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Network Media

• Links that connect nodes

• Choice impacts
– Speed
– Security
– Size
Transmission Media
• conducted or guided media
 use a conductor such as a wire or a fiber optic cable to
move the signal from sender to receiver
– wireless or unguided media
 use radio waves of different frequencies and do not
need a wire or cable conductor to transmit signals
Guided Transmission Data

• Twisted Pair
• Coaxial Cable
• Fiber Optics
Wire Based Media
• Twisted-pair cabling
– Most common LAN
– Called Cat5 or
– Four pairs of copper
cable twisted
– May be shielded from
– Speeds range from
1 Mbps to 1,000 Mbps
Wire Based Media
• Coaxial cable
– Similar to cable TV wire
– One wire runs through cable
– Shielded from interference
– Speeds up to 10 Mbps
– Nearly obsolete
Coaxial Cable
A coaxial cable.
Wire Based Media
• Fiber-optic cable
– Data is transmitted
with light pulses
– Glass strand instead
of cable
– Immune to
– Very secure
– Hard to work with
– Speeds up to
100 Gbps
Wireless Media
• Data transmitted through the air
• LANs use radio waves
• WANs use microwave signals
• Easy to setup
• Difficult to secure
Network Hardware
• Network interface cards
– Network adapter
– Connects node to the media
– Unique Machine Access Code (MAC)
Network Hardware
• Network linking devices
– Connect nodes in the network
– Cable runs from node to device
– Crossover cable connects two computers
Network Hardware
• Hubs
– Center of a star network
– All nodes receive transmitted packets
– Slow and insecure
Network Hardware
• Switches
– Replacement for hubs
– Only intended node receives transmission
– Fast and secure
Network Hardware
• Bridge
– Connects two or more LANs together
– Packets sent to remote LAN cross
• Other packets do not cross
– Segments the network on MAC addresses
Network Hardware
• Router
– Connects two or more LANs together
– Packets sent to remote LAN cross
– Network is segmented by IP address
– Connect internal networks to the Internet
– Need configured before installation
Network Hardware
• Gateway
– Connects two dissimilar networks
– Connects coax to twisted pair
– Most gateways contained in other devices
Network Cabling
• Cabling specifications
– Bandwidth measures cable speed
• Typically measured in Mbps
– Maximum cable length
– Connector describes the type of plug
Network Cabling
• Ethernet
– Very popular cabling technology
– 10 Base T, 10Base2, 10Base5
– Maximum bandwidth 10 Mbps
– Maximum distances100 to 500 meters
Network Cabling
• Fast Ethernet
– Newer version of Ethernet
– Bandwidth is 100 Mbps
– Uses Cat5 or greater cable
• Sometimes called 100Base T
– Requires a switch
Network Cabling
• Gigabit Ethernet
– High bandwidth version of Ethernet
– 1 to 10 Gbps
– Cat 5 or fiber optic cable
– Video applications
Network Protocols
• Language of the network
– Rules of communication
– Error resolution
– Defines collision and collision recovery
– Size of packet
– Naming rules for computers
Network Protocols
– Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
– Most popular protocol
– Machines assigned a name of 4 numbers
• IP address
• is the White House’s web site
– Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
• Simplifies assignment of IP addresses
– Required for Internet access
The Internet
• The internet
– A network of networks
– The internet transmits data from one
computer (called a host) to another
• Internet networks
– Linked networks that work much the same
way -- they pass data around in packets,
each of which carries the addresses of its
sender and receiver
History Of Internet
Advanced Research Projects Agency
(ARPA) of the U.S. Department of
Defense connected computers at
universities and defense contractors,
creating ARPANET
How the Internet Works
• Transport control protocol (TCP)
– A protocol that operates at the transport layer and
is used in combination with IP by most Internet
• Backbone
– An Internet high-speed, long distance
communications links (like a bus; wire that
connects nodes)
• Uniform resource locator (URL)
– An assigned address on the Internet for each
– E.g., http://www.yorku.ca/
World Wide Web (“the Web”)
• Enables users to view specially
formatted documents, called Web
pages, on the Internet
Web pages
• Contain text, graphics, and multimedia
objects such as video, audio, or
• Display navigational tools
Web browser
• Software program that enables you to
access the Web
Two most popular Web browsers

