Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 22

CCNA v3.

0 Retooling
Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM)

CCNA v3.0 Retooling

What is VLSM?
A Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) is a means of allocating IP addressing resources to subnets according to their individual need rather than some general network-wide rule. VLSM allows an organization to use more than one subnet mask within the same network address space. It is often referred to as subnetting a subnet, and can be used to maximize addressing efficiency. Large subnets are created for addressing LANs and small subnets are created for WAN links (a 30 bit mask is used to create subnets with only two host).
CCNA v3.0 Retooling
2

Subnetting vs. VLSM


Subnetting allows you to divide big networks into smaller, equal-sized slices. VLSM allows you to divide big networks into smaller, different-sized slices. This enables you to make maximum use of your valuable IP address space.

CCNA v3.0 Retooling

Addressing a Network with Standard Subnetting


Site A has two Ethernet networks Site B had one Ethernet network Site C had one Ethernet network
Site A Site B Site C

207.21.24.0 /24
25 users 25 users 10 users 8 users

How many network addresses are needed? How many hosts are needed for the largest LAN? How many bits need to be borrowed to address this network?
CCNA v3.0 Retooling
4

Addressing a Network with Standard Subnetting


Borrowing 3 bits will meet the current needs of the company, but it leaves little room for growth. Each network will have 30 usable addresses, including the point-to-point WAN links (which only require two addresses).
Subnet # Subnet Address 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
CCNA v3.0 Retooling

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

Bits Masked /27 /27 /27 /27 /27 /27 /27 /27

207.21.24.0
Site A Site B Site C

25 users 25 users

10 users

8 users

Subnetting in a Box
To begin, in a class C network there are 256 addresses. When we subnet the address, we break it down in to smaller units or subnets.
0

256 addresses

CCNA v3.0 Retooling

255

Subnetting in a Box
If we were to borrow 1 bit, it would break the 256 addresses in to two parts (networks) with each part (subnet) having 128 addresses. The subnet mask would be 255.255.255.128.
0 128

128 addresses

128 addresses

CCNA v3.0 Retooling

127

255

Subnetting in a Box
If we were to borrow 2 bits, it would break each of these 2 networks in half again. This would give us 4 networks, each with 64 addresses. The subnet mask would now be 255.255.255.192.
0 128

64 addresses

64 addresses

63 64 192

191

64 addresses

64 addresses

CCNA v3.0 Retooling

127

255

Subnetting in a Box
If we were to borrow 3 bits, it would break each of these 4 networks in half again. This would give us 8 networks, each with 32 addresses. The subnet mask would now be 255.255.255.224.
0 32 128 160

32 addresses

32 addresses

32 addresses

32 addresses

31 64 96

63 192

159 224

191

32 addresses

32 addresses

32 addresses

32 addresses

CCNA v3.0 Retooling

95

127

223

255

Subnetting in a Box
If we were to borrow 4 bits, it would break each of these 8 networks in half again. This would give us 16 networks, each with 16 addresses. The subnet mask would now be 255.255.255.240.
0 32 128 160

16 addresses
15 16

16 addresses
48

47

16 addresses
143 144

16 addresses
176

175

16 addresses
31 64

16 addresses
63 96

16 addresses
159 192

16 addresses
191 224

16 addresses
79 80

16 addresses
111 112

16 addresses
207 208

16 addresses
239 240

16 addresses
CCNA v3.0 Retooling

95

16 addresses
127

16 addresses

223

16 addresses
255
10

Addressing a Network Using VLSM


When using VLSM to subnet an address, not all of the subnets have to be the same size. A different subnet mask may be applied to some of the subnets to further subnet the address. In order to take advantage of VLSM, the proper routing protocol must be selected. Not all routing protocols share subnetting information in their routing table updates.
Classful Routing Protocols (do not share subnet info) RIP v1 IGRP Classless Routing Protocols (do share subnet info) RIP v2 EIGRP OSPF IS-IS
11

CCNA v3.0 Retooling

Addressing a Network Using VLSM


To begin subnetting this network using VLSM, identify the LAN with the largest number of hosts. Subnet the address 207.21.24.0 /24 based on this information. Site A has two Ethernet networks (25 hosts each) Site B had one Ethernet network (10 hosts) Site C had one Ethernet network (8 hosts)
Subnet # Subnet Address 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
CCNA v3.0 Retooling

207.21.24.0 207.21.24.32 207.21.24.64 207.21.24.96 207.21.24.128 207.21.24.160 207.21.24.192 207.21.24.224

Bits Masked /27 /27 /27 /27 /27 /27 /27 /27

Site A

Site B

Site C

25 users

25 users

10 users

8 users

12

Addressing a Network Using VLSM


Subnet 1 & 2 can be used to address Site A Ethernet networks. Subnet 5 can be subnetted to accommodate Site B & C Ethernet networks. Subnet 6 can be subnetted to accommodate the WAN links. Site B Site C Site A
Subnet # Subnet Address 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 207.21.24.0 /27 207.21.24.32 /27 207.21.24.64 /27 207.21.24.96 /27 207.21.24.128 /27 207.21.24.160 /27 207.21.24.192 /27 207.21.24.224 /27

