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OTA105210 OptiX NG-SDH Alarm and Performance Event


ISSUE 1.02
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Upon completion of this course, you will be able to: Know the mechanism of SDH Alarm and performance generation; Analyze and process most of common alarm and performance events.

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Chapter 1 Generation of Alarm& Performance Chapter 2 Alarm& Performance Event Clearing

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Chapter 1 Generation of Alarm& Performance


1.1 Terminology 1.2 Higher Order Part 1.3 Lower Order Part 1.4 Suppression Correlation between SDH Alarms 1.5 Generation and Detection of SDH Performance Events

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Terminology
Downlink signal flow & Higher order part

Higher order part

SDH Interface

cross-connect

SDH Interface

unit
PDH interface

Downlink signal flow


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Terminology

Uplink signal flow & Lower order part

SDH Interface

cross-connect

SDH Interface

unit
PDH interface

Uplink signal flow

Lower order part

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Terminology
Two Common Alarms
AIS (Alarm Indication Signal)

Inserts the all 1s signal into the lower level circuits, Indicating that the signal is unavailable. Common AIS alarms include MS_AIS, AU_AIS, TU_AIS and E1_AIS.
RDI (Remote Defect Indication)

Indicates the alarm transferred back to the home station from the opposite station after the opposite station has detected alarms of LOS (loss of signal), AIS and TIM (trace identifier mismatch). Common RDI alarms include MS_RDI, HP_RDI and LP_RDI.
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Chapter 1 Generation of Alarm& Performance


1.1 Terminology 1.2 Higher Order Part 1.3 Lower Order Part 1.4 Suppression Correlation between SDH Alarms 1.5 Generation and Detection of SDH Performance Events

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Alarms& Performance of Higher Order Part


SDH Interface to Cross-connect Unit

Uplink signal Flow


A STM-N SPI B RST C MST D MSP E MSA F HPT G Cross-connect Unit

Downlink signal Flow

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Alarms& Performance of Higher Order Part


Diagram of Alarm Generation
Frame synchronizer& RS overhead processor (RST)
STM-N Optical Signal LOS LOF B1 Err 1

MS overhead processor (MST)


AIS MS_AIS K2 B2 Err B2 MS_REI M1 MS_RDI K2 1

Pointer processor& HP overhead processor (MSA, HPT)


AIS AU_AIS X C S

A1,A2 B1

H1,H2

H1,H2 AU_LOP HP_TIM J1 HP_UNEQ C2 C2 HP_SLM

H4 HP_LOM B3 B3 Err HP_REI G1 G1 HP_RDI

Downlink signal flow Signal transfer point (Insert down all "1"s signal) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved

Alarm report or return Alarm termination point (Report to SCC unit) Page 9

Alarms& Performance of Higher Order Part


Downlink Signal Flow
Frame synchronizer and RS overhead processor

Optical receiving

Optical/electrical conversion (O/E) O/E module checks Optical signal (If no light in the input signal, optical power excessively low or high or the code type mismatch, R_LOS alarm will be reported) A1, A2 and J0 bytes detecting Search the framing bytes (R_OOF, R_LOF) Extract the line synchronous timing source J0 byte (J0_MM) Scramble B1 byte detecting BIP-8 computing to check bit error (B1_SD, B1_EXC, SES, RSUAT) Process F1, D1 - D3 and E1 bytes
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Alarms& Performance of Higher Order Part


Downlink Signal Flow
MS overhead processor K1 and K2 bytes detecting

SF and SD detection Process D4 ~ D12, S1 and E2 bytes MSP protection function MS_AIS, MS_RDI
B2 byte detecting

BIP-24 computing to check bit error (B2_SD and B2_OVER) M1 bytes (MS_REI)

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Alarms& Performance of Higher Order Part


Downlink Signal Flow
Pointer processor and HP overhead processor
H1 and H2 bytes detecting

