Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 120

Business Communication

Transition in Business
Yester Years Selling Customer Acquisition Transaction Focus Profit on Each Sale Sales Data Low Competition Customer used to come to us Now Customer Support Customer Retention Relationship Focus Profit on Customer Lifetime Value Customer Database High Competition We are trying to reach the customer fast, first and flawlessly

Employers Expectations
Organizing ideas and information logically & completely Expressing ideas & information coherently & persuasively Listening to others effectively Communicating effectively with people from diverse


Communication efficiently




Following accepted standards of grammar, spelling & other

aspects of high quality writing & speaking

Communicating in a manner that reflects contemporary

expectations of Business Etiquette

Skill sets required by an Executive today:
Communication Listening Attitude Awareness Interpersonal Effective Interviews and Group Discussions Handling new channels of Communication Assertive Communication Sensitization of other Cultures Transactions Action Plan

Defining Communication
Communication (Latin) = Share Communis ( French ) = common Communicate

= impart, transmit, share

Communication is a two way process It involves a sender and receiver Communication is effective when it gets the desired

action or response.

Shannon Weaver Model

Source Feedback Receiver



Source of Noise

Forms of Communication
Three basic forms of Communication
Verbal Non Verbal Written

The Communication Pie

Elements of Effective Communication
Verbal (Words)



Tone of Voice Body language

Source: Dr. Albert Mehrabians

Competencies for Communication




Effective Communication
Basic Requirements :
Skills of composing the messages Skills of sending messages Skills of receiving messages

What is non verbal Communication

Non Verbal communication comprises of the entire range of physical reactions :
Facial Expressions Postures or body stance Gestures or hand movement Tone of Voice Mannerisms or Personal habits

Importance of Non-Verbal Communication

Most people can deceive with their words but not with their

nonverbal communication.
Words are easy to control; but body language, facial

expressions and vocal characteristics are not.

Eye Contact
Maintaining the right eye contact is crucial for you. Following are a few types:
The Fixed Stare Style The Darting Glance Style The Turn-And-Turn-About Style The No Eye Contact Style

The Distance Factor

Public Spaceover 12 feet Social Space4-12 feet Personal Space18 inches 4 feet Intimate Spaceless than 18 inches
The distance maintained between 2 individuals while communicating is highly dependent on the nature of the underlying relationship.

Non-Verbal Techniques
Face people squarely Adopt an open posture Maintain good eye contact Watch the other party closely Give nonverbal feedback

A mismatch between verbal and non verbal messages can

create Confusion / Irritation Disbelief for the person receiving the message
A mismatch creates a poor impression of the sender

To avoid contradictions the words you speak needs to be matched with the correct / appropriate Expressions on your face Gestures you make Tone of your voice Distance you maintain from others

Common Barriers to Communication

Perceptions Biases Semantics Physical distractions Effects of emotions

Overcoming Communication Barriers

Regulating the flow of information Encouraging feedback Simplifying the language used in the message Listening Actively Restraining Negative Emotions Using Nonverbal Cues


Types of Listening

Active / Attentive Selective Pretending Ignoring

Active Listening (4 Steps)


Listen (Opening the door to good conversation) Question (Drawing out a speaker with questions) Reflect-Paraphrase (Reflecting feeling that you hear and see) Agree (Paraphrasing to capture content)




Characteristics of a good Listener

Empathy Understanding Patient Attentive Responsive Honest Takes interest Logical Open Caring Unbiased Respectful

Bad Listening Habits

Criticizing the subject or the speaker/ Interrupting speaker Listening only for facts Not taking notes OR outlining everything Tolerating or creating distraction Letting emotional words block message Not looking at speaker Not demonstrating interest in the conversation Not responding to the speaker

Barriers to Listening
Being preoccupied and not listening. Being so interested in what you have to say that you listen mainly to

find an opening to get the floor. speaker is saying.

Formulating and listening to your own rebuttal rather than to what the Listening to your own personal beliefs about what is being said. Evaluating and making judgments about the speaker or the message. Not asking for clarification when you know that you do not


The Listening Process

The Listening Processcontd.

Receiving Tip: Tune out distractions and focus on registering the message. Interpreting Tip: Be open to the possibility that the speaker's frame of reference could be different from yours. Remembering Tip: Identify central ideas and create a mental outline of key points.

The Listening Processcontd.

