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The World Wide Web is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and

navigate between them using hyperlinks.

Tim Berners-Lee -- used concepts from earlier hypertext systems and wrote a proposal in March 1989 for what would eventually become the World Wide Web (WWW)

Robert Cailliau --In 1990, they proposed using "Hyper Text [...] to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will" -- this was released in December


To be a pool of human knowledge which would allow collaborators in remote sites to share their ideas and all aspects of a common project The idea of a boundless information world in which all items have a reference by which they can be retrieved The address system (URI) which the project implemented to make this world possible, despite many different protocols

A network protocol (HTTP) used by native W3 servers giving performance and features not otherwise available
A markup language (HTML) used for the transmission of basic things such as text, menus and simple on-line help information across the net


Viewing a web page on the World Wide Web normally begins either by typing the URL of the page into a web browser, or by following a hyperlink to that page or resource. ex -


First, the server-name portion of the URL is resolved into an IP address , using the DNS. The browser then requests the resource by sending an HTTP request to the Web server at that particular address. While receiving these files from the web server, browsers may progressively render the page onto the screen as specified by its HTML, CSS, and other web languages. Any images and other resources are incorporated to produce the on-screen web page that the user sees.


Request SimpleRequest FullRequest ProtocolVersion

= = = =

SimpleRequest | Full Request GET <uri> Method URI ProtocolVersion HTTP/1.0



uniform resource identifier


URI -- Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of

characters used to identify or name a resource on the Internet

ex "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/URI#Examples_of_URI_referen ces ("httpspecifies the 'scheme' name, "en.wikipedia.org" is the 'authority', "/wiki/URI" the 'path' pointing to this article, and "#Examples_of_URI_references" is a 'fragment' pointing to this section.)

Protocol Version
The Protocol/Version field defines the format of the rest of the request.


Method field indicates the method to be performed on the object identified by the URL ex- GET SHOWMETHOD PUT DELETE

GET :- means retrieve whatever data is identified by the URI

SHOWMETHOD: - Returns a description (perhaps a form) for a given method when applied to the given object.

PUT: - specifies that the data in the body section is to be stored under the supplied URL. The URL must already exist. The new content of the document are the data part of the request. POST and REPLY should be used for creating new documents.

DELETE: - Requests that the server delete the information corresponding to the given URL. After a successful DELETE method, the URL becomes invalid for any future methods.


The information, in the form of a text record, that a users browser sends to a Web server containing the details of what the browser wants and will accept back from the server.
The request header also contains the type, version and capabilities of the browser that is making the request so that server returns compatible data.
Upon receipt of the request header, the server will return an HTTP response header to the client that is attached to the file(s) being sent.

Example :

From Accept Type parameters


From :- In Internet mail format, this gives the name of the requesting user. This field may be used for logging purposes and an insecure form of access protection.

The interpretation of this field is that the request is being performed on behalf of the person given, who accepts responsibility for the method performed.


This field contains a semicolon-separated list of representation schemes which will be accepted in the response to this request.
Example :- Accept: text/plain, text/html


Parameters on the content type are extremely useful for describing resolutions, colour depths, etc.

They will allow a client to specify in the Accept: field the resolution of its device.
This may allow the server to economise greatly on transmission time by reducing the resolution of an image

Example : orkut application


This optional header field allows the client to specify, for the server's benefit, the address ( URI ) of the document (or element within the document) from which the URI in the request was obtained.

This allows a server to generate lists of back-links to documents, for interest, logging, etc. It allows bad links to be traced for maintenance.

If a partial URI is given, then it should be parsed relative to the URI of the object of the request. Example:

Object Body The content of an object is sent (depending on the method) with the request and/or the reply.


Deep linking on the World Wide Web, is making a hyperlink that points to a specific page or image on another website, instead of that website's main or home page. Such links are called deep links.

Ex :- http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/sports/cricket/topstories/India-to-open-2011-World-Cup-campaign-againstBangladesh/articleshow/5212795.cms


Some commercial websites object to other sites making deep links into their content either because it bypasses advertising on their main pages, passes off their content as that of the linker or, like The Wall Street Journal, they charge users for permanently-valid links.


