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Elementos Maiores

Diferentes Elementos tem


diferentes afinidades no
ambiente que residem.

Si02 – aumenta
concentração com
cristalização

Figure 8-2. Harker variation diagram for


310 analyzed volcanic rocks from Crater
Lake (Mt. Mazama), Oregon Cascades.
Data compiled by Rick Conrey (personal
communication). From Winter (2001) An
Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic
Petrology. Prentice Hall.
Elementos Traços
Note a magnitude na mudança
dos elementos traços

Não formam minerais próprios,


sendo incorporados por outros.

1 ppm = 1g/1 x 106g =1mg/l


1 ppb =1g/1x 109 g=10-3 ppm
= 1ug/l

Figure 9-1. Harker Diagram for Crater Lake. From data


compiled by Rick Conrey. From Winter (2001) An Introduction
to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
some elements metals
"Siderophile" Fe, Pt, Mo
some elements sulfides
"Chalcophile" S,Cu,Zn
some elements silicates
"Lithophile" Si,K,Ca,REE
Distribuição dos Elementos

Regras de Goldschmidt (simples, mas usual)


1. Dois ions com a mesma valência e raio podem
facilmente ser trocados e participar de
soluções solidas em quantidades iguais em
todas as proporções.

Como se comporta o Rb? Ni?

Rb segue o K = concentra em KF, Micas


Ni segue o Mg = concentra em Ol
Goldschmidt’s rules
2. Se dois ions tem um raio similar e a mesma valência:
O ion menor é preferentialmente incorporado no
sólido sobre o líquido. (Mg é menor do que Fe, logo
tem mais Mg na Ol do que no fundido

Fig. 6-10. Isobaric T-X phase


diagram at atmospheric
pressure After Bowen and
Shairer (1932), Amer. J. Sci. 5th
Ser., 24, 177-213. From Winter
(2001) An Introduction to
Igneous and Metamorphic
Petrology. Prentice Hall.
• Se dois ions tem um raio similar, mas didferente
valência: O ion com mais alta carga é
preferencialmente incorporado no sólido sobre o
líquido.

• Cr +3 e Ti +4 são sempre preferidos no


liquido/solido
Fracionamento Químico

● A distribuição desigual de um ion entre


duas fases competindo (equilibrio)
Transferência de equilibrio de um componente i
entre duas fases (solido e liquido)
i (liquid) = i (solid) i

eq. 9-2 K=a solid = γ Xi solid i


i
i
a liquid
i
γX liquid
K = constante de equilibrio
● A concentração de Elementos traços segue a
Lei de Henry, em que sua atividade varia
numa relação direta com sua concentração
no sistema
● Assim se a XNi no sistema duplica , a XNi
em todas as fases serão duplicadas
● Isto não significa que a XNi em todas as
fases é a mesma, já que os elementos
traços vão fracionar s. Tanto quanto a
XNi dentro cada fase irá variar na
proporção da concentração do sistema
Por exemplo: supor
C(Ni) = 20 ppm no sistema
C(Ni) na olivina deve ser 100 ppm
C(Ni) no plagioclasio deve 1 ppm
C(Ni) no liquido deve ser 10 ppm

Duplicando C(Ni) no sistem para 40 ppm: Ol


-> 200 ppm, Plag -> 2 ppm e liquido -> 20
ppm
● Elementos incompativel são concentrados
no fundido (liquido)

(KD or D) « 1

● Elemento compativel são concentrados no


solido (mineral)
KD or D » 1
● Sendo que a concentração de elemento traço
(diferente dos maiores -note Fo-Fa) em uma
fase é proporcional a concentração do elemento
envolvido, uma constante mais conveniente é
usado para isto. Ela e comumente referida
como "D" (embora muitos autores permaneçam
usando KD) e é chamada de coeficiente de
partição :
Para soluções diluidas pode substituir D por
KD:

CS
D=
CL
Onde CS = e a concentração de um elemento
na fase sólida
(O valor é dado em wt% ou ppm diretamente). Se o
elemento ocorre em uma fase muito diluida, D é uma
constante.
● Elementos Incompativeis → Dois subgrupos

✦ Elementos de alto campo elétrico, carga grande


high field strength (HFS) elements (REE, Th, U,
Ce, Pb4+, Zr, Hf, Ti, Nb, Ta) = primeiro a
cristalizar e ultimo a fundir. Concentra em
acessórios
✦ Elementos com baixa potencia de carga, elementos
grandes large ion lithophile (LIL) elements (K,
Rb, Cs, Ba, Pb2+, Sr, Eu2+) são mais moveis,
particularmente se uma fase fluida é envolvida,
sendo extraido em qualquer processo.
Compatibility depends on minerals and melts involved.

