it

and provides 48-50 V D.C. to the exchange. Charger is attached with a battery in parallel. Whenever electricity goes off the charger is attached to

the battery and it starts working on battery.

2. Battery:

In the exchange batteries are used to operate it. Batteries are

connected in parallel as soon as electricity goes off the exchange gets

connected to the battery.

Intermediate distribution frame

  • A frame that (a) cross-connects the user cable media to individual user line circuits and (b) may serve as a distribution point for multi pair cables from the main distribution frame (MDF) to individual cables connected to equipment in areas remote from these frames.

  • The cables that come out of the exchange line cards are installed in the crown type on the wall are called I.D.F.

Main distribution frame

  • It is a signal distribution frame for connecting equipment to cables and subscriber carrier equipment.

  • termination point within the local exchange .

  • exchange equipment and terminations of local loops are connected by jumper wires at the MDF.

  • The fuse is attached on the back side of the tag block for the safety. As when thundering or vibrations occurs the fuse gets blow off making the circuit break and thus we can prevent further damage.

Distribution board

Distribution board  In telecommunications, a distribution frame is a passive device which terminates cables, allowing
  • In telecommunications, a distribution frame is a passive device which terminates cables, allowing arbitrary interconnections to be made.

  • It is a box type board in which cable pads are distributed according to the number which are to be provided near the distribution.

  • D.B. is installed after a certain interval of the distance make the proper distribution of the cable easier to reach the consumer.

Electric repair shop

Meter section Calibration

Calibration of meter is done and the fault in the meter is detected.

Calibration is a comparison between measurements-one of known magnitude or correctness made or set with one device and another

measurement made in as similar a way as possible with a second device.

The device with the known or assigned correctness is called the standard. The second device is the unit under test (UUT), test instrument (TI).

Overhauling section

Induction motor

  • The most common motors used in industrial motion control systems, as well as in main powered home appliances.

  • Advantage of AC induction motor:

1. Simple and rugged design,

  • 2. low-cost,

  • 3. low maintenance and

Thank you