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FIRE AND EXPLOSION

HAZARDS AND
PROTECTION
Michael Liu
Dominic Malicsi
Mark Mariano
Mary Irene Pollicar
FIRE

- combustion process
- Chemical reaction between
fuel, oxygen, and ignition
sources
- Rapid pressure rise results to
explosion
Fire Triangle

• illustrates the three elements


needed to ignite and burn
• Removing one of the elements
will extinguish fire
Fire Tetrahedron

• Chain or chemical reaction is


needed to sustain fire
• Water cannot stop fires
involving metals due to its role
in metal combustion (class-D
fires)
FUEL
- Hydrocarbons in gaseous state
• alkane, alkene, alkyne
• influence state of matter, vapor
pressure, vapor density, flash
point, and boiling point
• Flammability is affected by
halogens
- Flash point – minimum
temperature for flammable
liquid to ignite
Example: Presence of Halogen

COMPO UND FLAM MA BIL IT Y


Methane (CH4) Highly Flammable

Chloromethane Flammable
(CH3Cl)
Dichloromethane Less Flammable
(CH2Cl2)
Chloroform (CHCl3) Not Flammable

Carbon Tetrachloride Fire Extinguisher


(CCl4)
NPFA Flammable and Combustible Liquid
Classifications
CLASS DEFINIT ION
Flammable IA Flash Point < 73°F,
Boiling Point < 100°F
Flammable IB Flash Point < 73°F,
Boiling Point >= 100°F
Flammable IC 73°F < Flash Point <
100°F
Combustible II 100°F < Flash Point <
140°F
Combustible IIIA 140°F < Flash Point <
200°F
Combustible IIIB Flash Point >= 200°F
FLAMMABLE LIMITS

- Maximum gas or vapor in air w/o


occurring FLAME
PROPAGATION
- Upper and Lower Flammable
Limits (UFL, LFL)
FLAMMABLE
PROPAGATION
- Reproduction of flames
- Vapor-oxygen ratio
- Mixture above UFL produce
explosion
- Mixture below LFL produce no
ignition
- Inert gases, Carbon Dioxide and
Steam can stop fire
IGNITON SOURCES
- Electric Sparks
- Smoking and Matches
- Frictional Heat
- Hot Surfaces
- Overheated Materials
- Open Flames
- Spontaneous Heating
- Welding and Cutting
- Combustion Particles
NFPA 704 SYSTEM FOR HAZARD
IDENTIFICATION

Red
Flammability
0-4

Blue Health Yellow


0-4 Reactivity
0-4

White
Special
0-4
EXPLOSIVE HAZARDS

• Rapid oxidation
• Causes structural damage
• Size of the vessel does not
affect the magnitude
FLAMMABLE VAPOR
CLOUDS
• Results from release flammable
liquid
• Flammability region depends on
the vapor release state
• Occurs due to leaking gas-
liquids pipelines
DUST EXPLOSION

• Solid particles ≤ 10μm


• If combustible, flammable dust-
air is formed
• Enormous energy release
• Moisture can prevent ignition
Spontaneous
Combustion
• Chemical process of oxidation –
an exothermic reaction, where
considerable heat is generated.
• Examples: burning of flammable
& combustible fuels.
Spontaneous
Combustion
• Ignition happens when..
heat generation rate > the heat
removal rate
Products of Combustion

• 4 Types of products of
Combustion:

1. Flame
2. Heat
3. Fire gases
4. Smoke
Products of Combustion

Usually produced in fire:

• Carbon dioxide
• Carbon Monoxide
Products of Combustion

• Water

• Smoke
Products of Combustion

• Hazardous fire gasses may


include:
• Sulfur dioxide
• Nitrogen dioxide
• Hydrogen chloride
• Hydrogen sulfide
• Hydrogen cyanide
• ammonia
Fundamentals of Fire
Prevention
• The first principle of fire control
is to prevent the formulation of
a fuel-air mixture that is within
the appropriate flammable
limits.
• Effective fire prevention must
consider all possible potential
fire causes and provide design
& operating features to reduce
Fundamentals of Fire
Prevention
• Large industrial fires often
begin with an explosion.
• In fire prevention at facilities
that process large quantities of
flammable materials, a great
deal of emphasis should be
placed on preventing
explosions, thereby preventing
a resultant fire.
Fundamentals of Fire
Prevention
• An explosion produces an
outward pressure waves.
• The damage effects are
influenced by the peak
overpressures, measured in
pounds per square inch gauge.
Fundamentals of Fire
Prevention
• Detonations usually involve
unstable or highly reactive
materials. The pressure wave
from a detonation is much
higher, ranging up to 50,000 atm
or more.
Fundamentals of Fire
Prevention
• Disastrous results of detonation
can be minimized by carefully
controlling and limiting the
quantities of the unstable
materials involved.
System Design and
Layout
• Once a fire is initiated it may
spread through a combination of
factors such as heat transfer,
direct burning and the release
of flammable vapor or liquid
may contribute to spreading.
• Proper selection of construction
materials can reduce the
damage from an industrial fire
System Design and
Layout
• If combustibles are avoided as
construction materials, less fuel is
available to sustain fire.
• Fire resistant materials of construction
provide additional time to control and
extinguish the fire.
• Commonly used in many critical
construction applications.
ex: control rooms, enclosed exit
stairways, walls and barriers that
separate hazardous storage and
process areas
System Design and
Layout
• Water. A reliable water supply
and piping distribution system
must be capable of delivering
water to the fire protection
equipment and system.
FIRE DETECTION AND
CONTROL
• Early detection

• Must be planned for

• Minimize injury and property damage

• Detection through fastest and most


reliable means
• Isolate equipment / processes
that are hazards

• Proper location of detectors


(arrangement, distance
limitations, point of origin, air
movement pattern)
TYPES OF FIRE
DETECTORS
• Smoke detectors – concentration

• Heat detectors – temperature

• Flame detectors – light spectrum

• Fire gas detector - combustion


FIRE DETECTION AND
ALARM DEVICES
• Horns and bells

• Light

• Control system
STORAGE TANKS

• Vapor reduction is the best fire


safety technique

• Potential for flammable


emissions is reduced

• Nitrogen as an insulation and


vapor space
TYPES OF STORAGE
TANKS
• Standard cone roof tank

• Floating roof tank – eliminates


large vapor space that is
present

• Floating diaphragm tank


• Best is Floating roof tank

• Disadvantage is potential leaks


around seal

• Therefore higher maintenance


FIRE EXTINGUISHMENT

• Water is most preferred fire


extinguisher

• Smaller water particles has


better heat absorption (more
water per volume)

• Water spray / steam


TECHNICAL SPECS

• Water supply for a minimum of 4 hrs

• Water line made of cast iron steel


pipe with 175 – 225 psig cold
pressure design

• Centrifugal pumps – constant


pressure and flow rate
DISADVANTAGE OF
WATER
• Damage products, materials,
equipments

• Electrical conductivity
CARBON DIOXIDE

• Dilute air-vapor mixture below


flammable limit
• Stored in cylinders
• Lasts for years
• Minimal maintenance
• Local application or total
flooding
DISADVANTAGE OF CO2

• May cause freezing


• Ineffective for class A fires
• Class B fires flashback
• Effective only in contained
areas
• Loss of consciousness /
possible death when air
concentration reaches 35%
ADVANTAGES OF CO2

• Will not conduct electricity

• Will not harm sensitive


electrical equipments

• Vaporizes w/o residue


DRY CHEMICALS

• Sodium Bicarbonate
• Potassium Bicarbonate
• Potassium Oxalate
• Discharges by compressed CO2
or N2
• Most effective for electrical
hazards
• Leaves no residue
FOAMS
• Effective extinguishing agent for
flammable liquids

• Contains closed cell bubbles that


creates a barrier to separate
flammable liquid from air

• Prevents flammable vapors to meet


with fire
EMERGENCY
PROTECTION SYSTEM
• Fuel, oxygen, ignition source and
chain reaction

• Eliminate one or more

• Fire plugs strategically located

• Looped main water line 4 in diameter


• 500 gal/min at 125 psig
• Min 4 hrs water supply
• Min 150 gal liquid foam supply
• Polyester hose instead of cotton
hose
• Fire truck hoses must be compatible
with fire plugs of facility
• Portable handheld fire extinguishers
Fire Class

• Class A
- SOLIDS such as paper, wood, plastic
etc

• Class B
- FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS and GASES
such as paraffin, petrol, oil etc

• Class C
- energized ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT,
such as appliances, switches, panel
boxes, power tools, and stirrers.
Fire Class
• Class D
- METALS such as aluminium,
magnesium, titanium etc

• Class K
- also known as Kitchen Fire
- kitchen oil
Types of fire Extinguishers

• Water – for Class A only

• CO2 – effective Class B and C


• Dry Chemical (3 types)
• Regular - effective on Class B and C
• ABC - effective on Class A, B, and C
• Purple K - effective on Class B and C

• Combustible Metal – for Class D


• Wet Chemical – for Class K