Which are incompatible? Why?


Table 9-1. Partition Coefficients (CS/CL) for Some Commonly Used Trace
Elements in Basaltic and Andesitic Rocks

Olivine Opx Cpx Garnet Plag Amph Magnetite


Rb 0.010 0.022 0.031 0.042 0.071 0.29
Sr 0.014 0.040 0.060 0.012 1.830 0.46
Ba 0.010 0.013 0.026 0.023 0.23 0.42
Ni 14 5 7 0.955 0.01 6.8 29
Cr 0.70 10 34 1.345 0.01 2.00 7.4
La 0.007 0.03 0.056 0.001 0.148 0.544 2
Rare Earth Elements

Ce 0.006 0.02 0.092 0.007 0.082 0.843 2


Nd 0.006 0.03 0.230 0.026 0.055 1.340 2
Sm 0.007 0.05 0.445 0.102 0.039 1.804 1
Eu 0.007 0.05 0.474 0.243 0.1/1.5* 1.557 1
Dy 0.013 0.15 0.582 1.940 0.023 2.024 1
Er 0.026 0.23 0.583 4.700 0.020 1.740 1.5
Yb 0.049 0.34 0.542 6.167 0.023 1.642 1.4
Lu 0.045 0.42 0.506 6.950 0.019 1.563
Data from Rollinson (1993). * Eu3+/Eu2+ Italics are estimated
Depends on the minerals involved!
Sr -> melt as ol & px separate -> plag
(Ca) & not melt if plag is phenocryst phase
Commonly standardized to mantle compositions
(olivine, pyroxenes, and perhaps garnet)
Thus the major elements Mg and Fe would
usually be referred to as compatible, while K and
Na as incompatible
● For a rock, determine the bulk distribution
coefficient D for an element by calculating
the contribution for each mineral

eq. 9-4: Di = Σ WA Di
A A

WA = weight % of mineral A in the rock

DiA= partition coefficient of element i in


mineral A
Table 9-1. Partition Coefficients (CS/CL) for Some Commonly Used Trace
Elements in Basaltic and Andesitic Rocks

Olivine Opx Cpx Garnet Plag Amph Magnetite


Rb 0.010 0.022 0.031 0.042 0.071 0.29
Sr 0.014 0.040 0.060 0.012 1.830 0.46
Ba 0.010 0.013 0.026 0.023 0.23 0.42
Ni 14 5 7 0.955 0.01 6.8 29
Cr 0.70 10 34 1.345 0.01 2.00 7.4
La 0.007 0.03 0.056 0.001 0.148 0.544 2
Rare Earth Elements

Ce 0.006 0.02 0.092 0.007 0.082 0.843 2


Nd 0.006 0.03 0.230 0.026 0.055 1.340 2
Sm 0.007 0.05 0.445 0.102 0.039 1.804 1
Eu 0.007 0.05 0.474 0.243 0.1/1.5* 1.557 1
Dy 0.013 0.15 0.582 1.940 0.023 2.024 1
Er 0.026 0.23 0.583 4.700 0.020 1.740 1.5
Yb 0.049 0.34 0.542 6.167 0.023 1.642 1.4
Lu 0.045 0.42 0.506 6.950 0.019 1.563
Data from Rollinson (1993). * Eu3+/Eu2+ Italics are estimated

Example: hypothetical garnet lherzolite = 60% olivine, 25%


orthopyroxene, 10% clinopyroxene, and 5% garnet (all by weight),
using the data in Table 9-1, is:
DEr = (0.6 · 0.026) + (0.25 · 0.23) + (0.10 · 0.583) + (0.05 · 4.7) = 0.366
● Trace elements strongly partitioned into a single
mineral
● Ni - olivine in Table 9-1 = 14

Figure 9-1a. Ni Harker Diagram for Crater Lake. From data compiled by Rick Conrey. From
Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
● Incompatible trace elements concentrate → liquid
● Reflect the proportion of liquid at a given state of
crystallization or melting