Frequency and phase alignment Locate each VC-4 and send it to higher order path overhead processor Generate AU_AIS, AU_LOP J1, C2, B3 and G1 bytes detecting J1 Bytes (HP_TIM) C2 Bytes (HP_UNEQ, HP_SLM) B3 bit error detecting (B3_SD, B3_OVER, SES, HVCUAT) H4 Bytes (For VC12 signal, HP_LOM) G1 Bytes (HP_RDI, HP_REI) F3, K3, N1 Bytes (Reserved)

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Alarms& Performance of Higher Order Part


Uplink Signal Flow
Pointer processor and HP overhead processor
Generates N higher order path overhead bytes

J1, C2, B3, G1, F2, F3 and N1 Bytes


Return alarm to the remote end

HP_RDI (G1)
HP_REI (G1)

AU-4 pointers generating Pointer processor generates N AU-4 pointers

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Alarms& Performance of Higher Order Part


Uplink Signal Flow
MS overhead processor Set multiplex section overhead (MSOH) Bytes

K1, K2, D4-D12, S1, M1, E2 and B2 Bytes


Return alarm to the remote end

MS_RDI (K2) MS_REI (M1)

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Alarms& Performance of Higher Order Part


Uplink Signal Flow
Frame synchronizer and RS overhead processor Set regenerator section overhead (RSOH) Bytes

A1, A2, J0, E1, F1, D1-D3 and B1 Bytes


Frame synchronizer and scrambler scrambles STM-N electrical signals E/O

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Chapter 1 Generation of Alarm& Performance


1.1 Terminology 1.2 Higher Order Part 1.3 Lower Order Part 1.4 Suppression Correlation between SDH Alarms 1.5 Generation and Detection of SDH Performance Events

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Alarms & Performance of Lower Order Part


PDH Interface to Cross-connect Unit

Uplink signal Flow

G Cross-connect Unit HPA

H LPT

I LPA

J PPI

K PDH Interface

Downlink signal Flow

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Alarms & Performance of Lower Order Part


Diagram of Alarm Generation
Higher Order Path Adaptation& Lower Order Path Termination (HPA, LPT) LP_SLM LP_UNEQ LP_TIM TU_LOP TU_AIS HP_LOM All 1 LP_RFIFO Alarm report or return Alarm termination point (Report to SCC unit) E1 Interface LP_TFIFO Lower Order Path Adaptation PDH Physical Interface E1 Interface T_ALOS

X C S

(LPA) E1_AIS All 1

(PPI)

V5 V5 J2 V1,V2 V1,V2 H4 V5

X C S

LP_RDI E1_AIS BIP 2 V5 LP_REI

Downlink signal flow Signal transfer point (Insert down all "1"s signal)

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Alarms & Performance of Lower Order Part


Downlink Signal Flow
V1, V2 and V3 bytes detecting

Demap the VC-4 into VC-12s Pointers of all VC-12s are decoded TU_AIS, TU_LOP
V5 Bytes detecting

LP_RDI( b8), LP_UNEQ, LP_SLM( b5-b7), LP_REI( b3) BIP-2 computing to check bit error( b1-b2)
H4 Bytes detecting

HP_LOM
J2 Bytes detecting

LP_TIM
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Alarms & Performance of Lower Order Part


Downlink Signal Flow
Lower Order Path Adaptation& PDH Physical Interface Lower Order Path Adaptation

Recover data stream and the related clock reference signals Detect LP_RFIFO alarm
PDH Physical Interface

Forming a 2048 kbit/s signal

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Alarms & Performance of Lower Order Part


Uplink Signal Flow
Lower Order Path Adaptation& PDH Physical Interface Lower Order Path Adaptation

Data adaptation
Detect LP_TFIFO alarm
PDH Physical Interface

Clock extraction and dada regeneration Detect and terminate the T_ALOS alarm Detect E1_AIS alarm

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Alarms & Performance of Lower Order Part


Uplink Signal Flow
Higher Order Path Adaptation& Lower Order Path Termination
Lower Order Path Termination