25 users

25 users

10 users
/28 /28
/30 /30 /30 /30 /30 /30 /30 /30

8 users Site B Site C WAN 1&2 Free Addresses

Site A Free Addresses Site B & C WAN links

Sub-subnet 0 207.21.24.160 Sub-subnet 1 207.21.24.176


Sub-subnet 0 Sub-subnet 1 Sub-subnet 2 Sub-subnet 3 Sub-subnet 4 Sub-subnet 5 Sub-subnet 6 Sub-subnet 7 207.21.24.192 207.21.24.196 207.21.24.200 207.21.24.204 207.21.24.208 207.21.24.212 207.21.24.216 207.21.24.220

CCNA v3.0 Retooling

13

Addressing a Network Using VLSM


Use VLSM to apply subnet addresses to the topology. Be sure to include the number of bits borrowed ( ex. /24)

Site A

Site B

Site C

______________

______________

_____________ 25 users

_____________ 25 users 10 users

_____________ 8 users

_____________

CCNA v3.0 Retooling

14

Addressing a Network Using VLSM Exercise 1


Your company has been assigned IP network 195.39.71.0 /24. Given that headquarters (60 hosts) is connected to five branch offices (12 hosts each) by a WAN link, and to an ISP (the ISP owns the addresses on that link), determine an appropriate IP addressing scheme.
Headquarters 60 users ISP

Branch 1 12 users

Branch 2 12 users

Branch 3 12 users

Branch 4 12 users

Branch 5 12 users

CCNA v3.0 Retooling

15

Given the IP address 195.39.71.0 /24, subnet according to the largest subnet needed. (Headquarters 60 hosts) You would need to borrow 2 bits or / 26. This would give you 4 networks with 64 host addresses on each subnet.

128

63 64 192

191

127
CCNA v3.0 Retooling

255
16

Playing it safe, we 0 will not use the first subnet (subnet 0).

128

64 We will start addressing with 195.39.71.64 /26. Headquarters needs 60 hosts, so we will assign them .64 - .127.

192 Headquarters 60 hosts 26 bit mask or /26 (255.255.255.192)

CCNA v3.0 Retooling

17

The 5 Branch offices only need 12 hosts each. The next address block available is the .128 - .191 block (64 addresses). Here we will apply VLSM. Using a /28 mask will give us 16 hosts at each location. This will take care of 4 of the Branch offices.
CCNA v3.0 Retooling

128

160

Branch 3 Branch 1 12 hosts 12 hosts /28 /28 (255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

144

176

Branch 4 Branch 2 12 hosts 12 hosts /28 /28 (255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

64 Headquarters 60 hosts 26 bit mask or /26 (255.255.255.192)

192

18

To obtain a block for Branch 5, we will need to subnet the .192 - .255 block using a /28 mask.

128

160

Branch 3 Branch 1 12 hosts 12 hosts /28 /28 (255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

144

176

Branch 4 Branch 2 12 hosts 12 hosts /28 /28 (255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

64 Headquarters 60 hosts 26 bit mask or /26 (255.255.255.192)

192
Branch 5 12 hosts /28 (255.255.255.240)

224

208

240

CCNA v3.0 Retooling

19

Now we need to address the 5 WAN links that connect to the Branch offices. These are point-topoint connections and only require 2 addresses. Here we will use a /30 mask to further subnet the subnets.

128

160

Branch 3 Branch 1 12 hosts 12 hosts /28 /28 (255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

144

176

Branch 4 Branch 2 12 hosts 12 hosts /28 /28 (255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

64 Headquarters 60 hosts 26 bit mask or /26 (255.255.255.192)

192
Branch 5 12 hosts /28 (255.255.255.240)

224

WAN 5

232 236

228 240

208

WAN 1 WAN 2

216

WAN 3 WAN 4

212
CCNA v3.0 Retooling

220

20

Subnet 0 could be 0 used later if needed for future growth of HQ or for more Branch offices.

128

160

Branch 3 Branch 1 12 hosts 12 hosts /28 /28 (255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

144

176

Branch 4 Branch 2 12 hosts 12 hosts /28 /28 (255.255.255.240) (255.255.255.240)

64 Headquarters 60 hosts 26 bit mask or /26 (255.255.255.192)

192
Branch 5 12 hosts /28 (255.255.255.240)

224

WAN 5

232 236

228 240

208

WAN 1 WAN 2

216

WAN 3 WAN 4

212
CCNA v3.0 Retooling

220

21

Applying the Addresses to the Topology


195.39.71.64 /26 Address provided by ISP

19 5

.3 9

.3 9 95 1

.7 1 .2 1

8/ 20 . .71

30

30

195.39.71.216 /30

2/

19 5

.3 9

5 19

.71

.2 2

.22 .71 .39 30 0/

4/

30

195.39.71.128 /28
CCNA v3.0 Retooling

195.39.71.144 /28

195.39.71.160 /28

195.39.71.176 /28

195.39.71.192 /28

22