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What is a Matrix?

A matrix is a set of elements, organized into

rows and columns
(

11 10
01 00
a a
a a
n columns
m rows
mn matrix is a matrix of m rows and n columns with
an order (mxn).
Basic Operations
(

+ +
+ +
=
(

+
(

h d g c
f b e a
h g
f e
d c
b a
(

=
(

h d g c
f b e a
h g
f e
d c
b a
Just subtract elements
A
Matrix arithmetic (operations)
mn
and B
mn

must have the same numbers of rows and
columns

A
mn
+ B
mn
= C
mn
= [a
i,j
+ b
i,j
]
(
(
(

=
3 1
2 0
1 1
2 , 3
A
(
(
(

=
3 2
6 1
5 4
2 , 3
B
(
(
(

= +
0 3
8 1
6 5
2 , 3 2 , 3
B A
Matrix subtraction is done similarly
Basic Operations
Multiplication
(

+ +
+ +
=
(

dh cf dg ce
bh af bg ae
h g
f e
d c
b a
Multiply each row
by each column
An mn can be multiplied by an np
matrix to yield an mp result
Matrix arithmetic (operations)
Example
14 3 4 1 0 2 1
1 , 3 3 , 1 1 , 2 2 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1
= + + = + + = b a b a b a c
(
(
(

=
2 2 0
0 1 3
1 1 2
4 0 1
3 , 4
A
(
(

=
0 3
1 1
4 2
2 , 3
B
(
(
(

= =
2 8
13 7
9 8
4 14
2 , 4
C AB
4 0 4 1 0 4 1
2 , 3 3 , 1 2 , 2 2 , 1 2 , 1 1 , 1 2 , 1
= + + = + + = b a b a b a c
8 3 1 1 1 2 2
1 , 3 3 , 2 1 , 2 2 , 2 1 , 1 1 , 2 1 , 2
= + + = + + = b a b a b a c
Matrix Multiplication
Basic Operations
Transpose: Swap rows with columns
(
(
(

=
i h g
f e d
c b a
M
(
(
(

=
i f c
h e b
g d a
M
T
(
(
(

=
z
y
x
V | | z y x V
T
=
(

1 0
0 1
Identity matrix: Square matrix with 1s on the diagonal
and zeros everywhere else
2 x 2 identity matrix
(
(
(

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
3 x 3 identity matrix
The identity matrix is to matrix multiplication as
___ is to regular multiplication!!!!
1
Identity Matrix
Multiply:

(

1 0
0 1
(

4 3
2 5
=
(

4 3
2 5
(

1 0
0 1
(

4 3
2 5
=
(

4 3
2 5
So, the identity matrix multiplied by any matrix
lets the any matrix keep its identity!
Mathematically, IA = A and AI = A !!
The 22 matrix,

`
has determinant

Determinant
4 5
2 3

Notice the different symbol:

the straight lines tell you to
find the determinant!!
(3 * 4)
-
(-5 * 2)
12 - (-10)
22
=
4 5
2 3

=
=
Example of 2 X 2 matrix
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
a b c
a b c
a b c
=
+
2 2
1
3 3
b c
a
b c
1 1
2
3 3
b c
a
b c
1 1
3
2 2
b c
a
b c
= ( )
1 2 3 3 2
a b c b c

+
( )
2 1 3 3 1
a bc b c
( )
3 1 2 2 1
a bc b c
= ( )
1 2 3 3 2
a b c b c
+ +
( )
2 1 3 3 1
( 1) a bc b c
( )
3 1 2 2 1
a bc b c
=
1 1
a A
+ +
2 2
a A
3 3
a A
Example of 3X3 matrix
2 3
5
1 4
5 1 2
3 2 3
8 1 4

=
2 3
5
1 4
5 1 2
3 2 3
8 1 4

=
1 2
( 3)
1 4

2 3
5
1 4
5 1 2
3 2 3
8 1 4

=
1 2
( 3)
1 4

1 2
8
2 3

+
2 3
5
1 4
5 1 2
3 2 3
8 1 4

=
1 2
( 3)
1 4

1 2
8
2 3

+
=
( )
5 8 ( 3)
( )
( 3) 4 2 +
( )
8 3 ( 4)
2 3
5
1 4
5 1 2
3 2 3
8 1 4

=
1 2
( 3)
1 4

1 2
8
2 3

+
=
( )
5 8 ( 3)
( )
( 3) 4 2 +
( )
8 3 ( 4)
=
55

( 6)
+
56
2 3
5
1 4
5 1 2
3 2 3
8 1 4

=
1 2
( 3)
1 4

1 2
8
2 3

+
=
( )
5 8 ( 3)
( )
( 3) 4 2 +
( )
8 3 ( 4)
=
55

( 6)
+
56
=
117
Example-
This rule can be used to calculate solutions of

where A is a square matrix.
Let A be an n x n matrix. The system of equations

has a unique solution if and only if .
Cramers Rule
Let A
k
be the matrix obtained by replacing column k of A by
the column matrix B . Then

Example:
Solve the following equations:-

x + 3 y + 3z = 1;
x + 4y +3 z = 0;
x + 3y + 4z = 2;

Ans: x = 1, y = -1, z = 1

Illustration

A company produces three products every day. Their total
Production on a certain day is 45 tons. It is found that the
production of third product exceeds the production of first
product by 8 tons while the total production of first and third
product is twice the production of second product. Determine
the production level of each product using cramers rule.

Ans: 11, 15, 19
Example:

The ABC shipping company charges \$2.90 for all
packages weighing less than or equal to 5 lbs, \$5.20
for packages weighing more than 5 lbs and less than
10 lbs, and \$8.00 for all packages weighing 10 lbs. or
more. The number of packages weighing 5 lbs or less
is 50% more than the number of packages weighing 10
lbs or more. One day shipping charges for 300 orders
was \$1,508. Find the number of packages in each
category.
Sol:
x = pkgs less or equal to 5 lbs
y = pkgs between 5 and 10 lbs
z = pkgs 10 lbs or more

x + y + z = 300
2.9x + 5.2y + 8z = 1508
x = 1.5z which changes to x - 1.5z = 0

D (determinant )
=
5 . 1 0 1
8 2 . 5 9 . 2
1 1 1