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Calories, Food, Energy, and Energy Balance

Calories (review)
A calorie is a unit of measure of energy Calories are not a component of food

Our Bodies Needs Energy (calories)

Body uses energy:
to fuel muscular activity for growth for tissue repair and maintenance to chemically process nutrients to maintain body temperature

Body needs energy in three categories:

basal metabolism physical activity dietary thermogenesis

Body Needs Energy

Basal metabolism uses 60-80% of total calories for:
breathing beating of the heart maintenance of body temperature renewal of muscle and bone tissue ongoing activities to sustain life and health

Growth is component of basal metabolism Calories for basal metabolism highest during growing years

Basal Metabolism
Basal metabolic processes require no conscious effort Continuous activities the body performs to sustain life Energy needed for basal metabolism is measured when body is in complete physical and emotional rest

How Much Energy for Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)?

Estimate calories for basal metabolism by quick formula*:
For men: Multiply body weight in kg by 1 x 24 For women: Multiply body weight in kg by 0.9 x 24

A man of 77 kg needs 77 x 1 x 24, or 1854 calories per day A 77 kg woman needs 61 x 0.9 x 24, or 1663 calories Formula estimates basal metabolism for gender and weight Other factors affect how efficiently the body uses calories
physical activity level muscle mass, height health status genetic traits

*Results from quick formula may be 10 to 20% lower or higher than the true number required for basal metabolism

How much Energy for Physical Activity?

Calories needed for physical activity vary according to how active you are Usually second highest calories expended Energy cost of Inactive lifestyle 30% of calories for basal metabolism Average activity level requires roughly 50% Active level requires approximately 75% Example: Inactive person needing 1500 calories for basal metabolism would require about 450 additional calories for physical activity Calculation: 1500 x 0.3 = 450

How many Calories for Thermogenesis?

Some energy expenditure is for chewing and swallowing foods, digesting foods, absorbing and utilizing nutrients, and transporting nutrients into cells Some energy involved in these activities escapes as heat Processes are dietary thermogenesis Calories for dietary thermogenesis are about 10% of sum of basal metabolic and physical activity calories Continuing from previous example:
basal metabolic needs 1500 calories physical activity needs 450 calories 1500 + 450 calories = 1950 calories calories for dietary thermogenesis equal approximately 10% of 1950 calories, or 195 calories

Adding It All Up
Estimated total daily need for calories is sum of calories used for basal metabolism, physical activity, and dietary thermogenesis In the example, total calorie need is 2145 (1500 + 450 + 195) calories Caloric level estimated this way is not exactly accurate, but should be close to total caloric need

How is Caloric Intake Regulated?

Body mechanisms encourage regular calorie intake Mechanisms are independent of weight Encourage eating to sustain body in hard times Store fat to get through scarcity (advantageous for survival) Thin or fat, people get hungry through the day Hunger signals cells have run low on energy After we eat, we should lose interest in eating Signal from brain, stomach, liver, fat cells indicate satiety, feeling that weve had enough to eat

Hunger and satiety mechanisms adjust intake Internal signals can be overridden
People resist eating in spite of hunger pains People can go on eating after the Full signal

People may eat due to appetite Appetite is urge for pleasure of eating Appetite may or may not be related to hunger Appetite triggered by smell or sight of food

Energy Balance
Positive Energy Balance
Energy intake is more than need Note that positive energy balance is normal in growth, or regaining weight lost during an illness

Negative Energy Balance

Energy intake is less than need

Energy Balance
Energy intake equals need

Energy Balance
Total caloric need to maintain energy balance and weight is affected by: Smoking Lean muscle mass Genetic makeup People who smoke use more calories, and muscular individuals need more energy to maintain body weight

Energy Balance
Genes may increase or decrease calorie need Small changes in calorie need may not mean much on a day-to-day basis But, over a year a consistent positive or negative daily energy balance of 50 calories could result in a weight gain or loss of five pounds

The Highs and Lows of Body Weight

Body Weight Variations

Regulation of food intake and storage is a very old genetic trait Underweight was a distinct disadvantage for our remote ancestors Multiple mechanisms for intake and fat storage were keys to survival Inborn mechanisms constantly encourage food intake Changes in availability of food can explain why obesity is a major problem Culture and science define reaction to body size