Websites which are built on web technologies such as Adobe Flash and AJAX often do not support deep linking. This can result in usability problems for people visiting such websites. For example, visitors to these websites may be unable to save bookmarks to individual pages or states of the site, web browser forward and back buttons may not work as expected, and use of the browser's refresh button may return the user to the initial page.


pro Internet explorer Integrated with OS, faster. con Integrated with OS, more vulnerable to viruses. More complex, deeper menus, not always standard. Not quite as fast for some functions on Windows.

More sites ensure IE compliant first, some use MS multi-media software. Mozilla firefox Open source. Good bookmark functionality. Multi-platform. Available email (Thunderbird), newsgroups, and IRC clients

Less widely used on Windows.


The key elements of surfing are described in the following sections: Navigation Bookmarks Frames


The Logic of Boolean Algebra the boolean operators AND, OR, and NOT



A cookie is a small text file stored by a web site on your computer to keep track of information about your browsing on that site. A simple example is shown below:

# Example Cookie # Recorded 2000-10-12 username=indra password=treeline8 frames=yes

Some of the reasons web sites use cookies are described below: Customization. Some sites use cookies to record your surfing patterns, and then optimize the information the site subsequently presents. For example, a search site may present you with advertising that reflects your interests based on the keywords you search for. Distribution. One of the key reasons web sites use cookies is to distribute the information storage. A cookie takes up a small amount of space on an individual computer, but would take up a very large amount of space if they all had to be stored back on a web site's server.

Security. If a cookie was stored on a web site, then it can be accessed by anyone with access to that web site. However, when the cookie is stored on your computer, then it can't be accessed by hackers that break into the web site.

Privacy. If a cookie was stored on a web site, then you would have to identify yourself somehow so the site would know which cookie to give you. But when the cookie is stored on your computer, then the web site simply uses whatever cookie it finds without requiring disclosure of your identity.


we can prevent cookies from being used on your computer at all, or manage them with a custom application. You can set your browser to reject cookies as follows. Internet Explorer: Tools / Internet Options / Security - Set security level to "High", or Custom level / Cookies / Disable

Mozilla Firefox: Tools / Options / Privacy / Cookies - Uncheck "Allow sites to set cookies"


Ease of use.

Universal access.

Search capabilities.



Users can opt-in to features in browsers to clear their personal histories locally and block some cookies and advertising networks but they are still tracked in websites' server logs. Security
Large security vendors like McAfee already design governance and compliance suites to meet post-9/11 regulations, and some, like Finjan have recommended active real-time inspection of code and all content regardless of its source. Some have argued that for enterprise to see security as a business opportunity rather than a cost center


Standards Recommendations for markup languages, especially HTML and XHTML, from the W3C. These define the structure and interpretation of hypertext documents. Recommendations for stylesheets, especially CSS, from the W3C. Standards for ECMA Script (usually in the form of JavaScript),

Recommendations for the Document Object Model, from W3C.


Access to the Web is for everyone regardless of disability including visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, and neurological. Accessibility features also help others with temporary disabilities like a broken arm and an ageing population as their abilities change. The Web is used for receiving information as well as providing information and interacting with society, making it essential that the Web be accessible in order to provide equal access and equal opportunity to people with disabilities.


Speed issues Web response times are: 0.1 second (one tenth of a second). Ideal response time. The user doesn't sense any interruption. 1 second. Highest acceptable response time. Download times above 1 second interrupt the user experience.

10 seconds. Unacceptable response time. The user experience is interrupted and the user is likely to leave the site or system.

Caching If a user revisits a Web page after only a short interval, the page data may not need to be re-obtained from the source Web server.

Almost all web browsers cache recently obtained data, usually on the local hard drive.
HTTP requests sent by a browser will usually only ask for data that has chIf the locally cached data are still current, it will be reused. Caching helps reduce the amount of Web traffic on the Internet.