Insert POH in the C-12 (C-12 to VC-12) V5 byte (Insert "signal label" in the b5-b7, calculate BIP-2, set the result to the b1 and b2)

Higher Order Path Adaptation Adapt VC-12 into TU-12 Map TU-12 into higher order VC-4

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Difference between E3/E4 and E1 Alarm Signal


For E3 and E4 PDH services, the flow of signal processing is the same

as that of E1 PDH service But there are still some differences: Same Type of Alarms with Different Names 2Mbit/s 34Mbit/s 140Mbit/s T_ALOS P_LOS EXT_LOS TU_AIS E3_AIS C4_R_LAISD/C4_T_LAISD

Path Overhead Bytes Used for Alarm& Performance Monitoring are Different
2Mbit/s: V5 Byte 34Mbit/s, 140Mbit/s: B3, J1, C2 and G1 Bytes

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Chapter 1 Generation of Alarm& Performance


1.1 Terminology 1.2 Higher Order Part 1.3 Lower Order Part 1.4 Suppression Correlation between SDH Alarms 1.5 Generation and Detection of SDH Performance Events

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Suppression Correlation between SDH Alarms


Suppression Relationship
R_LOS R_LOF R_OOF J0_MM MS_AIS MS_RDI

A1, A2 Bytes

B1_EXEC

B2_EXEC

RSOH, MSOH (Except A1,A2)

AU_AIS HP_TI M

AU_LOP
HP_LOM

B1_SD
HP_UNE Q

B2_SD HP_RDI

B3_EXEC

HP_SLM

B3_SD

TU_AIS
LP_UNEQ

TU_LOP
LP_TIM

BIP_EXEC

LP_SLM

Legen d:

A suppress B

BIP_S D

LP_RDI

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Chapter 1 Generation of Alarm& Performance


1.1 Terminology 1.2 Higher Order Part 1.3 Lower Order Part 1.4 Suppression Correlation between SDH Alarms 1.5 Generation and Detection of SDH Performance Events

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Generation and Detection of SDH Performance


Bit Error Generation Mechanism
Mechanism: Bit interleaved parity (BIP) Transmit end: The result of BIP is placed in the relevant bytes

of the next frame


Receive end: Compare the result of BIP with the bytes of the

next frame
B1: BIP8 for the regenerator section error monitoring function
B2: BIP24 for multiplex section error monitoring function B3: BIP8 for monitoring the bit error performance of VC-4 V5: BIP2 for monitoring the bit error performance of VC-12

Notice: The Sequence of descramble& BIP


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Generation and Detection of SDH Performance


Error Detection and Report
Errors occurring in lower order path will not be detected in higher

order path, higher order bit errors will trigger lower order errors. LPT HPT MST RST B1 RST MST HPT LPT

B2
B3 V5
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Generation and Detection of SDH Performance


Terms
Term Description

BE BBE FEBBE ES FEES

Errored block, in which one or more bits are in error. Background block error, it is an errored block occurring outside of the period of UAT and SES. Far end block of background error, it is a BBE event detected at the far end. Errored second, it is a certain second with one or more errored blocks detected. Far end errored second, in which an ES event detected at the far end. Severely errored second, it is a certain second which contains 30% errored blocks or at least one serious disturbance period (SDP). Here, the SDP is a period of at least four consecutive blocks or 1ms (taking the longer one) where the error ratios of all the consecutive blocks are 10-2 or loss of signal occurs.

SES

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Generation and Detection of SDH Performance


Terms
Term Description

FESES CSES FECSES

Far end severely errored second, in which an SES event detected at the remote end.

Consecutive severely errored second, in which the SES events consecutively occur, but last less than 10 seconds. Far end consecutive severely errored second, in which a CSES event detected at the far end.
Unavailable second, it is a period of 10 consecutive seconds during which the bit error ratio per second of the digital signal in either of the transmission directions of a transmission system is inferior to 10-3 . These ten seconds are considered to be part of unavailable time.

