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W It is the biological oxidation

and the production of energy


in the form of ATP.



W #espiration is a process shared by
all living cells in the plant, while
photosynthesis is restricted to those
cells containing chloroplasts.
W The overall process of respiration
occurs in three separate but
independent stages called :
$TEP$ OF #E$PI#ATION
1- glycolysis
2- Citric acid cycle
3- #espiratory electron transport
chain
Cverv|ew kesp|rat|on
portance of kesp|rat|on
1. 1. It It releases releases energy energy which which is is consumed consumed in in
various various metabolic metabolic processes processes essential essential for for
plant plant life life and and activates activates cell cell division division..
2. 2. It It converts converts insoluble insoluble food food into into soluble soluble
forms forms..
3. 3. It It liberates liberates CO CO
22
and and plays plays apart apart in in the the
carbon carbon cycle cycle in in nature nature..
4. 4. It converts stored energy into usable It converts stored energy into usable
forms. forms.
The types of respiration
1. Aerobic respiration.
2. Anaerobic respiration.
3. Fermentation.
$ummary of aerobic and an aerobic respiration
It It occurs occurs for for aa
temperate temperate phase phase of of life life..
- -It It is is common common to to all all plant plant
It It is is of of rare rare occurrence occurrence
It It goes goes on on throughout throughout the the
life life ..
Energy Energy is is liberated liberated in in
lesser lesser quantities quantities..
Energy Energy is is liberated liberated in in
larger larger quantities quantities..
It It is is toxic toxic to to plants plants..
The The process process is is not not toxic toxic to to
plants plants..
@e a|n d|fferences between anaerob|c
and aerob|c resp|rat|on
@e a|n d|fferences between aerob|c
and anaerob|c resp|rat|on
It It occurs occurs of of absence absence of of
oxygen oxygen..
Oxygen Oxygen in in utilized utilized
during during the the process process..
The The carbohydrates carbohydrates are are
oxidized oxidized partially partially and and the the
products products are are
CO CO
22
+ C + C
22
HH
55
OH OH
The carbohydrates are The carbohydrates are
oxidized completely into oxidized completely into
CO CO
22
+ H + H
22
O. O.
The The end end products products are are ethyl ethyl
alcohol alcohol and and CO CO22..
The The end end products products are are
carbon carbon dioxide dioxide and and
water water..

2 2 5 2 6 12 6
12
O H 12 CO 6 O H 6 O 6 O H C
2 2 2 2 6 12 6

#elationship between photosynthetic process
in chloroplast and respiration in mitochondria
#espiratory Quotient (#Q)
The type of substrate being
respired may be indicated by
measuring the relative amounts of
O
2
consumed and CO
2
evolved.
.438:20/ 2408
0;4;0/ 2408
#"

