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SCM Integration &Collaboration

Supply Chain Integration Push Strategies

Strategi SC manufactur klasik Peramalan Manufacturing biasanya dalam jangka panjang
Orders dari retailers

Lamanya response time untuk bereaksi terhadap perubahan pasar

Unable to meet changing demand patterns Supply chain inventory menjadi usang saat demand untuk produk tertentu menghilang Large inventory safety stocks Larger and more variably sized production batches Unacceptable service levels Inventory obsolescence How is demand determined? Peak? Average? How is transportation capacity determined?

Meningkatnya variability (Bullwhip effect),menyebabkan:

Tidak efisien penggunakan fasilitas produksi(factories)

Contoh : Auto industry, large appliances, others?

Supply Chain Integration Pull Strategies

Production dan distribution bersifat demand-driven
Koordinasi dengan true customer demand

Tidak ada atau sangat sedikit inventory yang ada Fast information flow mechanisms
POS data

Menurunnya lead times Menurunnya retailer inventory Menurunnya variability dalam supply chain, khususnya pada manufacturers Menurunnya manufacturer inventory Lebih efisien use of resources Lebih sulit mengambil keuntungan dari scale opportunities Contoh: Dell, Amazon

Supply Chain Integration Push/Pull Strategies

Hybrid dari push and pull strategies untuk mengatasi kelemahan masing-masing strategi Tahap awal produk dikerjakan dengan push Partial assembly dr product berdasar dari aggregate demand forecasts, (yang lebih akurat daripada individual product demand forecasts) Uncertainty dikurangi, shg safety stock inventory menjadi rendah Final product assembly dikerjakan berdasar customer demand untuk specific product configurations Supply chain timeline menentukan push-pull boundary
PushPull Boundary

Generic Product Push Strategy Raw Materials

Customized Product Pull Strategy End Consumer

Supply Chain Timeline

Memilih antara Push/Pull Strategies

Pull High Industries where:
Customization is High Demand is uncertain Scale economies are Low

Industries where:
Demand is uncertain Scale economies are High Low economies of scale

Where do the following industries fit in this model: Automobile? Aircraft? Fashion? Petroleum refining? Pharmaceuticals? Biotechnology? Medical Devices?

Demand Uncertainty

Computer equipment Industries where:

Uncertainty is low Low economies of scale Push-pull supply chain


Industries where:
Standard processes are the norm Demand is stable Scale economies are High

Books, CDs Push Low Low Pull

Grocery, Beverages
High Push

Economies of Scale

Source: Simchi-Levi

Karakteristik Push, Pull dan Push/Pull Strategies

Maximize Service Level

Complexity Focus Lead Time

Minimize Cost



Resource Allocation





Supply Chain Planning

Order Fulfillment

Source: Simchi-Levi

Supply Chain Collaboration

Banyak definisi yang berbeda tergantung dari perspektif Perusahaan sebagai anggota SC bekerjasama dengan sharing

Ideas Information Processes Knowledge Information Risks Rewards

Mempercepat masuknya ke pasar Merubah hubungan cost/value/profit

Mengapa kolaborasi?

Apa yang dimaksud Supply Chain Collaboration?

Kunci sukses SCM Merupakan fokus dari scm dewasa ini


Synchronized Production Scheduling

Collaborative Product Development


Collaborative Demand Planning

Distributors/ Wholesalers

Collaborative Logistics Planning Transportation services Distribution center services

Logistics Providers

Keuntungan Supply Chain Collaboration

Reduced inventory Increased revenue Lower order management costs Higher Gross Margin Better forecast accuracy Better allocation of promotional budgets

Reduced inventory Lower warehousing costs Lower material acquisition costs Fewer stockout conditions

Lower freight costs Faster and more reliable delivery Lower capital costs Reduced depreciation Lower fixed costs

Improved customer service More efficient use of human resources

Source: Cohen & Roussel

Supply Chain Collaboration Spectrum

Extensive Not Viable
Synchronized Collaboration

The green arrow describes increasing complexity and sophistication of:

Information systems Systems infrastructure Decision support systems Planning mechanisms Information sharing Process understanding

Extent of Collaboration

Coordinated Collaboration

Cooperative Collaboration


Transactional Collaboration

Low Return

Higher levels of collaboration imply the need for both trading partners to have equivalent (or close) levels of supply chain maturity Synchronized collaboration demands joint planning, R&D and sharing of information and processing models
Movement to real-time customer demand information throughout the supply chain

Many Number of Relationships


Source: Cohen & Roussel

Successful Supply Chain Collaboration

Cobalah berkolaborasi internal sebelum berkolaborasi eksternal Bantu partner anda untuk bekerjasa dengan anda Share the savings Start small (a limited number of selected partners) and stay focused on what you want to achieve in the collaboration Perbaiki level kemampuan IT menjadi tingkat IT partner. Put a comprehensive metrics program in place that allows you to monitor your partners performance Make sure people are kept part of the equation
Systems do not replace people Make sure your organization is populated with competent professionals whove done this before

Emerging Best Practices in SCM Strategy