UAS

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Generation and Detection of SDH Performance

Pointer Justification
Mechanism

Adjust pointers as required in practice, so as to tolerate rate asynchronization and phase difference of payload signals. That is, perform pointer justification on information payloads to make the payloads synchronous with the STM-N frame
Sort

Administrative unit pointer (AU_PTR)


Tributary unit pointer (TU_PTR)

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Generation and Detection of SDH Performance


Generation Mechanism of AU Pointer Justification
Location:
9

H1 Y Y H2 F F H3 H3 H3 Causation:
Network is out of synchronization

VC4
1 9
row 10270 Column

Pointer justification state:


Name Byte numbering and content of the fourth row in STM-1 frame 7 Zero Positive Negative H3 H3 Info 8 H3 H3 Info 9 H3 H3 Info 10 Info Stuffing Info 11 Info Stuffing Info 12 Info Stuffing Info Information = container Information< container Information> container Rate relation

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Generation and Detection of SDH Performance


Generation Mechanism of TU Pointer Justification
Causation:
Transformed from AU pointer justification

The system clock is not consistent with the received clock


Pointer justification occurs at the upstream NE where the service passes

Detection and Reporting of Pointer Justification


Remote detection: Occur at the local station, report at the remote station Local detection: Generate at the local station, report locally

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Relationship between Alarms and Performance


Relationship

Alarm and Performance are belong to different levels. Alarm indicates the fault of transmission, performance indicates the signal degrade of transmission. If the value of performance is high than threshold it will translate into alarm. For example bit error can translate into EXC alarm then causes the traffic interrupt.
Functions of alarm and performance for bit error threshold crossing
Item RS MS HP LP RSBBE MSBBE HPBBE LPBBE Performance Event Alarm Event

Local end
-

Remote end
MSFEBBE HPFEBBE LPFEBBE

Local end
B1_OVER B2_OVER HPCROSSTR LPCROSSTR -

Remote end
MS_REI HP_REI LP_REI

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Question
Please describe the suppression correlation between SDH alarms? Whats the mechanism of Pointer justification? Whats the relationship between Performance event and Alarm?

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Chapter 1 Generation of Alarm& Performance Chapter 2 Alarm& Performance Event Clearing

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Chapter 1 Alarm& Performance Event Clearing


2.1 SDH Unit 2.2 PDH Unit 2.3 Ethernet Unit 2.4 Cross-connect and timing Unit 2.5 SCC Unit

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SDH Unit
R_LOF

Introduction:

R_LOF alarm indicates receive loss of frame, critical alarm.


Probable Causes: The received signal attenuation is excessive.

There is no frame structure in the signal from the opposite station.


The receiver of the board fails.

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SDH Unit
R_LOS

Introduction: R_LOS alarm indicates receive loss of signal, critical alarm. Probable Causes There is a fiber cut.

The line attenuation is excessive.


The receiver of the board fails. The transmitter of the opposite station or line transmission fails. The XCS cards on the opposite station fails or is offline.

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SDH Unit
R_LOF/R_LOS Clearing Procedure:

Step 1

Action Check whether there is any higher-level R_LOS alarm on the T2000. Clear these higher-level alarms first. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step. Check whether the received optical power of the board reporting the alarm is normal. If yes, turn to Step 9.If not, continue with the next step. Clean the fiber connector and the receiving optical interface of the board. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step. Check if the connection between local flange and the optical attenuator is correct, and if the attenuation value is too high. If there is a fault, clear it. Then, check if the alarm clears. If the alarm persists, continue with the next step. Check if the transmitting optical power of the opposite station is normal. If not, replace the line board. If yes, clean the fiber connector of the opposite station.