W cos|s |s te anaerob|c
catabo|s of gcose t doesnt
req|re oxgen so |s descr|bed as
anaerob|c resp|rat|on (w|tot
a|r) @erefore |t does not |nvove
an react|on |n w|c C2 |s
absorbed or Co2 |s reeased
W cos|s as a net |ed of two A@9
@s gcos|s |s a patwa of ten
react|ons |n w|c one s|xcarbon
oece of gcose |s sp|t (weter
or not oxgen |s present |nto two
|dent|ca treecarbon oeces
eac caed prv|c or prvate
W @e process |nvoves a ser|es of
enze react|ons tat
sccess|ve break sgars sc as
gcose gcose 19 or frctose
set down |nto 3carbon oece
caed prv|c ac|d |n te
ctopas ots|de an organee
1. Phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-
phosphate
2. Isomerisation of glucose-6-phosphate into
fructose-6-phosphate
3. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is broken down to
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxy-
acetone phosphate by aldolase
4. 4. Dihydroxyacetone Dihydroxyacetone phosphate is phosphate is isomerized isomerized to to
glyceraldehyde glyceraldehyde- -33- -phospha phospha te te by the enzyme by the enzyme
triose triose phosphate phosphate isomerase isomerase
5. 5.
|rst Stage of cos|s
$econd $tage of Glycolysis $econd $tage of Glycolysis
11- -Glyceraldehyde Glyceraldehyde- -33- -phosphate is converted to phosphate is converted to
1,3 1,3- -bisphosphoglycerate by the enzyme bisphosphoglycerate by the enzyme
glyceraldehyde glyceraldehyde- -33- -dehydrogenase dehydrogenase
22- -1,3 1,3- -bisphosphoglycerate is converted to 3 bisphosphoglycerate is converted to 3- -
phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate phosphoglycerate
kinase kinase
33 pospogcerate |s converted to 2 pospogcerate |s converted to 2
pospogcerate b te enze pospogcerate b te enze pospogcerate pospogcerate
tase tase
88 22 pospogcerate |s converted to pospogcerate |s converted to
pospoenoprvate pospoenoprvate (99) b te enze (99) b te enze enoase enoase
99 9ospoenoprvate 9ospoenoprvate |s converted to |s converted to prvate prvate b b
te enze te enze prvate prvate k|nase k|nase
Steps of
gcos|s |n
deta|s
19osporat|on of gcose
W cose pospate |s te start|ng
ater|a n a t|sses te
posporat|on of gcose |s
catazed b exok|nase
W cose + A@9 cose
6pospate + AD9
2soer|zat|on of gcose6
pospate
W @e |soer|sat|on of gcose6
pospate to frctose6p |s
catazed b pospogcose
|soerase @e react|on |s read|
revers|be
W cose6pospate
rctose rctose 66 pospate pospate
3posporat|on of frctose
6pospate
W @e |rrevers|be posporat|on
react|on catazed b pospo
rctok|nase
rctose 16 rctose 16 8|s 8|s p + AD9 p + AD9
% %rctose 6 pospate + A@9 rctose 6 pospate + A@9
Cearvage of frctose 16
b|spospate
W Adoase |s a enze w|c ceaves frctose
16 b|sp to d|droxacetone pospate
and gceradedes 3pospate @e
react|on |s revers|be and |s not sb[ect to
regat|on
rctose 16 rctose 16
b|opospate b|opospate
ceradede ceradede 3 p 3 p
D|droxacetone D|droxacetone 3p 3p
soer|zat|on of d|drox acetone
pospate
W @r|ose pospate |soerases catazes
te revers|be |nterconvers|on of
d|droxacetone3pospate to
gceradede 3 p becase
D|droxacetone pospate cannot
proceed frter on te d|rect patwa
of gcos|s
W and st be |soer|zed to
gceradede 3p for frter
etabo|s |n te gcos|s seqence
@|s |soer|zat|on rests |n te
prodct|on of two oeces of
gceradedes pospate fro te
ceavage prodcts of frctose 16
b|spospate
W D|drox acetone
ceradede3p
6Cx|dat|on of gceradede 3
pospate
W @e ox|dat|on of te Adede grop
of gceradede3 pospate to a
carbox grop |s coped to te
attacent of 9| to te carbox
grop @e |g energ pospate
grop at C
1
of 13
d|pospogcerate
Conserves much of the free energy
produced by the oxidation of
gIyceraIdehyde-3 phosphate
W 2ceradede3p + 2NAD+9
2 13 8| pospogcerate +2 NADn + n+
orat|on of A@9 fro 13
d|pospogcerate and AD9
W @e |generg pospate grop of 13
8|pospogcerate |s sed to sntes|ze A@9
fro AD9 |n a react|on catazed b
pospogcerate k|nase
W 13 8|pospogcerate + 2 AD9
W 3pospogcerate + 2 A@9
8S|ft of te pospate grop fro C3 to
C2
W @e s|ft of te pospate grop
fro carbon #3 to carbon #2
catazed b pospogcerotase
|s free revers|be
W 3b|pospogcerate
22 pospogcerate pospogcerate
9Dedrat|on of 2pospogcerate
W @e dedrat|on of 2pospogcerate
catazed b enoase red|str|btes te
energ w|t te 2pospogcerate
oece rest|ng |n te forat|on of
pospoenoprvate (99)
W w|c conta|ns a |generg eno
pospate @e react|on |s revers|be
desp|te te |generg natre of
te prodct
W 2pospogcerate
pospoeno pospoeno prvate prvate
10orat|on of prvate
W @e eq||br| of te react|on
catazed b prvate k|nase |s far to te
r|gt favor|ng te forat|on of A@9
W pospoeno prvate+AD9
9rvate 9rvate + A@9 + A@9
portant fnct|on of gcos|s
@e forat|on of oeces tat
can be reoved fro te
patwa to sntes|ze severa
oter const|tents of w|c te
pant |s coposed
9rodct|on of soe A@9 fro
gcos|s patwa
prodct|on of anoter oece
NADn tat we a conven|ent
cons|der to energ r|c @e energ |n
NADn a be sed |n e|ter of two
was
W |rst NADn a enter te |tocondr|a
were eectron transport react|ons
ox|d|ze |t and convert te energ |nto
te ter|na pospate bond energ of
two A@9s f t|s appens te two NADn
oeces ar|s|ng fro eac exose a
be cons|dered eqa to te read|
ava|abe energ of for A@9 oeces
W Second NADn (or NAD9n) can
be sed as a sorce of eectrons
|n neros anabo|c react|ons
Note that the addition of a phosphate to an Note that the addition of a phosphate to an
ADP to form ATP is called phosphorylation. ADP to form ATP is called phosphorylation.
For every glucose molecule (6C), the net For every glucose molecule (6C), the net
result is the formation of 2 ATP and 2 NADH result is the formation of 2 ATP and 2 NADH
molecules molecules
Input Input Output Output
Glucose Glucose 2 2 pyruvate pyruvate
2 2 NAD NAD
++
2 2 NADH NADH
2 2 ADP ADP 2 2 ATP ATP
Net result of glycolysis
ate of prvate to Co2
Acoo ferentat|on
W n ost pant ces etano and Co2 are
te a|n prodcts of anaerob|c
etabo|s w|t saer aonts of
act|c ac|d fored n acoo
ferentat|on prv|c ac|d |s converted
|nto et acoo and carbon d|ox|de
w|t acetadede f|gr|ng as
|ntered|ate
W t |nvoves two steps|n f|rst step |n te
presence of enze prv|c decarboxase
te ac|d grop |s reoved b
decarboxat|on and prv|c ac|d |s
converted to
9rv|c 9rv|c ac|d ac|d + + acetadede acetadede + + Co Co
22
acetadede acetadede + + Co Co
22
W n te second step |n te presence of
acoo dedrogenase and NADn
2