Body Mass Index

BMI is a measure of weight for height to estimate body fatness Ranges of BMI include: Underweight under 18.5 kg/m2 Normal weight 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 Overweight 25 to 30 kg/m2 Obese over 30 kg/m2 BMI calculation same for males and females

BMI = [Weight in kg] [height in m]2

The Problem with BMI

Muscular people can have obese BMI Inactive normal BMI people can still have too much body fat If people retain fluid BMI may show overweight but body fat may be low

Some Body Fat Needed

3 to 5% body fat for men and 10 to 12% for women needed for survival Body fat essential in manufacture of hormones A required component of every cell in the body Provides a cushion for internal organs Low body fat levels:
delayed physical maturation during adolescence infertility accelerated bone loss problems that accompany starvation

Obesity and Health

Obesity is not a healthy state Increased risk for: diabetes hypertension stroke heart disease elevated total cholesterol levels low HDL-cholesterol levels certain types of cancer other health problems Life expectancy in overweight/obese adults 3 to 6 years shorter than average

Waist Circumference
Indicator of health risk associated with excess abdominal fat. There is an increased risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure with a WC 102 cm (40 in.) in men and WC 88 cm (35 in.) in women. The following table shows how the BMI and WC combined provide information about health risk.

Normal BMI Overweight BMI

WC <102 cm Least Risk WC <88 cm

Increased Risk

Obese Class I BMI High Risk

WC >102 cm Increased WC >88 cm Risk

High Risk

Very High Risk

Why Apple is bad

Fat cells of central fat deposits are larger than those around the hips and resistant to insulin Decrease ability of insulin to lower blood glucose Insulin and glucose increase over time Increased insulin
increases triglyceride levels and blood pressure, reduces levels of HDL increases risk of hypertension and heart disease promotes the development of diabetes

Diet and Obesity

Weight gain if energy in > out
Caloric intake up by 340 calories/day Physical activity level remains low We are eating beyond satiety
inexpensive, calorie-dense foods eating out large portions of favorite foods

Activity and Obesity

Low activity relates to obesity Physical activity traded for time, convenience and has lead to personal fat stores TV/screen watching has been blamed for obesity in children and adults

Preventing Obesity (which is different from weight loss)

Some adults gain weight at a slow pace and some more quickly, but major gains most likely between the ages of 25 and 34 years Regular physical activity (active living) may prevent excess weight gain Decreasing portion sizes at home and in restaurants may help Responding to Im full feeling helps moderate food intake

Worldwide, underweight is more common than obesity Many reasons why people fail to get enough to eat Underweight in developed nations results from illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, pneumonia, and cancer; anorexia nervosa; and restriction of food Underweight have less than 20% body fat in adult females less than 8% body fat in males

*Recall what % body fat is needed for survival and compare to that of underweight

BMIs below 18.5 kg/m Some people underweight for height have healthy body composition Probably they are genetically thin Naturally thin people can have difficulty gaining weight Unless health is compromised (fatigue, frequent illness, impaired concentration, apathy, or extreme intolerance to cold), there is little reason for concern about underweight

Size Acceptance

Obsession with body weight spreading Bias against size contributes to weight problems Bias lowers self-worth, promotes eating disorders Females sensitive to attitudes about body size
Although sensitivity in males is increasing

Incidence of obesity higher in males Obesity in females has more negative stereotypes Over-reactive parents can make things worse We must accept that healthy people come in all sizes

Weight Management
Effective ways to lose weight and keep it off are known Many popular methods just lead to a temporary reduction in body weight Weight loss plan successful only if safe, healthful, and prevents weight regain Known methods work over time for many overweight people These lead to small, acceptable, lifetime changes in diet and activity

Successful Weight Losers

Lose weight slowly 1 to 2 pounds per week (0.5 1 kg per week) Make small changes in eating and activity Eat regular meals no skipped meals! Have regular physical activity Dont feel deprived when changing habits Use available sources of social support

Unsuccessful Weight Losers

Are not committed to a gradual weight loss through behavioral changes Change diet radically to lose weight Have little physical activity Eat unconsciously in response to stress Take diet pills Do not seek out or have social support Cope with problems by escape and avoidance

Small Changes
Fat is put on slowly, so thats best way to take it off Rapid changes in body weight actually send signals to the brain that something is wrong Gradual losses do not require dramatic changes

Analyze your lifestyle

Look for weak points in diet:
consumption of high-fat foods relying on high-fat convenience foods skipping breakfast and overeating later

