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BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

AN INTRODUCTION TO BRAYTON CYCLE


By Sayantan Dutta Roll:87040387 Exam Roll:08125007051 Branch:Mech Engg.

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


The basic gas turbine cycle is named for the Boston engineer, George Brayton, who first proposed the Brayton cycle around 1870.

Brayton Cycles:
Open Cycle
(Generally used in aircraft propulsion.)

Closed Cycle
(Electric power generation)

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

Brayton Open Cycle

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

Brayton Closed Cycle

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


P-v AND T-s DIAGRAMS OF AN IDEAL BRAYTON CYCLE:
BRAYTON CYCLE CONSISTS OF: Reversible isentropic compression.(Process 1-2) Reversible isobaric heat addition.(Process 2-3)

Reversible isentropic expansion.(Process 3-4)


Reversible isobaric heat rejection.(Process 4-1)

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


Theory Of Brayton Cycle:
Heat addition Qin=mcp(T3-T2) Heat rejection Qout=mcp(T4-T1) Then the thermal efficiency of the ideal Brayton cycle becomes th,Brayton =Wnet/Qin = 1-Qout/Qin =1-(T4-T1)/(T3-T2)

We know,
P1V1 P2V2 T1 = T2 and P1V1k=P2V2k

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


Theory Of Brayton Cycle:
Therefore, from the above equations we get: T2/T1=(P2/P1)(k-1)/k =(P3/P4)(k-1)/k=T3/T4
(Since Processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic, and P2 = P3 and P4 = P1.)

Substituting these equations into the thermal efficiency relation and simplifying them th,Brayton =1-1/rp(k-1)/k

Where rp=P2/P1,is known as Pressure Ratio.


Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


Effect Of Pressure Ratio On Brayton Cycle:

The efficiency of the Brayton Cycle is a function of pressure ratio(rp ) as given by the following equation. th,Brayton =1-1/rp(k-1)/k

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


Effect Of Pressure Ratio on Brayton Cycle Efficiency:
carnot

With the increase in pressure ratio(rp) the efficiency also increases and tends to reach carnot efficiency(carnot).

rp

(rp)max

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


Effect Of Pressure Ratio On Net Work Output:

With the increase in pressure ratio the net work increases and reaches a maximum value then reaches to zero at maximum value of the pressure ratio.

(Wnet)max

Wnet

(rp)opt
0 1

rp

(rp)max

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


The Brayton Cycle with Regeneration:
In gas-turbine engines, the temperature of the exhaust gas leaving the turbine is often considerably higher than the temperature of the air leaving the compressor. Therefore, the high-pressure air leaving the compressor can be heated by transferring heat to it from the hot exhaust gases in a counter-flow heat exchanger, which is also known as a regenerator or recuperator.

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BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


Types of Recuperator:
1.Vertical Recuperator 2.Horizontal Recuperator

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BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


T-s diagram of a Brayton cycle with regeneration:
Here heat rejected from the process the process 4-6 is used to increase the inlet temperature from T2 to T5, in the process 2-5.

Effect of Regeneration on Brayton Cycle Efficiency:


It increases the mean temperature of heat addition. It decreases the mean temperature of heat rejection. It increases the efficiency of the cycle.
Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


Intercooling in Brayton Cycle:
The efficiency of Brayton Cycle may often be increased by using staged compression with Intercooling.

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


Reheating on Brayton Cycle:
The work output of the Brayton Cycle can be increased by using staged heat supply called reheat.

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


Brayton Cycle with Intercooling, Reheating, and Regeneration:
Regeneration may be used along with intercooling and reheating to increase the cycle efficiency.

A gas turbine engine with two-stage compression intercooling, two-stage expansion with reheating, and gas-turbine regeneration

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


T-s diagram of an ideal gas-turbine with intercooling, regeneration reheating, and regeneration:

Wreheat

Wintercool

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


Conclusion:
If the number of compression and expansion stages is increased, the ideal gasturbine cycle with intercooling, reheating, and regeneration will approach the Ericsson cycle and the thermal efficiency will approach the theoretical limit (the Carnot efficiency). That is, the thermal efficiency almost doubles as a result of regeneration, intercooling, and reheating.

Use of Brayton Cycle:


It is used in gas power plants. All gas turbine engines. Air breathing jet engine.
Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387

BENGAL COLLEGE OF ENGI NEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

References:
Engineering Thermodynamics, P.K.Nag Wikipedia Learnthermo.com Oxfordjournals.org

Submitted by: Sayantan Dutta(ME) Roll:87040387