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Computer and Information Technology for (HKCEE) Module C

4.1Development of the Internet


4.2Internet Protocol (IP) Address
4.3InterNIC and ISP
4.4IP address Classes and Their Formats
4.5Domain Name System
4.6Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Prot
Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.1 Development of the Internet


1960s
APRANET was developed by APRA.
1969
Researchers at four US campuses hosted the
APRANET.
1974
APRA scientists developed TCP/IP.
1976
Queen Elizabeth II of UK sent out the first e-mail
message.
© Longman Hong Kong Education Page2
Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.1 Development of the Internet


1982
The term “Internet” was used the first time.
1984
DNS was introduced and each host was assigned
a name
1989
WWW concept was designed by Tim Berners-
Lee and scientists at CERN and European centre
for High Energy Physics

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.1 Development of the Internet


1990
Internet was introduced.
1993
Mosaic become available.
1997 till now
Internet is used worldwide.

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.2 Internet Protocol (IP) Address


To identify a computer in a network,
every computer is assigned a unique IP address
IP address
32 bits
4 octets of number from 0 to 255

decimal form: 192.168.0.243


binary form: 11000000.10101000.00000000.11110011

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.2 Internet Protocol (IP) Address


Three fields of IP address
the Class
the network number
the host number

192.168.0.243

Class and host number


network number

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.3 InterNIC and ISP


Internet Service Provider (ISP)
own a set of IP addresses
assign IP addresses to subscribers
Internet Network Information Centre (InterNIC)
provide a set of IP addresses to ISP

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.4 IP Address Classes and Their


Formats
IP addresses
based on Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)
network number
assigned by InterNIC
unique within the Internet
host number
unique within the network

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.4 IP Address Classes and Their


Formats
IPv4 address formats

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.4 IP Address Classes and Their


Formats
Division of use of IPv4 address

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.4 IP Address Classes and Their


Formats
Class A (1.x.x.x - 126.x.x.x)

125.21.5.200

network host
number number

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.4 IP Address Classes and Their


Formats
Class B (128.n.x.x - 191.n.x.x)

150.32.25.2

network host
number number

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.4 IP Address Classes and Their


Formats
Class C (192.n.n.x - 223.n.n.x)

210.55.232.15

network number host


number

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.4 IP Address Classes and Their


Formats
128-bit IPv6 address
solving the problem of IPv4 address shortage
provide much more address than IPv4
79 ×1027 multiples
eight 4-bit pieces hexadecimal values

1000: EEEF: 2498: 0000: 283D: ABBA: BBCC: 0011

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.5 Domain Name System


Domain Name System (DNS)
provide hostname-to-IP address services on a
network
domain name
a name or series of names representing the
number version of IP address

domain name IP address


www.info.gov.hk 202.128.233.88

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.5 Domain Name System


DNS server
database of hostname-to-IP address mapping
information
manage hostname-to-IP address translation
process

simple DNS name


lookup request

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.5 Domain Name System


Domain Name Format
Fully Qualified
Domain Name
(FQDN)
www.ilongman.com

third level second level domain first level domain


• Identifies • unique
host server
• registered with one of
at the
the ICANN-accredited
internet
registrars
address

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.5 Domain Name System


Top-Level Domain (TLD)

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.5 Domain Name System


Country Code Top-level Domain (CCTLD)
DNS TLD identifying domain names for a given
country, territory or geographic location

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.5 Domain Name System


Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
a particular Web page or file residing on a web
site

http://www.info.gov.hk/digital21/e_index.html

protocol domain name folder file


name name

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.5 Domain Name System


Tree structure of a domain name

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.6 Transmission Control Protocol /


Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Advantages of TCP/IP
good recovery ability
able to resolve high probability of errors
independent of manufactures or networks
TCP/IP
allow two hosts to establish connection
exchange data

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.6 Transmission Control Protocol /


Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
How does TCP/IP work?
Step 1
TCP (connection-oriented protocol)
• break down data into packets
• flow control: guarantee the delivery of data
packet
• error control: guarantee the received
packets in the same order as the sent ones

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.6 Transmission Control Protocol /


Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
How does TCP/IP work?
Step 2
IP (connectionless protocol)
• place a header onto the packet
• header contains
• sender’s address
• receiver’s address

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.6 Transmission Control Protocol /


Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
How does TCP/IP work?
Step 3

• IP sends the packet to its destination


without using a defined path

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.6 Transmission Control Protocol /


Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
How does TCP/IP work?
Step 4

• Packets are re-routed via other


paths during heavy traffic and
inoperative condition.

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.6 Transmission Control Protocol /


Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
How does TCP/IP work?
Step 5

• TCP/IP reassembles the packets


when they arrive the destination

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module C: Part B

4.6 Transmission Control Protocol /


Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
TCP/IP is used for
connectivity to the Internet
heterogeneous networks
enterprise scale network
Utility for troubleshooting TCP/IP
ipconfig
ping
tracert
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Computer and Information Technology for (HKCEE) Module C

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