Figure 9-1b. Zr Harker Diagram for Crater Lake. From data compiled by Rick Conrey.
From Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
Trace Element Behavior
● The concentration of a major element in a
phase is usually buffered by the system, so
that it varies little in a phase as the system
composition changes

At a given T we could vary


Xmelt from 20 → 60 %
Mg/Fe without changing the
composition of the melt or
the olivine
Trace element concentrations are in the
Henry’s Law region of concentration, so
their activity varies in direct relation to their
concentration in the system
Trace element concentrations are in the
Henry’s Law region of concentration, so
their activity varies in direct relation to their
concentration in the system
Thus if XNi in the system doubles the XNi in all
phases will double
Trace element concentrations are in the
Henry’s Law region of concentration, so
their activity varies in direct relation to their
concentration in the system
Thus if XNi in the system doubles the XNi in all
phases will double
Because of this, the ratios of trace elements
are often superior to the concentration of a
single element in identifying the role of a
specific mineral
● K/Rb often used → the importance of amphibole in a source rock
✦ K & Rb behave very similarly, so K/Rb should be ~ constant

✦ If amphibole, almost all K and Rb reside in it

✦ Amphibole has a D of about 1.0 for K and 0.3 for Rb

Table 9-1. Partition Coefficients (CS/CL) for Some Commonly Used Trace
Elements in Basaltic and Andesitic Rocks

Olivine Opx Cpx Garnet Plag Amph Magnetite


Rb 0.010 0.022 0.031 0.042 0.071 0.29
Sr 0.014 0.040 0.060 0.012 1.830 0.46
Ba 0.010 0.013 0.026 0.023 0.23 0.42
Ni 14 5 7 0.955 0.01 6.8 29
Cr 0.70 10 34 1.345 0.01 2.00 7.4
La 0.007 0.03 0.056 0.001 0.148 0.544 2
Rare Earth Elements

Ce 0.006 0.02 0.092 0.007 0.082 0.843 2


Nd 0.006 0.03 0.230 0.026 0.055 1.340 2
Sm 0.007 0.05 0.445 0.102 0.039 1.804 1
Eu 0.007 0.05 0.474 0.243 0.1/1.5* 1.557 1
Dy 0.013 0.15 0.582 1.940 0.023 2.024 1
Er 0.026 0.23 0.583 4.700 0.020 1.740 1.5
Yb 0.049 0.34 0.542 6.167 0.023 1.642 1.4
Lu 0.045 0.42 0.506 6.950 0.019 1.563
Data from Rollinson (1993). * Eu3+/Eu2+ Italics are estimated
● Sr and Ba (also incompatible elements)
▲Sr is excluded from most common minerals
except plagioclase
▲ Ba similarly excluded except in alkali feldspar

Table 9-1. Partition Coefficients (CS/CL) for Some Commonly Used Trace
Elements in Basaltic and Andesitic Rocks

Olivine Opx Cpx Garnet Plag Amph Magnetite


Rb 0.010 0.022 0.031 0.042 0.071 0.29
Sr 0.014 0.040 0.060 0.012 1.830 0.46
Ba 0.010 0.013 0.026 0.023 0.23 0.42
Ni 14 5 7 0.955 0.01 6.8 29
Cr 0.70 10 34 1.345 0.01 2.00 7.4
La 0.007 0.03 0.056 0.001 0.148 0.544 2
Rare Earth Elements

Ce 0.006 0.02 0.092 0.007 0.082 0.843 2


Nd 0.006 0.03 0.230 0.026 0.055 1.340 2
Sm 0.007 0.05 0.445 0.102 0.039 1.804 1
Eu 0.007 0.05 0.474 0.243 0.1/1.5* 1.557 1
Dy 0.013 0.15 0.582 1.940 0.023 2.024 1
Er 0.026 0.23 0.583 4.700 0.020 1.740 1.5
Yb 0.049 0.34 0.542 6.167 0.023 1.642 1.4
Lu 0.045 0.42 0.506 6.950 0.019 1.563
Data from Rollinson (1993). * Eu3+/Eu2+ Italics are estimated
Compatible example:
● Ni strongly fractionated → olivine > pyroxene
● Cr and Sc → pyroxenes » olivine
● Ni/Cr or Ni/Sc can distinguish the effects of olivine
and augite in a partial melt or a suite of rocks
produced by fractional crystallization
Models of Magma Evolution
● Batch Melting
✦ The melt remains resident until at some point it is
released and moves upward
✦ Equilibrium melting process with variable %
melting
Models of Magma Evolution
● Batch Melting
eq. 9-5 C L = 1
C O Di(1 − F)+ F
CL = trace element concentration in the liquid
CO = trace element concentration in the original rock
before melting began
F = wt fraction of melt produced = melt/(melt + rock)
Batch Melting
A plot of CL/CO vs. F for various
values of Di using eq. 9-5

