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Types of communication

Types of Communication
Communication in organization can be studied under A. Channel or Network 1)Formal and 2) Informal. B. Direction of Message 1) Downward (2) Upward 3) Horizontal 4)Diagonal C. Method of Expression :1)Oral 2)Written3)Gestural

Channels of Communication
Formal Communication It refers to the

official communication which takes place following the chain of command in the organization.

Advantages of Formal Communication

1)Orderly Flow of Information
2)Identified Source 3)Control 4)Answerability for Actions 5)Justification of authority 6)Authentic Information

Disadvantages of Formal Communication

1)Time consuming

2)Lack of Personal Touch

3)Distortion 4) Expensive

Informal Communication
Communication between individuals and groups which are not officially recognised.

Grapevine has the following features

1.It transmits in every direction

2.Grapevine is selective with regard to the

person who receives the information. 3.Grapevine is based on people rather than task. 4.Grapevine does not follow a fixed pattern.

5)Grapevine generally occurs orally.

6)Grapevine extends beyond the formal

hierarchy system of an organization. It can occur off the job.

Channels of Communication
Advantages of Informal Communication

1)Social Relations
2)Need satisfaction 3)Speed 4)Feedback 5)Better Human Relations

Channels of Communication
Disadvantages of Informal Communication 1.Incomplete Information 2.Distortion 3.Unrealiability 4.Lack of Authenticity 5.Problem in Fixing Responsibility

Types of Grapevine
Single Strand Network

Gossip Network
Probability network Cluster

Direction or Flow of Communication

Downward communication

Upward communication
Horizontal communication Diagonal communication

Downward Communication

Downward communication
Merits 1)Mission and Goals 2)Plans and Policies 3)Duty and authority 4)Job satisfaction Limitations 1.Distortion 2.Incomplete Information 3.Time Consuming 4.Filteration of Information.

Upward Communication

Upward Communication

Media of upward Communication

1.Suggestion System.

2.Grievance Procedure .
3.Open-door Policy. 4.Questionnaries 5.Ombudsperson

Merits of Upward Communication


Creative Ideas
Better Relations Increased Motivation Overcome Resistance to Change

Limitations of upward communication

Fear and Apprehensions

Time Consuming Inattention by Superiors Low Morale.

Horizontal or Lateral Communication

It refers to the transmission of information

among persons of the same level.

Horizontal or Lateral Communication

Merits of Horizontal communication

It speeds up the flow of work in the organization It facilitates problem-solving among members at

the same level and brings about co-ordination.

It helps in reviewing activities assigned to people

working at identical positions.

It develops mutual trust and confidence. It relieves top managers burden of solving

problems of lower levels.

Limitations of Horizontal Communication

1.Managers lack knowledge of other

functional areas. 2.Personal likes and dislikes among different work group can obstruct free flow of information. 3. Differences in perception and attitudes of functional heads can be counter productive in horizontal communication.

Diagonal Communication
Diagonal communication cuts across different

functions and level in an organization.

Hello lieutenant,patroling ecxz speaking sir,Im rite here at the crime scene

Helo, officer,tell me, is there an emergency?

Diagonal communication occurs between

officers who are at different levels of authority and who serve under different commands.

This type of communication is common in

tactical situations which require the quick transfer of information or advice

Diagonal communication is usually verbal.

It is a most direct and fastest method of communication.

It can destroy lines of authority and formal

chains of command.

It can lead to conflicting orders and hence to

further confusion