Evaluating Tips: Resist evaluation till you comprehend the message. Distinguish facts from inferences or opinions . Identify biases or prejudices. Responding When the speaker is talking Tip: Use back-channeling cues. When the speaker has finished talking Tip: Use more elaborate responses.

How to be an Effective Listener?

Make eye contact Exhibit affirmative head nods and appropriate facial expressions Avoid distractions Ask questions Paraphrase Avoid interrupting the speaker Don't over talk

Hindrances to Effective Listening

Boredom Pre-conceived Ideas The urge to speak and respond Tiredness and stress Environment

I Dont Like Him This Does Not Concern Me There Are More Important Things To Do

Content Listening
Goal is to understand and retain information imparted by the speaker. Questions can be asked but basically information flows from the

It does not matter whether you understand, agree or disagree.

Example : A typical classroom where a professor is delivering lectures

Active Listening
Goal is to appreciate the other persons point of view, whether you agree to it or not. Before replying to a persons comment with your points, restate the ideas and feelings behind the comment to the other persons satisfaction.

Why do we need to Paraphrase?

To avoid miscommunication To speak to the Human behind the call , not just theIssue It is Your Moment of Truth

How do we Paraphrase?
Listen Listen Listen Use appropriate Affirmation Statements Repeat the Message in your OWN Words Do Not Parrot Use Key words and phrases from the Customers Message Do not rush the Speaker

Benefits of Paraphrasing
Customer Satisfaction not only with the Nuts and Bolts but the

soft side as well

Better customer handling we will not require to constantly clarify


Positive overall comments from our Customers A positive and Stress Free Contact

To Sum Up.
Effective communication involves: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Displaying listening skills Displaying concern and respect Demonstrating wholehearted interest Demonstrating Responsiveness Displaying openness Demonstrating eagerness to help Demonstrating ownership

Business Hygiene

Components Of Preparation
Company Product Application Competition



Background information Locations of Offices Services offered by Company




Features of Product Price Promotion details linked to






Use of the product (what it is used for) Benefits of the product to the






Competition details Comparison of own products v/s the


Competitors products

Grooming Communicates




Importance of Appearance
Appearance adds value to:
Yourself Your Company Makes the Customer feel like talking to you

Appearance in Professional World

Formal Attire Well shaved Clipped Nails Formal Leather Shoes Minimum Accessories Trimmed hair

What Makes A Man / Woman Well Dressed?

Good fit /cut to take care of individual body structure Neat appearance Fabric of clothes Color co-ordination of clothes Appropriate accessories - ties, socks, belts etc Right make-up (to be reapplied as needed) Right Selection Of Shoes No Body Odor

Absolute No-Nos!
T-shirts and sweatshirts bearing slogans Team jackets & denim jackets Zip-front hooded sweatshirt jackets Midriff-baring, Halter & Spaghetti-strap tops Sleeveless tops for men Mini-skirts Shorts & Biking shorts Sweatpants, Leggings/breeches See-through clothing Overalls Athletic shoes & Work boots Jeans

Personal Hygiene
Neatly combed hair Shave, trim moustache and beards regularly Clean finger nails Clean feet No tobacco stained teeth No body odor No bad breath Avoid pungent food during mid-day meals No burping in public No picking of nose in public

Basics for Men

Formal Leather Shoes Belt matching with the color of shoes (no big buckles) Socks matching with the color of trousers (no white socks)

Basics for Women

Earrings: Wear stubs or small rings

Do not wear hoops or dangling earrings

Why is Self Presentation Important?

You never get a second chance to make a good first impression

First impressions 4 x 20 Rule

The first 20 steps that you take towards the person The first 20 seconds of interaction with the person The top 20 inches of your appearance The first 20 words that you say

Our Attitude
Confident Courteous Dedicated Focused Helpful Proactive Positive Responsive Resilient Awe Factor!

Maintain The Attitude That Attracts Success!!