✦ Di = 1.0

Figure 9-2. Variation in the relative concentration of a


trace element in a liquid vs. source rock as a fiunction
of D and the fraction melted, using equation (9-5) for
equilibrium batch melting. From Winter (2001) An
Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology.
Prentice Hall.
Di » 1.0 (compatible element)

✦ Very low concentration in


melt

✦ Especially for low %


melting (low F)
Figure 9-2. Variation in the relative concentration of a
trace element in a liquid vs. source rock as a fiunction
of D and the fraction melted, using equation (9-5) for
equilibrium batch melting. From Winter (2001) An
Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology.
Prentice Hall.
Highly incompatible elements
✦ Greatly concentrated in

the initial small fraction


of melt produced by
partial melting

✦ Subsequently diluted as
F increases
Figure 9-2. Variation in the relative concentration of a
trace element in a liquid vs. source rock as a fiunction
of D and the fraction melted, using equation (9-5) for
equilibrium batch melting. From Winter (2001) An
Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology.
Prentice Hall.
● As F → 1 the concentration of
every trace element in the
liquid = the source rock (CL/CO
→ 1)
CL 1 As F → 1
=
C O Di (1 − F) + F CL/CO → 1

Figure 9-2. Variation in the relative concentration of a


trace element in a liquid vs. source rock as a fiunction
of D and the fraction melted, using equation (9-5) for
equilibrium batch melting. From Winter (2001) An
Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology.
Prentice Hall.
CL 1
As F → 0 CL/CO → 1/Di =
C O Di (1 − F) + F

If we know CL of a magma derived


by a small degree of batch melting,
and we know Di we can estimate
the concentration of that element in
the source region (CO)

Figure 9-2. Variation in the relative concentration of a


trace element in a liquid vs. source rock as a fiunction
of D and the fraction melted, using equation (9-5) for
equilibrium batch melting. From Winter (2001) An
Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology.
Prentice Hall.
● For very incompatible elements as Di → 0
CL 1
equation 9-5 = reduces to:
C O Di (1 − F) + F

CL 1
eq. 9-7 =
CO F

If we know the concentration of a very


incompatible element in both a magma and the
source rock, we can determine the fraction of
partial melt produced
Worked Example of Batch Melting: Rb and
Srwith the mode:
Basalt
Table 9-2. Conversion from mode to
weight percent
Mineral Mode Density Wt prop Wt%
ol 15 3.6 54 0.18
cpx 33 3.4 112.2 0.37
plag 51 2.7 137.7 0.45
Sum 303.9 1.00

1. Convert to weight % minerals (Wol Wcpx etc.)


Worked Example of Batch Melting: Rb and
Srwith the mode:
Basalt
Table 9-2. Conversion from mode to
weight percent
Mineral Mode Density Wt prop Wt%
ol 15 3.6 54 0.18
cpx 33 3.4 112.2 0.37
plag 51 2.7 137.7 0.45
Sum 303.9 1.00

1. Convert to weight % minerals (Wol Wcpx etc.)

2. Use equation eq. 9-4: Di = Σ WA Di

and the table of D values for Rb and Sr in each mineral


to calculate the bulk distribution coefficients: DRb =
0.045 and D = 0.848
3. Use the batch melting equation
(9-5)

to calculate CL/CO for various values of F


Table 9-3 . Batch Fractionation Model for
Rb and Sr

C L/C O = 1/(D(1-F)+F)
D Rb D Sr
F 0.045 0.848 Rb/Sr
0.05 9.35 1.14 8.19
0.1 6.49 1.13 5.73
0.15 4.98 1.12 4.43
0.2 4.03 1.12 3.61
0.3 2.92 1.10 2.66
0.4 2.29 1.08 2.11
0.5 1.89 1.07 1.76
0.6 1.60 1.05 1.52
0.7 1.39 1.04 1.34
0.8 1.23 1.03 1.20
0.9 1.10 1.01 1.09
From Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
4. Plot CL/CO vs. F for each element

