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Gen. Histo.

Cell Epithelium Connective Tissue Blood Leukocyte &Platelets Cartilage and bone Muscular and Nervous

Nucleus - Large Oval body near the centre of the cell. - The control centre for all activity. - Surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Nucleoplasm - is the protoplasm in the nucleus. - contains genetic material ---> CHROMOSOMES (DNA) Nucleolus - is found in the nucleus. - contains more genetic information (RNA) Cell Membrane - the outer boundary of the cell. - it separates the cell from other cells. - it is porous ---> allows molecules to pass through.

Mitochondria - power house of the cell. - centre of respiration of the cell. - they release energy for cell functions. Ribosomes - tiny spherical bodies that help make proteins. - found in the cyto plasm or attached to the endo plasmic reticulum. Golgi Bodies - tube like structures that have tiny sacs at their ends. - they help package protein. Lysosomes - " suicide sacs " - small structures that contain enzymes which are used in digestion. - if a lysosome were to burst it could destroy the cell.

Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body, and also form many glands.

Types of epithelial tissue

Squamous (pavement) epithelium.
Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates.

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium.

As their name implies, cuboidal cells are roughly square or cuboidal in shape.

Simple Columnar Epithelium

Columnar epithelial cells occur in one or more layers. The cells are elongated and column-shaped.

Ciliated Columnar Epithelium

These are simple columnar epithelial cells, but in addition, they posses fine hair-like outgrowths, cilia on their free surfaces.

Glandular Epithelium
Columnar epithelium with goblet cells is called glandular epithelium.

Stratified Epithelium.
the epithelia are composed of several layers of cells and are then called compound or stratified epithelium. Pseudostratified Epithelium

Connective Tissue Proper

Connective tissue, the type of body tissue that is largely responsible for binding and supporting the body organs and other structures.

Composition of Connective tissue.

Cell and Fibers - are the main composition of connective tissue. These two compositions are embedded in a substance called matrix. Matrix ranges from a fluid to a semisolid or gel, and is composed mostly of polysaccharides.

Fibers in CTP
Collagenous fibers are the most numerous compared to the other two. Elastic fibers are made up of a substance called elastin, and as their name implies they are highly elastic. Reticular fibers are chemically similar to collagenous fibers and are often continuous with them. Like the elastic and collagenous fibers they divide into many branches but are much thinner than the other two types.

Basic Types of Connective Tissue

Loose Connective Tissue or Areolar tissue.
This tissue containsall types of connective tissue cells and fibers.

Dense Connective tissue.

This tissue is characterized by a tight arrangement of its fibers.

Reticular Connective Tissue.

This type of connective tissue is characterized by reticular fibers, and it forms the framework for the lymph tissue, the spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes.

Adipose Connective Tissue.

Adipose or fat tissue is the only type of connective tissue in which the cells, not the matrix, form the bulk of the tissue.


Composed of: ERYTHROCYTES, LEUKOCYTES and THROMBOCYTES Suspended in fluid : PLASMA (transparent yellow fluid that constitute the extracellular matrix of the blood tissue) Normal vol of blood in the body: 5-6 Liters (7% 0f the body weight) Erythrocytes = 45% Leukocytes and platelets = 1% Plasma = 54%

Areas of the body that produce the RBCs.

Early embryonic life: in the YOLK SAC (primitive nucleated RBCs) Middle trimester of gestation: in the LIVER, majoritySPLEEN & LYMPH NODES, minority Last month of gestation and after birth: exclusively in the BONE MARROW

Proerythroblast Basophil erythroblast (stain with basic dyes) Polychromatophil erythroblast Orthochromatic erythroblast Reticulocyte Erythrocyte

The RBC is already filled with hemoglobin to a concentration of 34% in this stage The form of RBC wherein the nucleus is condensed to a small size, with its remnant being extruded, while the ER is reabsorbed It still contains a small amount of basophilic material, consisting of remnants of Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and organelles Its movement from the bone marrow to the capillaries: DIAPEDESIS (squeezing thru the pores of
the capillary membranes)


FUNCTIONS: Transport of Hemoglobin => main or major function Transport of Carbonic anhydrase = this enzyme catalyzes, hastens, and fastens the reaction between CO2 & H2O =>CO2 becomes transported from the tissues to the lungs in the form of bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) Hemoglobin is an excellent ACID BASE BUFFER (as most protein is) => RBCs are responsible for most of the buffering power of the whole blood

2. ERYTHROPOIETIN. This circulating hormone
(glycoprotein) is the principal factor that stimulates RBC production Hypoxia has little effect or no effect in stimulating RBC production in the ABSENCE of ERYTHROPOIETIN If the erythropoietin system is FUNCTIONAL, hypoxia can cause the marked increase in erythropoietin production which in return enhances RBC production until hypoxia is relieved

90% is formed in the KIDNEYS (in the juxtaglomerular portion or by the renal tubular epithelial cells) 10% is secreted or formed by the LIVER When both kidneys are removed or destroyed by disease, the person becomes invariably anemic the remaining 10% produced by the liver can cause or effect only 1/3 to RBC formation as needed by the body

This hormone also hastens the genesis of RBC Causes the proerythroblasts to pass more rapidly thru the different erythroblastic stages than normally => speeding up production of new cells This rapid production continues as long as the person remains in a low oxygen state or until enough red cells are produced to carry adequate amount of O2 to the tissues despite the low oxygen


NUTRITION plays and great affects the maturation and rate of RBC production Two important VITAMINS: VITAMIN B12 and FOLIC ACID Both are essential for the synthesis of DNA; both are required for the formation of thymidine triphosphate, an essential building blocks of DNA

Combination of HEMOGLOBIN with O2

Hemoglobin combines loosely and reversibly with oxygen Primary function of hemoglobin in the Body: ability to combine with oxygen in the lungs, and then release the oxygen readily in the tissue capillaries where the gaseous tension oxygen is much lower than in the lungs

Iron Storage
Total quantity of iron in the body: averages 4-5 grams 65% is in the form of hemoglobin, 4% in the form of myoglobin, 1% in the form of various heme compounds that promote intracellular oxidation, 0.1% is combined with the protein transferrin in the blood plasma, 15-30% is stored mainly in the RES and liver parenchyma in the form of FERRITIN


Spherical in the blood, more or less ameboid in the tissues or on a solid substrate

Kinds of leukocytes
Based on presence of granules

Granular Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Agranulars Monocytes Lymphocytes

Based on Lobations of nucleus Polymorphonuclears Neutrophils Mononuclears

Based on Staining properties Neutrophils - neutral Eosinophils - acidophil Basophils alkali dye


Specialized form of connective tissues
Consists of cells :
Chondrocytes Extracellular fibers Gel-like Matrix

Kinds of Cartilage
Hyaline - most common and most characteristic Elastic Fibrocartiloage

Lacuna(e) - space for chondrocytes

Some Diseases in Cartilage Deficiency

Vitamin C deficiency - Scurvy
Apparent in the gums.

Vitamin D Deficiency - Rickets

Epiphyseal cartilages continue to proliferate but fail to calcify and the growing bones become deformed by weight bearing. Its growth in lengths is influenced by growth hormone.


Epiphysis @ cancellous bone Diaphysis @ compact bone Metaphysis *Epiphyseal Plate grow in length of long bones

Periosteum Endosteum