Assertive Communication

Building Relationship By

Effective Communication Proactive Behavior Positive Behavior

Communication Styles




Passive Communication

express our honest feelings Goal To avoid conflict no matter what Catch Little risk involved very safe Behaviour Little eye contact Often deferring to others opinions Usually quiet tone, may suddenly explode after being passive too long

Allowing our own rights to be violated by failing to

Aggressive Communication

rights no exceptions Goal To win at all costs; to be right Catch Is not considered a risk by aggressive person thinking they will always get their way; It is risky in terms of relationships, however Behaviour Eye contact is angry and intimidating Lots of energy; loud and belittling Never deferring to others, or at least not admitting to Manipulative and controlling, often using violence or verbal abuse

Protecting ones own rights at the expense of others

Passive-Aggressive Communication

manipulation and vengeance later Goal To avoid conflict and then make the other party wish they had seen it your way Catch Avoids risk initially, risks relationships later Behaviour Passively to peoples face, then aggressively when they are not around Often using sarcasm, then acting surprised when people are mad

Forfeiting your own rights initially, followed by

Assertive Communication
Protecting your own rights without violating the rights of others.

To communicate with respect and to understand each other To find a solution to the problem


stronger relationships Behaviour Maintaining Eye contact Listening and validating others Confident and strong, yet also flexible Objective and unemotional Presenting wishes clearly and respectfully

Risk with others in the short run, but in the long run results in

Assertive Communication (Contd.)

So what youre saying is. . . . I can see that this is important to you, and it is also

important to me. Perhaps we can talk more respectfully and try to solve the problem. I think. . . I feel. . . I believe that. . . . I would appreciate it if you. . .

Which is the Best Style?

For long term relationships
Assertive communication is the healthiest
Boundaries of all parties are respected Easier to problem-solve; fewer emotional outbursts When both parties do it, no one is hurt in any way and all

parties win on some level

Cross Cultural Communication

Culture is the "lens" through which you view the world. It is central to what you see, How you make sense of what you see, How you express yourself.

"Culture is the arts elevated to a set of beliefs." Tom Wolfe The reasonable person adapts himself to the world, while the

unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself

Cultural differences
What is hidden below the surface?
1. Beliefs 2. Values 3. Expectations 4. Attitudes

Cross Culture Communication

Intercultural Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between people whose cultural background could lead them to interpret verbal and non-verbal signs differently. Good Intercultural Communicators Are. Aware values & behaviors not always right. Flexible & open to change. Sensitive to verbal & nonverbal behavior. Aware of values, beliefs, practices of other cultures. Sensitive to differences within cultures.

Common Cultural Differences

Perception of Time Perception of Space Fate and Personal Responsibility Importance of Face Nonverbal Communication

Importance of Cross Cultures

Globalization: Cross border movement of people, goods and data

brings more and more cultures into contact with one another and increases the potential of cross culture communication.

Cross Culture Communication is important ? Business Opportunities Job Opportunities Improves the contribution of employees in a diverse workforce Sharing of views and ideas Talent improvisation An understanding of diverse market

High-Context Cultures
Infer information from message context, rather than from


Prefer indirectness, politeness & ambiguity. Convey little information explicitly. Rely heavily on nonverbal signs.

Asian Latin American Middle Eastern

Low-Context Cultures
Rely more on content rather than on context. Explicitly spell out information. Value directness. See indirectness as manipulative. Value written word more than oral statements. European Scandinavian North American

Intercompany Interaction

Intercompany Interaction


Adapted from Table 7-10: Culture-Specific Characteristics Needed by International Managers for Effective Negotiations


Adapted from Table 7-10: Culture-Specific Characteristics Needed by International Managers for Effective Negotiations

Voice and Speech

Non-verbal cues through voice and speech are delivered via the following characteristics:
Nasalityalarm, tension Breathinesshaste, urgency Pitchcomposure Flatnessboredom, aloofness Throatinessdomination Orotundity (Deep, resonating quality)confidence,


Communicating through emails

What is email?
Electronic mail is:
Nearly instant transmission of messages over communications

networks Ability to send notes entered on keyboard or files stored on disk Available in a variety of gateway systems: Netscape Messenger, Outlook, Outlook Express, Pine, Eudora, Pegasus

Why is email Etiquette Important?