Figure 9-3. Change in the concentration


of Rb and Sr in the melt derived by
progressive batch melting of a basaltic
rock consisting of plagioclase, augite,
and olivine. From Winter (2001) An
Introduction to Igneous and
Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
Incremental Batch Melting
● Calculate batch melting for successive
batches (same equation)
● Must recalculate Di as solids change as
minerals are selectively melted (computer)
Fractional Crystallization
1. Crystals remain in equilibrium with each
melt increment
● Rayleigh fractionation
The other extreme: separation of each
crystal as it formed = perfectly continuous
fractional crystallization in a magma
chamber
● Rayleigh fractionation
The other extreme: separation of each
crystal as it formed = perfectly continuous
fractional crystallization in a magma
chamber
✦ Concentration of some element in the residual
liquid, CL is modeled by the Rayleigh equation:
eq. 9-8 CL/CO = F (D -1)
Rayleigh Fractionation
Other models are used to analyze
● Mixing of magmas

● Wall-rock assimilation

● Zone refining

● Combinations of processes
Rare Earth Elements (REE)
Membros do Grupo IIIA da tabela Periodica
La -> to Lutetium (Z = 57 → 71)
Todos tem similar propriedades
quimicas e fisicas -> comporta-se como uma
serie coerente
Todos tem um estado de oxidação de 3+
O raio Ionico diminui constantemente com
aumento do número atõmico (lanthanide
contraction)
Existe contrastes e similaridades nos valores de D :
Todos são incompativeis
Table 9-1. Partition Coefficients for some commonly used
trace elements in basaltic and andesitic rocks
Também Note:
Olivine Opx Cpx Garnet Plag Amph
HREE são menos Rb 0.006 0.02 0.04 0.001 0.1 0.3
Sr 0.01 0.01 0.14 0.001 1.8 0.57
incompativeis Ba 0.006 0.12 0.07 0.002 0.23 0.31
Ni 14 5 2.6 0.4 0.01 3
Especialmente Cr 2.1 10 8.4 0.17 10 1.6
em granada La 0.007 0.02 0.08 0.05 0.14 0.27
Rare Earth Elements

Ce 0.009 0.02 0.34 0.05 0.14 0.34


Eu tem → 2+ Nd 0.009 0.05 0.6 0.07 0.08 0.19
Sm 0.009 0.05 0.9 0.06 0.08 0.91
concentra em Eu 0.008 0.05 0.9 0.9 0.1/1.5* 1.01
plagioclasio Tb 0.01 0.05 1 5.6 0.03 1.4
Er 0.013 0.31 1 18 0.08 0.48
Yb 0.014 0.34 0.2 30 0.07 0.97
Lu 0.016 0.11 0.82 35 0.08 0.89
data from Henderson (1982) * Eu3+/Eu2+ Italics are estimated
Diagramas ETR (REE)
Plota-se a concentração no eixo-y- contra o
aumento do numero atômico
O grau de compatibilidade aumenta da esquerda
para direita no diagrama
Concentration

La Ce Nd Sm Eu Tb Er Dy Yb Lu
11
10
H
Log (Abundance in CI Chondritic Meteorite)
He
9
8
O
C
7 Ne MgSi
6
Fe
N S Ar
5 Ca Ni
4 Na
AlP Ti
3
K
2 F Cl V
1 Li Sn Ba
B Sc Pt Pb
0
-1 Be Th
-2 U
-3
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Atomic Number (Z)

✦ Normaliza pelo meteorito condrito para eliminar o


efeito Oddo-Harkins e faz a escala do eixo-y mais
funcional normalizando pelo padrão
Como se parece um diagrama de REE com a
analise do meteorito condrito?