3
4

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SDH Unit
R_LOF/R_LOS Clearing Procedure:
Step Action If the alarm persists, check if the connection between local flange and the optical attenuator of the opposite station is correct, and if the attenuation value is too high. If there is a fault, clear it. Then, check if the alarm clears. If the alarm persists, continue with the next step. Check the fiber. If there is a problem, clear it. Then, check if the alarm clears. If the alarm persists, continue with the next step. Replace the line board reporting the alarm at the local station. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step. Replace the GXCS, EXCS, UXCS, or XCE on the local station. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step. Replace the line board on the opposite station. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step.

7 8 9 10

11

Replace the GXCS, EXCS, UXCS, or XCE on the opposite station.

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SDH Unit
B2_OVER

Introduction: B2_OVER alarm indicates indication of excessive B2 errors in the multiplex section, major alarm. Probable Causes : The received signal attenuation is excessive. The fiber end is not clean.

The fiber connector is connected incorrectly.


The receiver of the local station fails. The transmitter of the opposite station fails.

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SDH Unit
B2_OVER Clearing Procedure
Step 1 Action Check whether there are any higher-level alarms, such as R_LOS, R_LOF or B1_EXC on the T2000. Clear these higher-level alarms first. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step. Check whether the working temperature of the equipment is too high. If yes, lower the temperature. Then, if the alarm persists, continue with the next step. Replace the line board reporting the alarm at the local station. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step. Replace the GXCS, EXCS, UXCS, or XCE on the local station. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step. Replace the line board on the opposite station. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step. Replace the GXCS, EXCS, UXCS, or XCE on the opposite station.

3 4 5 6

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SDH Unit
MS_AIS Introduction: MS_AIS alarm indicates multiplex section alarm indication,

which is :a major alarm.


Probable Causes
The opposite station transmits the MS_AIS signal. The GXCS, EXCS, UXCS, or XCE of the opposite station fails. A fault occurs in the receiver of the board.

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SDH Unit
MS_AIS Clearing Procedure
Step Action Check whether the corresponding line board reports R_LOS or R_LOF alarm on the T2000. If there is a R_LOS or R_LOF, clear it. Then, check if the alarm clears. If the alarm persists, continue with the next step. Reset or replace the line board on the local station. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step. Reset or replace the line board on the opposite station. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step. Reset or replace the GXCS, EXCS, UXCS, or XCE on the opposite station.

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SDH Unit
AU_AIS

Introduction: AU_AIS alarm indicates AU alarm indication, which is a major alarm.


Probable Causes:

The opposite station sends AU_AIS. The transmitter of the opposite station fails. The receiver of the local station fails.

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SDH Unit
Step AU_AIS Clearing Procedure Action
1 Check whether there are any higher-level alarms, such as R_LOS, R_LOF, B1_EXC or B2_OVER, on the T2000. Clear these higher-level alarms first. If the alarm does not clear, continue. Check whether the NE is under the protection switching. If yes, remove the fault. If the alarm does not clear, continue. Check whether the service configuration of the NE is correct. If not, modify the incorrect configuration. Then, check whether the alarm clears. If not, continue. Use the alarm analysis and loopback methods to find the NE on which a fault occurs. Replace the line board reporting alarms on the faulty NE. If the alarm does not clear, continue. Replace the XCS board on the faulty NE. If the alarm does not clear, continue. Replace the line board of the opposite station. If the alarm does not clear, continue. Replace the GXCS, EXCS, UXCS, or XCE board on the opposite station. Page 47

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

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SDH Unit
BD_STATUS Introduction: BD_STATUS alarm indicates board offline, major alarm. Probable Causes: The board is not inserted. The board is not fully inserted. The mailbox fails.

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SDH Unit
BD_STATUS Clearing Procedure

Step 1 2

Action Check whether the corresponding board is in the slot. Remove and re-insert the board. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step.

Replace the board. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step.

Replace the backplane of the local station.