The printed word has its own personality To avoid misinterpretation of Emails

Composing emails
Tone Subject Line Opening and Closing Salutations Formatting
Fancy Fonts Spelling Errors Abbreviations UPPERCASE

Signature Attachments

Composing email Messages

Match your conversational style Use one mail for one message. Makes replying, sorting, and filing easier Keep messages short; computer screens are hard to read Use paragraphs and white space to help the reader Use good business writing guidelines Email creates an image about who you are Proofread and edit all messages

Responding to emails
Reply All To: CC: BCC: Attachments Long Message Trail Mail Flaming

Responding to emails
C Context setting U Understanding recepients Needs R Review E End on a Positive Note

The UP SIDE of emails

Fast even between systems Simple to use; most people have access Can reach many people with one message Creates a record of communications Can be sent/dealt with when convenient Can be forwarded, cut, copied, pasted Saves paper, reduces snail mail Incorporates webs links Can be picked up offsite Increases typing skills

DOWN SIDE of emails

Reduces personal contact, not interactive Not private or secure May not be immediate May not produce a desired response May be edited and forwarded to others The Copy to and reply all may be overused May not be seen as formal enough Computer screen is hard to read Attachments dont always come through Printed form may be unattractive

When emails dont work

There are times when you need to take your discussion out of the virtual world and make a phone call If things become very heated, a lot of misunderstanding occurs, or when you are delivering very delicate news then the best way is still face-to face

Managing your mail

Avoid printing emails unnecessarily Delete read mail regularly from the in box to improve system efficiency Delete unnecessary sent mail Use appropriate views to help keep your mail private in open office situations

Make your life Easier..

Use functions that allow you to send messages quickly to the the same groups of people over and over:
Address book Contact list Distribution list

Dos..before you send it out Do think about the message content

(Nobody likes to receive junk email)

Do make sure that the content is relevant to the recipients

Do try to use humor and irony sparingly Do ensure that you have a relevant "Subject" line Do include a brief signature to help the recipient understand who it is from (especially when dealing with someone you do not know very well)

Dos (contd.)
Do be careful when replying to mailing list messages

(Do you want to reply to the whole list or just the sender?)
Do remember to delete anything that isn't needed or is trivial Do remember that not everyone has or uses Microsoft Office when sending attachments (If you must send an attachment, use a format everyone can read (e.g. .pdf, .jpg, .gif, .txt) Do use plain text message formatting

( It saves bandwidth, disk space and never carries harmful or hidden content)
Do ensure your email is backed up as frequently as feasible

x Don't use fancy formatting, HTML or rich-text format, for creating e-mail messages x Don't keep mail on your server longer than necessary, especially with large attachments x Don't copy an entire, long message just to add a line or two of text such as "I agree" x Don't type in CAPITALS as this is considered to be SHOUTING (This is one of the rudest things you can do.) x Don't over-use punctuation such as exclamation marks ("!") avoid more than one (these are meant to be for emphasis. Also, over-use of the full-stop (e.g. "....") can make a message difficult to read) x Don't send irrelevant messages, especially to mailing lists or newsgroups

Don'ts (contd.)
x Don't send large attachments without checking with the recipient's first x Don't send excessive multiple postings to people who have no interest (This is known as "spamming" and is considered to be ignorant) x Don't send chain letters or "make money fast" messages (There are several hoaxes about viruses ) x Don't use an over-elaborate signature on your email message (Never use scanned images in a signature as these tend to be very large) x Don't mark things as urgent if they aren't, because then when you really do have an urgent message it may not be treated in the way it deserves x Don't include unnecessary e-mail addresses in replies or forwarded messages

Telephone Communication

Face to Face Communication

Tone of Voice 3% 3 Body Language 3% 3

Words 3 %

Tone of Voice


Body Language

Over the Phone

Tone of V o i ce 3% 3

W ords 3% 3

To ne o f V o i c e W o r d s

It is important..
To remember :
Absence of visual body language
Absence of eye contact Absence of body language

Voice Components
Volume Control Inflection Pace of Speech Pitch / Intensity

Give Your Name

This basic act of courtesy lets the caller know that he or she has reached the correct person, department or company.

Active Listening
Give the caller your undivided attention Actively Listen to the caller for both the content as well as the intent Avoid Emotional Leakages Avoid distractions Do one thing at a time

What is Verbal Feedback

Verbal feedback is a variety of short responses that lets the caller know that youre listening and paying attention.

Verbal feedback responses include expressions like, All Right, I Understand, Im making a note of that right now

Improving our listening & facilitation skills

Restating what another has said in your own words

Pulling together the main points of a speaker

Asking relevant questions to help in better way and reduce errors

Practices To Avoid
Avoid interrupting the customer. When you interrupt, it shows you do not care. Avoid speaking too fast, too slow.

