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DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

ANDHRA PRADESH
Name : D. Simhachalam
Designation : Lecturer
Branch : A.E.I.E
Institute : K.D.R.G.P.T, Wnp, Mbnr Dist.
Semester : V
Subject : Process Control
Subject code : AEI-504
Topic : Process control system configuration
Duration : 100 minutes

Subtopic : Characteristics of Cascade controller


Teaching Aids : PPTs, animations, Diagrams
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Objectives

On completion of this topic, you would be


able to know

• The characteristics of Cascade Control

• Examples of cascade control systems

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Characteristics

• The performance of a control system is


determined by

• The nature of the process

• The characteristics of the controller,

• The location and magnitude of the disturbances.

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Characteristics…
The performance of a simple feedback control
system can be improved by making changes,
such as

• Reducing the time delay


or
• Less time constant,
or
• Adding a derivative action to the controller.

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Characteristics…

• For large uncontrolled load changes a cascade


control is used.

• The output of one controller serves as the set point of


another controller are called cascade control
systems.

• The output of the primary controller is used to adjust


the set point of a secondary controller, which in turn
sends a signal to the control valve.
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• A block diagram of a cascade process-control system
is shown in fig.1.

• In the outer loop, the controller output is the set point


of the inner loop.

• Thus, if the outer loop controlled variable changes,

The error signal that is input to the controller. Effects

a change in set point of the inner loop.

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Final Control
element

Inner set Inner


point Controller Process

Outer Set Outer Inner Variable


point
Controller measurement

Outer Variable
measurement

Fig.1 Block diagram of cascade control system

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Characteristics…

• Even though the measured value of the inner loop

has not changed, The inner loop experiences an error

signal, and thus new output by virtue of the set point

change.

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Characteristics…
• Cascade control provides better control of the outer
loop variable Than is accomplished through a single
variable.

• The examples of cascade control systems given


below suggests how control is improved.

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Example 1:
• Consider the problem of controlling the level of liquid
in a tank through regulation of the input flow rate.

• A single-variable system to accomplish this is shown


in fig.2.

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Fig.2 Level control through direct flow control

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Example 1…

• A level measurement is used to adjust a flow-control


valve as a final control element.

• The set point to the controller establishes the desired


level.

• In this system, upstream load changes cause


changes in flow rate that results in level changes.

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Example 1…

• The level change is, however, a second-stage effect


here.

• Consequently, the system cannot respond until the


level has actually been changed by the flow rate
change.

• Fig.3 shows the same control problem solved by a


cascade control system.
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Fig.3 Level control through cascade flow
control

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• The flow loop is a single variable system as
described earlier,

• But the set point is determined by a measurement of


level.

• Upstream load changes are never seen in the level of


liquid in the tank because

• The flow-control system regulates such changes


before they appear as substantial changes in level.
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Example 2:
• Fig.4 shows a schematic of the distillation control
system.

Assumption:

• Bottoms composition is inferentially controlled by


controlling a suitable tray temperature at set point.

• For this loop steam flow is manipulated variable.

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Tray Temperature
Distillation
column
Temperature controller
TC

Reboiler
Level controller
LC
Steam

Control
Valve

Fig.4 feedback control system for control of temperature


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Example 2…

• If the steam supply pressure fluctuates, so does the


pressure drop across the control valve, and

• Thus the flow of steam to the reboiler fluctuates.

• These fluctuations upset the control-tray temperature.

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Example 2…
• Of course, when the temperature controller senses
the upset, it takes corrective action.

• However, if the supply pressure fluctuations are


frequent, The loop may not remain at set point very
long.

• In situations such as these, a second loop is added,


as shown in fig.5.

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Tray Temperature
Distillation
column Temperature controller
TC

Reboiler
Level controller
FC
LC
Steam
Orifice
Meter

Fig.5 Cascade control of temperature


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Example 2…

• The purpose of the second loop is to adjust the

manipulated variable Whenever disturbances in that

loop take place So that the performance of the other

loop remains unaffected.

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Example 2…
• Thus , for the example shown in fig.5,

• If the steam supply pressure changes, the pressure


drop across the orifice changes.

• The orifice transmitter senses the change and the


flow of steam constant.

• Hence, cascade control is better control for the


processes of frequent load changes.

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Summary

We have discussed about

• The characteristics of Cascade Control

• Examples of cascade control systems

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Quiz
1. The performance of a control system is determined
by
a. The nature of the process
b. The characteristics of the controller,
c. The location and magnitude of the
disturbances.
d. Above all

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Quiz
1. The performance of a simple feedback control
system can be improved by adding a -----action to
the controller

a) Proportional action
b) Integral action
c) Derivative action
d) Above all

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Quiz

3. The output of one controller serves as the set point of


another controller are called

• Ratio control systems


• Adaptive control systems
• Cascade control systems
• Above all

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Quiz
4. The output of the primary controller is used to
adjust the ------- of a secondary controller

• Manipulated variable
• Set point
• Both a) and b)
• None

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Frequently Asked Questions

2. Explain the characteristics of a cascade control


system.

4. Explain the cascade control with an example.

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