10.00
Divide cada
elemento 8.00

sample/chondrite
analisado pela 6.00

concentração 4.00
?
no padrão 2.00

condrito 0.00
56 La58
Ce 60Nd 62Sm 64
Eu 66
Tb 68Er 70 Yb 72
Lu
L

Estimativa do comportamento do REE do manto


primordial
Diagramas de REE usando o modelo de fusão
parcial de um granada lherzolito para diferentes
valores de F:

Figure 9-4. Rare Earth


concentrations (normalized to
chondrite) for melts produced at
various values of F via melting of a
hypothetical garnet lherzolite using
the batch melting model (equation
9-5). From Winter (2001) An
Introduction to Igneous and
Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice
Hall.
Calculado o D(La) para um lherzolito e
considerando um modelo com ponto de fusão de F =
0.1 -
LREE são menos compativeis do que HREE, então o
fundido se enriquece em LREE -> (-) inclinação
A inclinação é maior para menores valors de F
(baixa % de fusão parcial)
Quando F → 1 inclinação → 0 em S/C = 1.0 desde
que todo manto foi fundido
Note também o uso das RAZÕES para -> inclinação
nos REE
La/Lu razão -> inclinação REE
Tb/Lu para HREE somente (granada)
La/Sm -> LREE somente
somente
● Anomalia de Europio = quando o
plagioclasio:
● fenocristais fractionando
Eu* é o valor de Eu
“deve” ter se estiver na
✦ Como um solido residual na fonte
forma de Eu+2 ->
plagioclasio
Eu sozinho é
inconclusivo (baixo
REE de baixo Eu)
Sm/Eu dedfine a a
inclinação e a anomalia

Figure 9-5. REE diagram for 10%


batch melting of a hypothetical
lherzolite with 20% plagioclase,
resulting in a pronounced negative
Europium anomaly. From Winter
(2001) An Introduction to Igneous
and Metamorphic Petrology.
Prentice Hall.
Spider Diagrams
Uma extensão da técnica de normalização de
REE para um amplo espectro de elementos
Spider diagaramas
normalizados pelo condrito
são comumente organizados
com aumento da
incompatibilidade esqquerda
← direita
Fusão parcial do manto
Diferente estimativas →
diferente ordernação

Fig. 9-6. Spider diagram for an alkaline basalt from Gough Island, southern
Atlantic. After Sun and MacDonough (1989). In A. D. Saunders and M. J. Norry
(eds.), Magmatism in the Ocean Basins. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ., 42. pp.
Todos os Elementos são incompativeis (D<1) durante os
processos de fusão parcial e cristalização fractionada. As
principais excessões são:
Sr, que pode ser compativel se plagioclasio estiver
envolvido ,
Y e Yb com granada
Ti com magnetita

Basaltos Oceanicos = grande grau de FP, seu spider diagramas


pode refletir a fonte no padrões de elementos traço
Elementos menos incompatveis no lado direito podem ser menos
enriquecidos durante a FP (particularmente os que sofrem
pequenos graus de fusão), fazendo que a curva se incline para a
esquerda-> (-)
MORB-normalized Spider
Separa os LIL na esquerda e HFS na direita
Aumenta a incompatibilidade para o centro, coerente com o enriquecimento
do magma

Figure 9-7. Ocean island basalt


plotted on a mid-ocean ridge
basalt (MORB) normalized
spider diagram of the type used
by Pearce (1983). Data from
Sun and McDonough (1989).
From Winter (2001) An
Introduction to Igneous and
Metamorphic Petrology.
Prentice Hall.
Aplicação de Elementos Traço para
sistema Igneos
● Usar os elementos maiores em diagramas de variação,
para ver processos magmáticos em uma suite de rochas
● Grande variação para processos continuos

Figure 9-1a. Ni Harker Diagram for


Crater Lake. From data compiled by
Rick Conrey. From Winter (2001) An
Introduction to Igneous and
Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
2. Identificaçao de rocha fonte com envolvimento de
um mineral em particular em processos de fusão
parcial ou cristalização fracionada

Examplo: Pode usar os REE para distinguir entrre fonte de


alta e baixa pressão de magmas derivados do manto

Na crosta continental profunda, e a profundidade de 100 km


no manto, granada e clinopyroxenio são fases importantes,
que permanecem como fases solida residual durante a
geração de mais de 15-20% ded fusão parcial
Garnet concentrates the HREE and fractionates among them
Thus if garnet is in equilibrium with the partial melt (a residual
phase in the source left behind) expect a steep (-) slope in REE and
HREE Table 9-1. Partition Coefficients for some commonly used
trace elements in basaltic and andesitic rocks