Eating, drinking or smoking whilst talking Avoid using Jargon

Using very LONG SENTENCES Abruptly ending the call without thanking the customer


Making notes is recommended. The human memory is not perfect.

Written notes give you a record.

Jotting notes during phone conversations will help you Actively listen.

Give a Time Frame

Short (up to 60 seconds) - This will take a few moments Long (1-3 minutes) - This could take me 2 or 3 minutes to sort out. Would you like to hold or do you want me to call you back? Eternity (over 3 minutes) - Ask for a number to call him/ her back.

Key Actions
Repeat any action steps that you and the customer have agreed upon Ask the caller if you can do anything else for him/her. Thank the customer for calling and appreciate his effort and time. Let the caller hang up first. Write down any relevant information as soon as you get off the phone.



Frequently check if meanings are clear as intended Simple language/short sentences Listen well Speak slowly and with clarity Do not put call on hold indefinitely Thank the customer in call closure

x Mumbling, speaking at a fast rate x Using very LONG SENTENCES x Eating, drinking or smoking while talking x Use of jargon x Interrupting when the other person is speaking x Putting the call on hold indefinitely x Abruptly ending the call without thanking

Mobile Phone Etiquette

Mobile Phone Etiquettes

Seek permission to attend the call Volume - Speak softly Proximity - Keep your distance Be back at the earliest to attend the customer Content No personal talks in others presence Tone - Keep a civil and pleasant tone Location - Pick your spot. Multi-Tasking - One thing at a time

Group Discussion

Definition of Group Discussion

Group Discussion is a modern method of assessing students


It is both a technique and an art and a comprehensive tool to

judge the worthiness of the student and his appropriateness for the job.

The term suggests a discussion among a group of persons. The group will have 8 & 12 members who will express their

views freely, frankly in a friendly manner, on a topic of current issue. members of the group is measured.

Within a time limit of 20 to 30 minutes, the abilities of the

Prerequisites of a Group Discussion

Topics given by panelists Planning and preparation Knowledge with self-confidence Communication skills/ power of speech Presentation Body Language and personal appearance Being calm and cool

Prerequisites of a Group Discussion

Extensive knowledge base related to state, country and


Areas are politics,sports,science &trade commerce,Industry

and Technology, MNC etc

Analyze the social,economical issues logically . Listening skills Co-operation.

Benefits in Group discussion

Stimulation of thinking in a new way. Expansion of knowledge Understanding of your strength and weakness. Your true personality is revealed and qualities of leadership


Benefits of Group discussion

Provides chance to Expose Language skills Academic knowledge Leadership skills People handling skills Team work General knowledge.

Salient features of G.D

Topic may be given to judge your public speaking talent. Discussion revolves around a specific subject. The examiner does not interfere once he announced the


Maintain cordiality and free expression of thought and


Do`s in group discussion

Appropriate to the issue . Make original points & support them by substantial reasoning . Listen to the other participants actively &carefully. Whatever you say must be with a logical flow,&validate it with an example as far as possible.

Make only accurate statements.

Do`s in group discussion

Modulate the volume, pitch and tone. Be considerate to the feelings of the others. Try to get your turn. Be an active and dynamic participant by listening. Talk with confidence and self-assurance.

Donts during group discussion

Being shy /nervous / keeping isolated from G.D Interrupting another participant before his arguments are

Speak in favour ; example:Establish your position and

stand by it stubbornly
Changed opinions Dont make fun of any participant even if his arguments

are funny.

Donts during group discussion

Dont engage yourself in sub-group conversation. Dont repeat and use irrelevant materials. Addressing yourself to the examiner. Worrying about making some grammatical mistakes,for your

interest the matter you put across are important.

Important points in group discussion

Be assertive: An assertive person is direct , honest careful

about not hurting others self-respect.

A patient listener: listening to another person is one way

of showing appreciation.
Right language : Words can make friends & right words at

the right time make the best results.

Be analytical and fact-oriented : It is necessary to make

relevant points which can be supported with facts and analyzed logically.

Accept criticism
If any member of the group criticizes or disapproves a

point, it is unwise to get upset or react sharply. out politely.

In case the criticism is flimsy,the same can be pointed Maximize participation ; one must try to contribute fully,

vigorously & steadily throughout the discussion. evaluates your leadership qualities.

Show leadership ability: A group discussion also