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SDH Unit
Other Alarms
Name MS_RDI MS_REI AU_LOP HP_TIM HP_SLM HP_RDI HP_REI HP_UNEQ IN_PWR_ABN Description Multiplex section remote defect indication, minor alarm. Multiplex section remote error indication, warning AU loss of pointer, minor alarm. Higher order path tracking identification mismatch, minor alarm. Higher order path signal identification mismatch, minor alarm. Higher order path remote defect indication, minor alarm. Higher order path remote error indication, minor alarm. No loading error in the higher order path, minor alarm. Input power abnormal, major alarm.

LASER_SHUT
LOOP_ALM COMMUN_FAIL

Laser shut down, major alarm.


Loop alarm, minor alarm. Board serial port communication failure, major alarm.

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Chapter 1 Alarm& Performance Event Clearing


2.1 SDH Unit 2.2 PDH Unit 2.3 Ethernet Unit 2.4 Cross-connect and timing Unit 2.5 SCC Unit

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PDH Unit
TU_AIS

Introduction: TU_AIS alarm indicates TU alarm indication, which is a major alarm.

Probable Causes
There are errors in configuration data. The corresponding path at the opposite station fails. There is a higher level alarm. The cross-connect board fails.

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PDH Unit
TU_AIS Clearing Procedure

Step
1

Action
Check whether there are any higher-level alarms, such as R_LOS, R_LOF or HP_SLM, on the T2000. Clear these higher-level alarms first. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step. Check whether the NE is in the protection switching state. If yes, remove the fault causing the switching. Then, check whether the alarm clears. If not, continue with the next step. Check whether the service configuration of the NE is correct. If not, modify the incorrect configuration. Then, check whether the alarm clears. If not, continue with Step 4. Replace the alarm reporting tributary board. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step. Replace the GXCS, EXCS, UXCS, or XCE.

4 5

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PDH Unit
TU_LOP

Introduction: TU_LOP alarm indicates TU Loss of Pointer, which is a major alarm. Probable Causes:

The interface between the tributary board and the crossconnect board fails.
There are errors in configuration data.

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PDH Unit
TU_LOP Clearing Procedure
Step Action Check whether there are any higher-level alarms, such as R_LOS, R_LOF or HP_SLM, on the T2000. Clear these higher-level alarms first. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step. Check whether the NE is in the protection switching state. If yes, remove the fault causing the switching.

Then, check whether the alarm clears. If not, continue with the next step.
3 4 5 Check whether the service configuration of the NE is correct. If not, modify the incorrect configuration. If the alarm persists, replace the alarm reporting tributary board and then view whether the alarm is removed. If the alarm persists, replace the GXCS, EXCS, UXCS, or XCE.

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PDH Unit
T_ALOS

Introduction: T_ALOS alarm indicates E1 interface loss of analog signal, which is a major alarm. Probable Causes: No E1 service is accessed. The output port of the E1 interface on the DDF side is disconnected or loosened. The input port of the E1 interface at the local station is disconnected or loosened. Board failure. Cable fails.
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PDH Unit
T_ALOS Clearing Procedure

Step 1

Action Check whether the corresponding path of the tributary board reports the TU_AIS or TU_LOP alarm on the T2000. If yes, clear the alarm. Then, check if the T_ALOS clears. If not, continue with the next step. Perform self-loop (hardware inloop) for the path reporting the alarm at the DDF. If the alarm clears, the fault lies in the equipment of the opposite end. Remove the fault. Then, check if the alarm clears. If not, continue with the next step. Perform self-loop (hardware inloop) for the path at the interface board. If the alarm clears, the fault lies in the signal cable connection. Remove the fault. Then, check if the alarm clears. If not, continue with the next step. Perform inloop for the path on the T2000. If the alarm clears, the fault lies in the interface board. Remove and then re-insert or replace the interface board. Then, check if the alarm clears. If not, continue with the next step. Replace the service processing board.

4 5

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PDH Unit
Other Alarms
Name LP_RDI LP_REI NO_BD_SOFT PS UP_E1_AIS DOWN_E1_AIS ALM_SUBCARD_ABN BD_STATUS Description Lower order path remote defect indication, minor alarm. Lower order path remote error indication, minor alarm. No board software, critical alarm. Protection switching is initiated, major alarm. 2M signal alarm indication, minor alarm. E1 down signal alarm, minor alarm. Find the fault of sub-board, major alarm. Board offline, major alarm.