• Microsoft Internet Explorer

• Netscape Navigator
Navigating the Web
• Moving from one Web page to another
or from one Web site to another
Hypertext Markup Language

Web page format

Uniform resource locator, or URL

Web page address

• terms in address:
• http://www.nadn.navy.mil

• http: Hypertext Transport Protocol

• // unique address to follow
• “URL“ Universal Resource Location

• // ID of SITE URL .
• SUFFIX . “mil” “ac” “edu” “com”
• that describes type of site
• may contain COUNTRY CODE
• I.e., . “jp” “uk” “ za”
. that relates where site is located
Ways to Access a URL
• Type the URL in a browser’s address
• Click a hyperlink that is linked to that
• Choose a URL stored in your browser’s
Favorites or Bookmarks list
Domain Affiliations
Domain Affiliations
arts cultural and entertainment activities
com business organizations
edu educational sites
firm businesses and firms
gov government sites
info information service providers
mil military sites
nom individuals
net networking organizations
org organizations
rec recreational activities
store businesses offering goods for purchase
web entities related to World Wide Web activities
net networking organizations
Internet Service Providers
• Internet service provider (ISP)
– Any company that provides individuals or
companies with access to the Internet
– Thousands of providers including large
communications companies
– Need an account with the ISP and
software that links with TCP/IP
Internet Services
– E-mail
– Telnet
– Usenet and newsgroups
– Chat rooms
– Internet phone
– Internet videoconferencing
Internet Services
• Internet telephony
– Also called voice-over-IP (VOIP)
• Technology that enables network managers to
route phone calls and fax transmissions over
the same network they use for data
Internet telephony is a category of hardware and software that
enables people to use the Internet as the transmission medium for
telephone calls. For users who have free, or fixed-price, Internet
access, Internet telephony software essentially provides free
telephone calls anywhere in the world. To date, however, Internet
telephony does not offer the same quality of telephone service as
direct telephone connections.
There are many Internet telephony applications available. Some,
like CoolTalk and NetMeeting, come bundled with popular Web
browsers. Others are stand-alone products. Internet telephony
products are sometimes called IP telephony, Voice over the Internet
(VOI) or Voice over IP (VOIP) products.
Search Engines
• Search engines
– A search tool for the Web (like card
catalogs in libraries)
– E.g.,
Altavista http://www.altavista.digital.com
Excite http://www.excite.com
Galaxy http://www.einet.net
Hotbot http://www.hotbot.com
Infoseek http://www.infoseek.com
Lycos http://www.lycos.com
Webcrawler http://www.webcrawler.com
Yahoo! http://www.yahoo.com
Google http://www.google.com
Intranets and Extranets
• Intranet
• An internal corporate network built using
Internet and World Wide Web standards and
products that allows employees of an
organization to gain access to corporate
• Extranet
• A network based on Web technologies that
links selected resources of the intranet of a
company with its customers, suppliers, or other
business partners
A network based on TCP/IP protocols (an internet) belonging to
an organization, usually a corporation, accessible only by the
organization's members, employees, or others with authorization.
An intranet's Web sites look and act just like any other Web
sites, but the firewall surrounding an intranet fends off
unauthorized access.
Like the Internet itself, intranets are used to share information.
Secure intranets are now the fastest-growing segment of the
Internet because they are much less expensive to build and
manage than private networks based on proprietary protocols.
A new buzzword that refers to an intranet that is partially
accessible to authorized outsiders. Whereas an intranet resides
behind a firewall and is accessible only to people who are
members of the same company or organization, an extranet
provides various levels of accessibility to outsiders. You can
access an extranet only if you have a valid username and
password, and your identity determines which parts of the
extranet you can view.
Extranets are becoming a very popular means for business
partners to exchange information.
Business Use of the Web

• Uses:
– Applications, E-mail, Product Display, Catalogs,
Order placement
• Products people are likely to buy on the Web
Software 77%
Books 67%
CDs 64%
Computer hardware 63%
Airline tickets 61%
Magazine subscriptions 53%
Concert/theater tickets 48%
Flowers 45%