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Manmohan Singh
Prime Minister and also in-charge of the Ministries/ Departments not specifically allocated to the charge of any Minister viz.: (i) Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions; (ii)Ministry of Planning;
(iii)Department of Atomic Energy; and

(iv)Department of Space

Deputy Chairman
Montek Singh Ahluwalia Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Government of India.

CABINET MINISTERS Shri Pranab Mukherjee Minister of Finance Shri Sharad Pawar Minister of Agriculture Minister of Food Processing Industries Shri A. K. Antony Minister of Defence Shri P. Chidambaram Minister of Home Affairs Shri S. M. Krishna Minister of External Affairs

Shri Virbhadra Singh Minister of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Shri Vilasrao Deshmukh Minister of Science and Technology Minister of Earth Sciences Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad Minister of Health and Family Welfare Shri Sushil Kumar Shinde Minister of Power Shri M. Veerappa Moily Minister of Corporate Affairs Dr. Farooq Abdullah Minister of New and Renewable Energy

Shri S. Jaipal Reddy Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas Shri Kamal Nath Minister of Urban Development Shri Vayalar Ravi Minister of Overseas Indian Affairs Minister of Civil Aviation Smt. Ambika Soni Minister of Information and Broadcasting Shri Mallikarjun Kharge Minister of Labour and Employment Shri Kapil Sibal Minister of Human Resource Development Minister of Communications and Information Technology

Shri Anand Sharma Minister of Commerce and Industry Minister of Textiles Shri C. P. Joshi Minister of Road Transport and Highways Kumari Selja Minister of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation Minister of Culture

Shri Subodh Kant Sahay Minister of Tourism Shri G. K. Vasan Minister of Shipping Shri Pawan K. Bansal Minister of Parliamentary Affairs Minister of Water Resources

Shri Mukul Wasnik Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment Shri M. K. Alagiri Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers Shri Praful Patel Minister of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises Shri Shriprakash Jaiswal Minister of Coal Shri Salman Khursheed Minister of Law and Justice Minister of Minority Affairs Shri V. Kishore Chandra Deo Minister of Tribal Affairs Minister of Panchayati Raj

Shri Beni Prasad Verma Minister of Steel Shri Dinesh Trivedi Minister of Railways Shri Jairam Ramesh Minister of Rural Development Minister of Drinking Water and Sanitation


Biography Nira Radia is the owner of Vaishnavi Corporate Communications Pvt. Ltd.The company works in corporate communication and liaison related things. Neera born in Kenya but moved to London in 1970.She did her schooling from elite Haberdashers Askesin northern London. She graduated from University of Warwick. She married with UK businessman of Gujrati origin Janak Radia. They divorced soon. Nira started her career in liaison with Sahara. Later she became India representative of Singapore Airlines, KLM, UK Air. She built her strong contacts among media,politics and corporate. Controversy Indian Income Tax Department tapped phone calls of Nira during 2008-2009, as a part of their investigation. In the phone calls many things came in light like Nira was in touch with some big corporates, media workers, leaders who played a major role in 2G spectrum scam. There are more then 300 tapes which recorded the key conversation between Nira and people like A Raja, Vir Sanghvi, Barkha Dutt, Ratan Tata. Most of these conversations are related with 2G spectrum scam.

How Nira Radia became a powerful influencer

The first India assignment for Nira Radia, who was fascinated byairplanes, was to smoothen the entry of Singapore Airlines to India in 1990s. That project failed to take off, but it introduced her to two important personalities then aviation minister Ananth Kumar and Ratan Tata, chairman of the Tata group, which was to be Singapore Airlines Indian partner. Never the one to be put down, Radia created ripples in the aviation ministry in 2000 when she applied for a license to start an airline under her own firm with a capitalisation of all of Rs1 lakh. Ananth Kumar was the aviation minister at that time. But it was a controversial project and her application was rejected. Later, Kumar was moved out of the civil aviation ministry. However, it was her second meeting with Ratan Tata that became her a biggest stepping stone as a businesswoman. Tata was so impressed with her that he appointed her to manage the corporate communications of the Tata group leading to the birth of Vaishnavi Corporate Communications in 2001. For many years, Vaishnavis main client remained the Tata group, so much so that that it was mistaken for being a Tata firm. Radia, who grew up in Kenya and holds a British passport, transformed her prized catch into a magic