COMMUN_FAIL

Serial port communication failure, major alarm.

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Chapter 1 Alarm& Performance Event Clearing


2.1 SDH Unit 2.2 PDH Unit 2.3 Ethernet Unit 2.4 Cross-connect and timing Unit 2.5 SCC Unit

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Ethernet Unit
ALM_SUBCARD_ABN

Introduction:
ALM_SUBCARD_ABN alarm indicates find the fault of subboard, which is a major alarm. Probable Causes: The interface board does not match the processing board. Clearing Procedure:
Step 1 2 Action Check whether the interface board is inserted correctly. If not, re-insert the board. If the alarm persists, check the configuration of the corresponding service processing board on the T2000. Modify the incorrect configuration. All rights reserved Page 60

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Ethernet Unit
Other Alarms Name
AU_AIS Description AU alarm indication, major alarm.

ETH_LOS
PROTOCOL_MM NO_BD_SOFT BD_STATUS

Ethernet Receive loss of input signal, critical alarm.


Encapsulation protocol types mismatched, critical alarm. No board software, critical alarm. Board not in position alarm, major alarm.

COMMUN_FAIL
LOOP_ALM

Serial port communication failure, major alarm.


Loop alarm, minor alarm.

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Chapter 1 Alarm& Performance Event Clearing


2.1 SDH Unit 2.2 PDH Unit 2.3 Ethernet Unit 2.4 Cross-connect and timing Unit 2.5 SCC Unit

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Cross-connect and timing Unit


APS_FAIL

Introduction: APS_FAIL alarm indicates APS protection switching failed, which is a major alarm.

Probable Causes:
The multiplex section protection (MSP) parameters of the nodes are incorrect. The MSP parameters of the nodes are lost.

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Cross-connect and timing Unit


Clearing Procedure
Step Action Check whether the MSP parameters of the nodes are correct. If not, modify the incorrect parameters. If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step.

Check whether the MSP protocol is normal. If not, stop and then restart the protocol.

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Cross-connect and timing Unit


APS_INDI

Introduction:
APS_INDI alarm indicates APS protection switching indication, which is a major alarm. Probable Causes: MSP switching is initiated. Clearing Procedure
Step 1 Action For an MSP ring, this alarm indicates that MSP switching is initiated. Remove the fault. For a non-ring MSP network, this alarm indicates that the APS protocol is initiated abnormally. Check whether the MSP parameters of the nodes are correct. If not, modify the incorrect parameters.

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Cross-connect and timing Unit


EXT_SYNC_LOS

Introduction:

The EXT_SYNC_LOS alarm indicates loss of external synchronous source, which is a minor alarm.
The external clock source is lost. Probable Causes:

Clearing Procedure:
Step 1 2 Action Check whether the equipment that provides the external clock works efficiently. Check whether the external clock cable is connected correctly and whether the connectors are in good contact. If there is a fault, remove it.

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Cross-connect and timing Unit


LTI

Introduction: LTI alarm indicates loss of synchronization source, which is a major alarm. Probable Causes:

Non S1 mode:
There is a fiber cut (the line clock is traced). No external clock source is input (the external clock is traced). The synchronization source is set as non-retrieve, is blocked or is set incorrectly. S1 mode: There is a fiber cut. The free-run mode is in active. The synchronization source is set incorrectly.

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Cross-connect and timing Unit


Clearing Procedure:
Step Action View the clock source traced by the NE. Clock source could be external clock source, line clock source, and tributary clock source.

