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AN ARTICLE ON

APPLIYING TQM IN THE CLASSROOM


Presented at National Level Seminar-2011 on
Thrust Areas in Commerce & Management
at C.N. Arts & B.D. Commerce College, Kadi

Presented By

Introduction:
Quality refers to high degree of goodness or worth, or something

that is special in person or thing. (Oxford advanced learners dictionary, 1974). Deming (1950), defines quality as a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability, at low costs & suited to market. Oakland (1989) defines Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach to improve the effectiveness and flexibility of business as a whole. Total Quality is founded on the belief that people produce their best result when they enjoy what they are doing. TQM implies all open management style with devolution of responsibility. The aim is to develop a Quality Culture, whereby everybody in the organization shares a commitment to continuous Improvement aims that customers satisfaction.

TQM IN EDUCATION

Education is being driving towards commercial competition imposed by economic forces. In resent times, due to globalization of national economies, privatization efforts are made being in education sector to meet current and expected demands for trade manpower. One of the major problems affecting educational institutions is the increasing misalignment between the needs of the society, reflected through the needs of industries, research establishments, government departments and the output provided by these institutions. Unfortunately in India, the lack of commitment towards creating high standard knowledgeable professionals, a clear cut government policy towards education, non availability of high quality teachers in the academic world and frustration and demoralization of good quality researchers. Thus to solve the problem of how to apply TQM in classroom, this paper provides an overview of how the principle of TQM developed by W. Edwards Deming can be applied so that teaching becomes effective and retains its relevance to society in the long run.

Literature Review
Author
Scott Eric son (1995)

Title of Study
TQM & transformation from an elite to a mass system of higher education in U.K.

Industry
Education

Findings
TQM provides benefits which are as follows : a) goal of continual improvement versus attempting to achieve some static level of improvement. b) Errors and problems are caught and corrected at the source c) attempts to expose problems rather than hide or bury them d) Identifies and addresses causes of problems, not effects Curriculum building theory is a relatively recent phenomenon, so as to make decisions effective, continuous monitoring and design adjustments are required to develop and even maintain quality of curriculum. Once it is accepted, decisions on selection of what to teach and how it should be taught can then be made.

V.H.Y.Lo, D. Sculli. TQM in Curriculum (1996) design

Education

Mohammed S. Owlia, Elaine M. Aspin wall (1997)

TQM in higher education Education

a)

Sitalaxmi Venkatraman (2007)

Framework for implementing TQM in higher educational program.

Education

The presence of a strong link between quality and market issues. b) Higher quality can be gained through attracting more capable students and hiring higher quality staff. c) Proposes the possible adoption of commercially-based approaches such as TQM in a public sector like higher education. The framework is as follows a) Selection of the course to be evaluated b) Prepare the terms of reference for course evaluation. c) Conduct course evaluation d) Prepare an evaluation report of findings e) Prepare an action plan with improvement measures f) Implement action plan for continuous improvement g) Monitor the action plan for continuous improvement.

Col R K Puri Rakesh Bhatia (2011)

The vast majority of institutes state that they are committed in TQM but survey results suggest that these problems may stem from different levels of management perceiving TQM in different perspectives .There is obvious need for entire organization to be in agreement with regard to TQM deployment, use of its tools & establishment & use of bench marked standards. V.K.Khanna TQM implementation in the Automobile These experimentations reveal that the main contributing B.S.Sahay Indian automobile sector: variables to enhance TQM index are leadership, strategic Prem Vrat insights using system planning, customer and market focus, and human resource Ravi shankar(2007) dynamics approach focus in both the market scenarios. However, the contribution of each variable and the priority of variables change in two different market scenarios. Stephen R. Total quality management To economically compete in the future, processing plants will Brown(2008) the time has come for need to take the next step in optimizing product quality and metallurgical plants minimizing operating costs. This step cannot be taken without a commitment to total quality management incorporating statistical process control Vidhu Shekhar Jha Relevance of Total Quality Organizations can realize the full benefits of TQM through Himanshu Joshi (2009) Management (TQM) or successful integration of several improvement activities, each Business Excellence of which addresses a key element of the TQM philosophy. Strategy Implementation for These organizations share several common characteristics or Enterprise Resource develop common elements of management, which enable Planning (ERP) them to realize the true potential of TQM over a longer period. Dinh Thai Hoanga, Barbara Igelb and Tritos Laosirihongthongc (2010) Total quality management (TQM) strategy and organizational characteristics: Evidence from a recent WTO member In manufacturing and service companies, customer focus and top management commitment have been implemented at a quite high rate while information and analysis system, education and training, employee empowerment, and process management were Found to be just average. This result suggests that Vietnamese companies still have a lot More for improving their TQM strategy.

A study of implementation of Education TQM in management institutes in Pune

Objective of The Study


To establish research facilities in new emerging areas according to changing times. To design programs for enhancing class interactions. To provide guidance and counseling for personal and professional competence.

Methodology

In this paper, researcher follows exploratory research design. Data was collected form reputed journals, books and websites. Thus the study states that role of top management teachers and administrative staffs is inevitable and applying TQM cannot be accomplished successfully without complete involvement and support of top management, teachers and administrating staff.

