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What are waxes used for?

Waxes have a variety of uses in clinics and laboratories. In clinics In laboratories Boxing techniques

Bite registration

Alterations and adaptation for impression trays Direct waxing for cast restorations ____________

Baseplate for complete and partial dentures Hold components before articulation Indirect pattern for casting


Natural waxes produced from:

Plants: Carnuba, Candelilla, Japan wax Minerals: paraffin, montan, microcrystalline Insects: Beeswax Animals: spermaceti

Synthetic waxes: Acrawax C, castorwax Additional components: gums, oils, resins, fats.

Melting range: a range of temperatures at which
each component of the wax will start to soften and then flow. The operator can control the viscosity of wax by controlling temperature. Flow: is the movement of the wax as molecules slip over each other. Melting range and flow of the wax are important in wax manipulation by operator. E.g. bite registration wax.

Ductility: like flow, increases with increase in temperature.

Excess residue: for the sake of accuracy in the object produced, if excess residue remains after melted wax is removed, inaccuracies may occur. (lost wax technique procedure)

4. Dimensional change: waxes expand when heated, contract when cooled. Thermal expansion of waxes is highest among dental materials. This property is important especially for pattern waxes (e.g. inlay wax). How:
If wax is heated well beyond melting range or unevenly, unacceptable expansion occurs. If wax is allowed to stand for a long time, the release of residual stresses will lead to dimensional changes and inaccuracies. This is why pattern wax should be invested within 30 minutes of carving.

According to origin
Mineral Plant Insect Animal

According to use
Pattern wax

Processing wax

Impression wax

wax Casting wax:.Sheets Ready Shapes Wax- up Baseplate wax

wax (Carding wax) Utility wax Sticky wax


wax Bite registration wax

Used to form the general predetermined size and contour of an artificial dental restoration which is to be constructed of a more durable material as cast gold alloys, cobalt-chromium-nickel alloys.


waxes: are

used to produce patterns for metal casting using the lost wax technique.


Ideal Requirements of Inlay casting wax

When softened, the wax should be uniform. There should be no graininess or hard spots in the plastic material. The color should contrast with the die. A definite color contrast facilitates proper finishing of margins. There should be no flakiness or roughening of the surface when the wax is moulded after softening. The wax should not pull or chip during carving.

During burnout(500C), it should vaporize completely without residue. The wax pattern should be completely rigid & dimensionally stable at all times until it is eliminated. It should be sufficiently plastic slightly above mouth temp. & become rigid when cooled at mouth temp.. The flow should be more than 75% at 45C & less than 1% at 37C.


Classification(ADA Sp. No. 4),

Type I: placed directly in the prepared tooth in the direct waxing technique. This wax has a low melting range. Type II: melted on a die outside the mouth in the indirect technique (more commonly used).

These waxes are supplied as pellets and sticks. They are blue and green in color. Hard, medium, soft depending on melting range.


Paraffin wax - 40-60% - main ingredient, establishes MP Gum dammar -1% - improves smoothness, inc. toughness Carnauba wax -25% - dec. flow at mouth temp., gives glossiness Candelilla wax Colouring agents


Flow: type I : when heated at 45C,melts & flow well.cools & hardens at 37C. type II : it hardens at 30C. more suitable for laboratory work Thermal Properties: thermal conductivity: Low COTE: High.


Wax Distortion: Most serious problem Due to release of stresses in the pattern. To avoid1.use warm instruments for carving. 2.minimal carving and change in temp 3.minimal storage of pattern. Invest immediately. 4. It cannot be totally eliminated.


Casting wax: used to construct the metal

framework for partial and complete dentures. Supplied in sheets or preformed shapes. Properties: tacky, highly ductile


Baseplate wax:
sheets of wax pink in color. These sheets are layered to produce the form on which denture teeth are set


Type I: soft Type II: medium Type III: hard



Beeswax 12% Carnauba 2.5% Natural or Synthetic 3% Microcrystalline 2.5%



Boxing wax: used to

form the base portion of a gypsum model. Easily manipulated at room temperature.


Utility wax: also called periphery wax, comes

in ropes, and easily manipulated at room temperature. Used to adjust impression trays, used to cover sharp brackets and wires in orthodontic appliances, layered in sheets for bite registration.


Sticky wax: comes in orange sticks that are

hard and brittle at room temperature. When heated, become soft and sticky. Used to adhere components of metal, gypsum, resin during fabrication and repair.



Corrective impression wax: used with

other impression materials for edentulous impressions, to correct undercut areas. Flows at mouth temperature.


Bite registration: to produce wax bite

registration for articulation of models. Susceptible to distortion, needs careful handling. Flow- ranges from 2.5-22% at 37C.



Softened evenly in:

Warm hands Dry heat Flame

Added in layers into an object Should be invested within 30 minutes of carving Utility and boxing wax should remain dry to allow to stick when manipulated. Should be stored at or slightly below room temperature

Lost wax technique

1. An impression of the preparation is taken and poured 2. 3. 4. 5.

into high strength stone to form a die. Wax pattern is carved Wax or plastic sprue is attached to pattern Pattern and sprue are encased in investment ring, into which investment gypsum is poured Once investment sets, wax pattern and sprue are heated in a burnout oven, causing wax and sprue to vaporize (lost wax), leaving an impression of wax pattern in the empty case

Lost wax technique continue,

6. Molten metal is poured through the empty

channel formed by sprue, into the empty wax pattern space. 7. Metal cools, sprue removed, casting cleaned and polished and now ready for cementation


Lost wax technique