External clock source 2 Check whether the output signal of the external clock device is normal. If not, replace the device. Then, check if the alarm clears. If the alarm persists, continue with the next step. Check whether the external clock input mode is proper (2 MHz or 2 Mbit/s). If the mode mismatches each other, correct the setting. Then, check if the alarm clears. If the alarm persists, continue with the next step. Check whether the external clock input impedance is proper ( 75-ohm or 120-ohm). If the impedance mismatches each other, correct the setting. Then, check if the alarm clears. If the alarm persists, continue with the next step. Check whether the clock input cable is connected correctly. If not, connect the cable correctly. Then, check if the alarm clears. If the alarm persists, continue with the next step. Reset or replace the GXCS, EXCS, UXCS, or XCE.

5 6

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Cross-connect and timing Unit


Clearing Procedure:
Step Action

Line clock source Check whether the corresponding line board reports R_LOS alarm through the T2000. If there is a R_LOS alarm, clear it. Then, check if the alarm clears. If the alarm persists, continue with the next step. Reset or replace the line board. 8 If the alarm does not clear, continue with the next step.

Reset or replace the GXCS, EXCS, UXCS, or XCE.

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Cross-connect and timing Unit


Other Alarms

Name
BUS_ERR CLK_NO_TRACE_MODE S1_SYN_CHANGE SYN_BAD SYNC_C_LOS NO_BD_SOFT COMMUN_FAIL BD_STATUS Bus error, major alarm.

Description

Clock entering into non-tracing running mode, minor alarm. Clock reference source change in S1_Mode, minor alarm. Synchronization source deteriorated, minor alarm. Synchronization source level loss, warning. No board software, critical alarm. Serial port communication failure, major alarm. Board not in position alarm, major alarm.

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Chapter 1 Alarm& Performance Event Clearing


2.1 SDH Unit 2.2 PDH Unit 2.3 Ethernet Unit 2.4 Cross-connect and timing Unit 2.5 SCC Unit

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SCC Unit
NESTATE_INSTALL

Introduction: NESTATE_INSTALL alarm indicates NE in install state, which is a critical alarm.

Probable Causes:
The NE is under installation. Clearing Procedure:
Step 1 Action Correct the configuration data and re-send the data.

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SCC Unit
WRG_BD_TYPE

Introduction: WRG_BD_TYPE alarm indicates wrong inserted board type, which is a minor alarm.

Probable Causes:
A wrong board is inserted. There are errors in the board configuration.
Step 1 2

Action Clearing Procedure


Check whether the board is of the right type. If not, insert a right one. If the alarm persists, check whether the board configuration is correct. If not, modify the incorrect configuration.

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SCC Unit
Other Alarms

Name HARD_BAD NESF_LOST NODEID_MM POWER_ABNORMAL POWER_FAIL COMMUN_FAIL BD_STATUS

Description The HARD_BAD alarm indicates hardware fails, critical alarm. Lost of one nesoft, critical alarm. Multiplex section node ID mismatch, Major alarm. Power is abnormal, major alarm Power failure, major alarm Serial port communication failure, major alarm. Board not in position alarm, major alarm.

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Exercise
Case of 2 fiber SNCP ring with no protection chain. NE1, NE2, NE4, NE5 is

OSN 3500 equipment, NE3 is OSN 2500 REG.


NE5
E W

NE1

NE2
1#-16#VC12

NE4
T11-16

NE2

W E

T11-16 W2 W

17#-32# VC12

NE3
E

SNCP

NE1
W

NE5

T21-16
33#-48#VC12

T11-16

NE4

T21-16
49#-63# VC12

T21-16

E
T11-15

T31-15

All of the traffic are unidirectional

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Exercise
If the Tx fiber between NE2 and NE3 is broken, please fill in the blank. If no

alarm please fill in with - .

A. R_LOS; B. MS_AIS; C. MS_RDI; D. TU_AIS; E. LP_RDI;

Card\NE E

NE1
-

NE2
MS_RDI
-

NE3
R_LOS

NE4
MS_AIS

NE5
-

W
PQ1 (NE1)

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Summary

Generation of Alarm& Performance Alarm& Performance Event Clearing Case of Ring with Chain

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Thank You
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