DISCUSSION
Based on to this effort, it was noticed that following are the main factors constituting TQM in class room.
1. Need assessment This involves identification of national and social goals and objectives and it is based on preparing guidelines and policies so as to make learning process better for students to enhance the capability. 2. Policy propagation It involves creating awareness about the path the nation is following & motivating the students to participate in the countrys journal and overall development. 3. Personal Assessment It involves assessing the knowledge, skill, talents, values, motivation of each student. This would help student to recognize his weakness or lackness in particular subject. 4. Guidance Counseling This helps to determine the journal educational objectives of each student. Its purpose is to assist a student in selecting a suitable carrier and guiding him through the entire educational process. 5. Identifying Qualifications It involves identifying the level of student using his prior achievements and examining records as a base.

DISCUSSION .
6. Recording Credits
It involves gathering, recording, safeguarding and maintaining the process of each student.

9.Evaluation
This function monitors and determines the quality of result accomplish in the learning activities. Records, tabulations, statistics need to be maintained to assist each student in determining whether or not he has reached his current educational object.

7. Identifying educational needs


Identifying the specific instructional objectives for each student and indicating the subject matter and level of proficiency needed is the purpose of it. The variables involved include the student, his records and information about both the skill requirements of his carrier choice and courses of training available.

10.Determining process

remedial

When the efforts of student to gain the desired knowledge does not succeed, it is necessary to identify and suggest alternate ways for him to reach his goal.

8.Learning activity
The aim of it is to enable each student to learn the selected subject matter to the desired level of pro-eficiency. it involves teachers, text books, labs, small group discussions and self study.

INPUT
1. STUDENTS 2. MANPOWER (Teachers, NonTeaching Staff, Administrative, Personnel)3. TALENT 4. SKILL & KNOWLEDGE 5. NEEDS OF SOCIETY

OUTPUT
1. SKILLED PERSONS 2. KNOWLEDGEABLE INDIVIDUALS 3. SOCIAL ADAPTABILITY 4. WAGE EARNING 5. APTITUDE DEVELOPMENT

CONVERSION PROCESS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

TEACHING/LEARNING PATTERN EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES GUIDANCE ACTIVITY CAREER ADIVCE USE OF TEACHING AIDS STAFF APPRAISAL DEVLOPMENT DISICIPLINE POLICIES,GOALS, OBECTIVIES

The inputs conversion process in education system. Figure1 shows that TQM explores the relationship between the factors that decide how a student is converted to a skilled, knowledgeable wage earner to what extent he is able to adopt educational pattern. Thus the aim educational institution for applying TQM is that through conversion process, students are transformed into civilized and well cultured citizens.

CULTURAL ACTIVITIES -Drama - Singing - sports


-

COMPUTER SYSTEM - Learn more about computers - Improve computer skills - Learn new software

LITERARY ACTIVITIES
Newsletter Debate Elocution Essay competition Improve skills of gathering information Learn how to expand ideas

PERSONALITY DEVLOPMENT ACADEMIC PROGRESS - Participate in quizzes - Assimilate new concepts - Develop aptitude - Learn new tools and techniques - Learn mannerisms - Plan studies - Prepare for exams - Interact with people - Develop interpersonal relations - communication JOB RELATED ACTIVITIES - Work on interviewing skills - Learn how to give effective interviews - Learn how to participate effectively in groups - Learn how to write proper resume

Affinity diagram for quality learning


Previous figure reflect that all above mentioned activities aim at full fledge development of student, to bring out his hidden talent, enhance his confidence level bring elegance in his personality so that he can procure the ecstasy which is the ultimate aim of education. All these factors will enable students to adapt themselves in any of the atmosphere they will face outside the institute, their working will be in the tune with the requirements of the job and they will carry on their work smoothly without any kind of disruption.

Conclusion
Role of top management in applying TQM in Education -genuine commitment towards TQM implementation -structured training & educational programs. -encourage greater proactive involvement of faculty & non-faculty staff -Adequate & appropriate recognition & reward system All above targets cannot be accomplished without complete support of top management. Role of teachers identify needs of the students define objectives of quality improvement programs. Use participating team approach to raise students involvement. Role of administrative staff Their purpose in TQM application is to cooperate teachers by all possible ways like provide teachers with all those sources(power point presentation through projectors) which makes their learning process effective

Reference
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Desai, T. N., & Erubothu, A. T. (2010). A Study of Interrelationship between TQM and Productivity. A quaeterly journal of the National Productivity Council , 50 (4). Dodrajka, S. (2010). A New Paradigm in TQM and Human Resources. Abhigyan Quest for Excellence,Management Journal from FORE , 27 (4). http://www.emeraldinsight.com. L, S., & Samuel, A. A. (2009). TQM. PHI Learning Pvt LTD. Mohanty, R. P., & Lakhe, R. R. (2002). TQM in Service Sector. Mumbai: Jaico Publishing House. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary . (1974). London. Ross, J. E. (1994). TQM Text,Cases,Readings. London: Kogan Page Ltd.

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Chanda Bhatti
bhattichanda@yahoo.com 9925570565