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Submitted By: Nischal Jain B.Tech (ECE) III Sem

Main topics
1. Introduction 2. Android History 3. Platform 4. Android Architecture 5. Software development 6. Evaluation

1. Introduction

A software platform and operating system for mobile devices. Based on the Linux kernel. Developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance (OHA). Allows writing managed code in the Java language.

Unveiling of the Android platform was announced on 5 November 2007 with the founding of OHA.

It's a consortium of several companies. Devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.

Develop technologies that will significantly lower the cost of developing and distributing mobile devices and services.

Android is under version 2 of the


2. Android History

The version history of the Android Operating System began with the release of version 1.0 in September 2008. Each version is developed under a code name based on a dessert item.

The code names are in alphabetical order (Beta,Cupcake, Donut, Eclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwich(coming soon)).



BETA 1.0/1.1 CUPCAKE 1.5 (Linux kernel 2.6.27) DONUT 1.6 (Linux kernel 2.6.29) CLAIR 2.0/2.1 (Linux kernel 2.6.29) FROYO 2.2 (Linux kernel 2.6.32) GINGERBREAD 2.3 (Linux kernel 2.6.35) HONEYCOMB 3.0 (Linux kernel 2.6.36)

12 November 2007 30 April 2009 15 Sept. 2009 26 October 2009 20 May 2010 6 December 2010 22 February 2011

Ability to record and watch videos through camcorder mode. Uploading videos to YouTube and pictures to Picasa directly from the phone. A new soft-keyboard with text-prediction. Ability to automatically connect to a Bluetooth headset within a certain distance.

New widgets and folders that can populate the Home screens.
Animated screen transitions.

An improved Android Market experience. Updated Voice Search, with faster response and deeper integration with native applications, including the ability to dial contacts. Updated technology support for CDMA/EVDO, 802.1x, VPNs, and a text-to-speech engine.

Gesture framework and GestureBuilder development tool.

Google free turn-by-turn navigation.

Optimized hardware speed. Support for more screen sizes and resolutions. New Browser UI and HTML5 support. Better contrast ratio for backgrounds. Improved Google Maps 3.1.2. MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi-touch events. Bluetooth 2.1.

General Android OS speed, memory, and performance optimizations. Additional application speed improvements courtesy of JIT implementation. Integration of Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine into the Browser application. Improved application launcher with shortcuts to Phone and Browser applications.

USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionality.

Updated Market application with batch and automatic update features. Adobe Flash 10.1 support.

Updated user interface design. Support for extra-large screen sizes and resolutions (WXGA and higher). System-wide copypaste functionalities. Redesigned multi-touch software keyboard.

Audio, graphical, and input enhancements for game developers.

Concurrent garbage collection for increased performance. A download manager for long running downloads.

Optimized tablet support with a new user interface. Three dimensional desktop with redesigned widgets purportedly taken from BumpTop, the 3D desktop acquired by Google in 2010. Refined multi-tasking. Google Maps 5 with 3D interactions and offline reliability. Access to over 3 million Google eBooks. Support for video chat using Google Talk.

Android 4.0 or Android 4 Ice Cream Sandwich is a latest version of Android OS, which is currently under development phase and release at the end of November or December 2011. Blue Themed Like our site (Change theme on bottom) Camera now has a panorama mode (not pictured) Not too many changes, just UI things, dont think requirements are set too high for year old devices to run it The little icon in the bottom right, looks like a tray with multiple apps in it. Apps/Widgets launcher a lot like Honeycomb.

3. Platform

Android is not a single piece of hardware; it's a complete, endto-end software platform that can be adapted to work on any number of hardware configurations. Everything is there, from the

bootloader all the way up to the applications.

Android uses Linux for its device drivers, memory management, process management, and networking.

The next level up contains the Android native libraries. They are all written in C/C++ internally, but well be calling them through Java interfaces. In this layer we can find the Surface Manager, 2D and 3D graphics etc.

Dalvik Virtual Machine runs dex files, which are converted at compile time from standard class and jar files.

It supports wireless communications using:

o o o

GSM mobile-phone technology 3G 802.11 Wi-Fi networks

Android is a multi-process system, in which each application (and parts of the system) runs in its own process. Most security between applications and the system is enforced at the process level through standard Linux facilities, such as user and group IDs that are assigned to applications. Additional finer-grained security features are provided through a "permission" mechanism that enforces restrictions on the specific operations that a particular process can perform, and per-URI permissions for granting ad-hoc access to specific pieces of data.

Icecream Sandwich based on Linux Kernel comes in 2011 end. Google Android Sales to Overtake iPhone in 2012. The OHA is committed to make their vision a reality: to deploy the Android platform for every mobile operator, handset manufacturers and developers to build innovative devices.

Intel doesnt want to lose ownership of the netbook market, so they need to prepare for anything, including Android.

4. Android Architecture

Android gives an integrated tool dx, which converts generated byte code from .jar to .dex file, after this byte code becomes much more efficient to run on the small processors.

package com.example.helloandroid; import android.app.Activity; import android.os.Bundle; public class HelloAndroid extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.main); } }

5. Software development

5.1 Development requirements

Java Android SDK Eclipse IDE (optional)

5.2 Programming Language(s)

Java officially supported C/C++ also possible but not supported

6. Evaluation

6.1 Advantages
The consumer will benefit from having a wide range of mobile applications to choose from since the monopoly will be broken by Google Android.

Men will be able to customize a mobile phones using Google Android platform like never before.
Features like weather details, opening screen, live RSS feeds and even the icons on the opening screen will be able to be customized.

As a result of many mobile phones carrying Google Android, companies will come up with such innovative products like the location.
In addition the entertainment functionalities will be taken a notch higher by Google Android being able to offer online real time multiplayer games.

6.2 Limitations
Bluetooth limitations

Android doesn't support: Bluetooth stereo Contacts exchange Modem pairing

Wireless keyboards But it'll work with Bluetooth headsets, but that's about it Firefox Mobile isn't coming to Android

6.3 Conclusion

Android is open to all: industry, developers and users.

Participating in many of the successful open source projects. Aims to be as easy to build for as the web. Google Android is stepping into the next level of Mobile Internet.