Olivine Opx Cpx Garnet Plag Amph


Rb 0.006 0.02 0.04 0.001 0.1 0.3
Sr 0.01 0.01 0.14 0.001 1.8 0.57
Shallow (< 40 Ba 0.006 0.12 0.07 0.002 0.23 0.31
km) partial Ni 14 5 2.6 0.4 0.01 3
melting of the Cr 2.1 10 8.4 0.17 10 1.6
La 0.007 0.02 0.08 0.05 0.14 0.27
Rare Earth Elements

mantle will have Ce 0.009 0.02 0.34 0.05 0.14 0.34


plagioclase in Nd 0.009 0.05 0.6 0.07 0.08 0.19
Sm 0.009 0.05 0.9 0.06 0.08 0.91
the resuduum Eu 0.008 0.05 0.9 0.9 0.1/1.5* 1.01
and a Eu Tb 0.01 0.05 1 5.6 0.03 1.4
anomaly will Er 0.013 0.31 1 18 0.08 0.48
Yb 0.014 0.34 0.2 30 0.07 0.97
result Lu 0.016 0.11 0.82 35 0.08 0.89
data from Henderson (1982) * Eu3+/Eu2+ Italics are estimated
10.00

8.00 67% Ol 17% Opx 17% Cpx

Garnet and Plagioclase


sample/chondrite

6.00

4.00 effect on HREE


2.00

0.00
56 58 Ce 60 Nd 62Sm Eu
La 64 Tb66 68
Er 70 Lu 72
Yb

10.00
10.00

60% Ol 15% Opx 15% Cpx 10%Plag 8.00 57% Ol 14% Opx 14% Cpx 14% Grt
8.00 sample/chondrite
sample/chondrite

6.00
6.00

4.00
4.00

2.00
2.00

0.00
0.00
56 58
La Ce60 Nd 62Sm Eu
64 Tb66 68
Er 70 Lu
Yb 72
La Ce Nd Sm Eu Tb Er Yb Lu
Figure 9-3. Change in the concentration
of Rb and Sr in the melt derived by
progressive batch melting of a basaltic
rock consisting of plagioclase, augite,
and olivine. From Winter (2001) An
Introduction to Igneous and
Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
Table 9-6 A brief summary of some particularly useful trace elements in igneous petrology

Element Use as a petrogenetic indicator


Ni, Co, Cr Highly compatible elements. Ni (and Co) are concentrated in olivine, and Cr in spinel and
clinopyroxene. High concentrations indicate a mantle source.

V, Ti Both show strong fractionation into Fe-Ti oxides (ilmenite or titanomagnetite). If they behave
differently, Ti probably fractionates into an accessory phase, such as sphene or rutile.

Zr, Hf Very incompatible elements that do not substitute into major silicate phases (although they may
replace Ti in sphene or rutile).

Ba, Rb Incompatible element that substitutes for K in K-feldspar, micas, or hornblende. Rb substitutes
less readily in hornblende than K-spar and micas, such that the K/Ba ratio may distinguish these
phases.

Sr Substitutes for Ca in plagioclase (but not in pyroxene), and, to a lesser extent, for K in K-
feldspar. Behaves as a compatible element at low pressure where plagioclase forms early, but
as an incompatible at higher pressure where plagioclase is no longer stable.

REE Garnet accommodates the HREE more than the LREE, and orthopyroxene and hornblende do
2+
so to a lesser degree. Sphene and plagioclase accommodates more LREE. Eu is strongly
partitioned into plagioclase.

Y Commonly incompatible (like HREE). Strongly partitioned into garnet and amphibole. Sphene
and apatite also concentrate Y, so the presence of these as accessories could have a
significant effect.

Table 9-6. After Green (1980). Tectonophys., 63,


63,
367-385. From Winter (2001) An Introduction to
Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
Trace elements as a tool to
determine paleotectonic
environment
● Useful for rocks in mobile belts that are no
longer recognizably in their original setting
● Can trace elements be discriminators of
igneous environment?
● Approach is empirical on modern occurrences
● Concentrate on elements that are immobile
during low/medium grade metamorphism
Figure 9-8. (a) after Pearce and Cann (1973), Earth Planet, Sci. Lett., 19,19, 290-300.
290-300. (b) after Pearce (1982) in
Thorpe (ed.), Andesites: Orogenic andesites and related rocks. Wiley. Chichester. pp. 525-548,
525-548, Coish et al. (1986),
Amer. J. Sci., 286,
286, 1-28.
1-28. (c) after Mullen (1983), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 62,
62, 53-62.