acetadede |s redced to et
acoo
W Cn
3
Cno + NADn
2
Cn3 Cn3 Cn2 Cn2 on + NAD on + NAD
. The only goal oI Iermentation reactions is . The only goal oI Iermentation reactions is
to convert NADH to NAD to convert NADH to NAD

(to use in (to use in


glycolysis). glycolysis).
. No energy is gained . No energy is gained ..
NET #E$&T OF FE#ENTATION
ate of prv|c ac|d to act|c ac|d
W @e breakdown of prv|c ac|d to act|c
|s not c fa||ar |n |ger pants bt
|s ver coon |n an|a t|sses and
sce n t|s case |n presence of
enze act|c dedrogenase and
NADn2 prv|c ac|d |s etabo|zed to
act|c ac|d
CkMA@CN C AC@ CC A
W @e etabo|c convers|on of prv|c ac|d to carbon
d|ox|de and water proceeds trog a patwa w|c
cons|sts of a ser|es of d|carbox|c and tr|carbox|c ac|ds
W 8efore |t enters te @CA cce prv|c ac|d ndergoes
ox|dat|ve decarboxat|on |n a coord|nated ser|es of
react|ons catased b prvate dedrogenase w|c |s a
arge t|enzes copex tat catases
9rvate+NAD+CC A Acet CCA+NADn+n+Co2
itochondria
itochondria are rod-shaped
organelles that can be considered
the power generators of the cell,
converting oxygen and nutrients
into adenosine triphosphate
(ATP).
2@n krebs
CC
@e krebss cce |s a b|oce|ca
patwa tat break down acet
CoA prodc|ng Co2 n NADn
ADn2 and A@9
Cne trn of te c|tr|c ac|d cce
generat|on
1Cne |generg pospate
trog sbstrate eve
posporat|on A@9
2@ree NADn2
3Cne ADn2
3C@kCN
@kANS9Ck@
CnAN
@e ctocroe sste aso
known as te drogen
carr|er sste or ox|dat|ve
posporat|on
The total numbers oI molecules generated The total numbers oI molecules generated
in the oxidation oI pyruvate and the Krebs in the oxidation oI pyruvate and the Krebs
Cycle is: Cycle is:
8 NADH 8 NADH
FADH FADH
ATP ATP
CO CO
Energy Production
actors affect|ng resp|rat|on
@ere are two tpes of factors
1 |nterna factors
2 externa factors
nterna factors
1 protopas|c factors
2 concentrat|on of resp|rator
sbstrates
xterna factors
1 teperatre
2 |gt
3 oxgen
Carbon d|ox|de
Water
6 |n[r
ce|ca sbstances
8 ecan|ca effects