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Motion and Meters/Sec.

Velocity
Ft. Per Second

Displacement in Time and Space

MPH

Machines, Mechanisms and Motion are Intimately Related Work = Force x Distance
Machines Produce Work by Transforming Energy or Changing the Direction or Distance Through Which a Force Acts

Motion or Movement is a Change In Position Called Displacement


Position A

10 ft.
Position B

Speed is the Rate of Displacement


Distance 1 ft 1 Speed = = = 1 / sec ft Time 1 sec 1
10 ft.
Seconds Position A Position B 0

10

Velocity is the Rate of Displacement in a Specified Direction


0

Distance 1 ft 1 Speed = = = 1 / sec ft Time 1 sec 1


10

10 ft.
Position A
We st Sou th No rth

Seconds Position B

Eas t

Speed Equations
An objects speed is a function of Displacement (change in position) and Time (change in time between positions)

d (d 1 d1) Speed = t (t 1 t1)

Speed Equations
A simple and useful version of the Speed Equation Looks Like This

Distance Speed = Time

If You Want to Know the Distance Traveled


Distance Speed = Time
You Can Rewrite the Equation Like This

Distance = Speed Time

Position-Time Graphs
Time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Distance 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Distance in Feet 200 160 120 80

Distance (ft) Vs. Time (sec.)

40

4 5 6 7 Time in Seconds

Describes the Rate of Change in Position of an Object Over Time

Position-Time Graph
Rise Slope = Run
Distance in Feet 200 160 120 80

Distance (ft) Vs. Time (sec.)

Rise Run
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time in Seconds 8 9

40

Distance Speed = Time

The Slope is Equivalent to the Average Speed

Position-Time Graph
Distance 200 Speed = Time

Distance (ft) Vs. Time (sec.)

160 120 80

t = 1sec. 1
1ft 1 Speed = 1 sec.

d = 1ft 1

Distance in Feet

Rise 80 ft. Run 4 sec. 3 4 5 6 7 Time in Seconds

40

Speed = 20ft/sec.

How Fast is this Object Moving?

Position-Time Graph
The constant slope indicates that the speed of the object remains constant
200 160 Distance in Feet 120 80

Distance (ft) Vs. Time (sec.)

40

4 5 6 7 Time in Seconds

The Slope of this Line Remains Constant Throughout the Graph

Position-Time Graph
200

Distance (ft) Vs. Time (sec.) C

Distance in Feet

The Speed of This Object Changes Over Time

160 120 80

The Object is Accelerating

40

B 0 1 2 A 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Time in Seconds

Speed @A = 5 ft/sec

Speed @B = 24 ft/sec

Speed @C = 50 ft/sec

Slope = Velocity

Average Speed Time Graphs


50
Speed in ft/second

40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time in Seconds 8 9

Describes the speed of an object at specific times and the total displacement but NOT the Direction
Study this graph and answer the questions that follow

Average Speed Time Graphs


50
Speed in ft/second

40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time in Seconds 8 9

How fast was this thing moving, 5 Seconds after it began to move?
Hint: It began moving after 1 second

Average Speed Time Graphs


50
Speed in ft/second

40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time in Seconds 8 9

Answer: 40 ft/second

Average Speed Time Graphs


50
Speed in ft/second

40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time in Seconds 8 9

What was the total Displacement of this thing?


How far did the thing go during the whole trip?

Average Speed Time Graphs


50
Speed in ft/second

40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time in Seconds 8 9

Answer: This Thing Traveled a total of 175 Feet


Distance = Speed x Time. Therefore the total distance is the sum of the areas of each of the 5 rectangles! Try it.It works.

Another Difference Between Speed and Velocity


Scalar Quantities (One Number)
One Gallon Distance Speed (MPH) Voltage

Vector Quantities (More Than One Number)


Machine Screw Specification
(tpi,length,diameter,head style)

Pant Sizes (Waist and Length) Velocity (Speed and Direction)

Speed is a Scalar Quantity

Velocity is a Vector Quantity

Vectors Graphically Describe DIRECTION and MAGNITUDE


One Foot/sec

One Foot/sec

One Foot/sec

3 Feet/sec And You can Add and subtract Them!

Scaling Vectors
6 MPH 6 Inches 6 Centimeters

A Vector Describing a Velocity of 6 MPH is Drawn With a Length of 6 Units The Length of a Vector is Proportional to Its Magnitude

Vectors Can Describe Displacement


10 miles East

Point B

Total Displacement
12.2 miles North East of the Starting Position
d lle a sc i ant ult s Re the

Point C

7 miles North

B2

Point A

ack Bl e The magnitude of the Resultant Th Vector is found using the Pythagorean Theorem.

ine dL she Da

A2 C2

A2 + B2 = C2

Now.Get Moving!

The End