Look for weak points in physical activity:

driving instead of walking not engaging in sports spending too little time playing outside

Managing your Eating

Protein foods
helps prevent overeating helps curb hunger boosts your calorie burning power

Calcium foods
Burns harmful abdominal fat Helps store less body fat Effect more significant when the calcium comes from Milk and Alternatives

Try the Plate Method

Start with a 9-inch luncheon plate vegetables protein food starchy food On the side: 1 serving milk or alternative 1 serving fruit

Weight Loss Expectations

Weight loss gradual but lasting Pattern will include peaks, valleys, and plateaus Enjoy and continue improved eating and activity patterns Improved patterns offer many mental and physical benefits; weight loss is only one of them

Lets Review
Which of the following activities is not a function of basal metabolism? a. Body temperature b. Brain activity c. Growth and tissue repair d. Walking

All of the following are included in the measure of physical activity except: a. walking. b. standing. c. dreaming. d. eating.

Which of the following people is in negative energy balance? a. A pregnant woman b. A person who is regaining weight lost during an illness c. A growing child d. A person who is fasting

Which of the following areas of body fat storage is associated with metabolic syndrome? a. b. c. d. e. Upper arms Thighs Abdomen Hips All are equally associated with health risks.


Water needs
men 3.7 litres per day women 2.7 litres per day

Only live six days without water Largest component of diet and body Basic requirement of all living things

Foods Contain Water

Beverages are 85% water Fruits and vegetables 75 to 90% Meats are 50 and 70% Fats and oils contain little to no water Water in foods contributes to our intakes
80% of total fluid intake from beverages 20% from foods we eat

Health Benefits
10 cups (2.5 litres) each day associated with decreased risk of
Bladder Breast Colon cancer Kidney stone formation

People feel and perform better when adequately hydrated

Gourmet Water
mineral, spring, and seltzer waters have strong image Mineral water from underground reservoirs and contains more minerals Spring water from freshwater springs on the surface Seltzers are naturally carbonated with CO2

Bottled Water
Calorie-free Can be sodium-free or low in sodium Quenches thirst better than soft drinks Not purer than tap water

Need for Water

Individuals require enough water to replace water lost in urine, perspiration, stools, and exhaled air Built-in thirst mechanisms protect people from too much or too little
Perceptual triggers e.g. thirst sensation Physiological triggers e.g. change in blood volume

Need for Water - Athletes

Athletes have higher body water values due to increased muscle mass and less body fat 2-3 hours before exercise 400 to 600 mL fluids During exercise 150 to 350 mL fluids every 15 minutes After exercise 450 to 675 mL fluids for every 0.5 kg body weight lost during exercise

Special Needs
Hot weather increases water need Prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, and fever increase water need High-protein and high-fiber diets, and alcohol use, increase water need
high protein consumption causes losses, people on high-protein diets drink extra water fiber increases water loss in stools increased loss of water with alcohol intake

Water Deficiency
Deficiency of water leads to dehydration Dehydrated people feel very sick:
nauseated fast heart rate increased body temperature feel dizzy find it hard to move Headache Decreased mental alertness Dark, scant urine

Fluids produce quick recovery Dehydration can lead to kidney failure and death

Water Toxicity
People can overdose on water High intake leads to:
hyponatremia -or low blood sodium level excessive water accumulation in the brain and lungs consequences of confusion, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, seizure, coma, and death

Water intoxication occurred in:

marathon runners who consumed too much water during an event infants given too much water or over-diluted formula psychotic patients taking medications that produce cravings for water

Fluid intake and weight management

To avoid consuming too many calories from beverages, limit drinks to 10% of total calorie intake
E.g. in a 2000 calorie diet, you would consume only 200 calories worth of drinks other than water

a. b. c. d. e.

What are some ways the body loses water daily? perspiration stools exhalation urine all of the above

a. b. c. d. e.

All of the following are symptoms of dehydration except: weakness. nausea. dizzy. hunger. difficulty moving.

a. b. c. d. e.

Which of the following foods provides the least amount of water? soft drinks fruits vegetables milk well-done meat

Which of the following people needs to increase his or her fluid consumption? a. A person that has over consumed alcohol b. A person exercising at high altitudes c. A person exercising at sea level d. A person exercising in a cold environment e. All of the above