wand that opened bigger doors. Soon, she had a client list that comprised 50 big companies. Then, she had the most powerful industrial baron in India, Mukesh Ambani, in her kitty, who was looking for some kind of assistance in media management in 2008-09. In between, she also allegedly got involved with the issue of new 2Glicenses in 2008, partly because her own client Tata Teleservices stood to gain or lose from how the licenses were issued. Radia was at the peak of her power in 2009-10 with a mandate tomanage the media and lobbying requirements of the countrys two richest and biggest corporates. Her various firms are estimated to generate annual revenues of anywhere between Rs100 to Rs120 crores, though hard figures are tough to come by. A decade after she entered the relations business, Radia seems to be the most powerful influencer counting such luminaries as former TRAI chairman Pradip Baijal, former economic affairs secretary CM Vasudev, former DIPP secretary Ajay Dua and former TRAI member DPS Seth among her associates.


Economic factors the units required in the economic activity of production of goods and services with the effective and efficient utility of resources and fulfill the consumption demand in any market and national economy. Non economic factors are the social and political environment that may not directly effect the level of national income and output.

Economic: inflation The rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is rising, and, subsequently, purchasing power is falling. Central banks attempt to stop severe inflation, along with severe deflation, in an attempt to keep the excessive growth of prices to a minimum.
GDP growth rate Unemployment tax level interest rate,

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Natural Resources Capital Labour Power Transport and Communication Human Capital

Natural resources

The natural resources is the principal factor which affects the development of an economy. If a country is rich in natural resources, it is then able to make rapid progress in growth. In case a country is deficient in forest wealth, mineral resources, water supply, fertility of land etc., it is then normally not in a position to develop rapidly. The pity with the most of LDC's is that their natural resources are under-utilized, unutilized or misutilized. This is one of the reasons for their backwardness. It may here be noted that presence of rich resources is not a precondition for economic development. There are countries in the world which do not have abundant resources, yet they have made rapid progress in growth by superior technology, new researches and higher knowledge. Japan, Switzerland, South Korea are resource poor countries, yet they have made rapid progress in economic growth through advanced technology and new discoveries.

Capital formation
Capital accumulation or capital formation is an important factor in the economic growth of a country. Capital formation refers to the process of adding to the stock of capital over time. The stock of capital can be built up and increased through three different resources which are as under:Sources of capital formation:
(A) An act of saving. (b) Capital market. (c) An act of investment.

Human resources
Human resources of a country is an important factor in economic development. If the population of a country is educated, efficient, patriot, skilled, healthy, it makes significant contribution to economic development. On the other hand, if a country is overpopulated, labour force is unemployed, uneducated, unskilled, unpatriotic, it can put serious hurdles on the path of economic development.

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Power resources are the foundation of economic development. They are derived mainly from two types of sources
(1) Commercial and 2) Non-commercial

Commercial resources of power are oil, gas, coal, hydel, thermal electricity and nuclear. Non- commercial sources include animal power, fuel, wood, cow dung

The power resources are vital to economic growth of a country. Its importance has been changing with the passage of time. Before industrial Revolution, the energy for operating the machines was mainly supplied by animals, human power and wind. With the scientific advancement, coal, oil, gas, and water falls are used as the principal sources of energy. In developed countries of the world, the nuclear power and solar energy are being increasingly used for generating electricity.

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The various sources of energy are helpful in ;

giving an initial push to the raising of production in all sectors of the economy. Quickly bridging the development gap. providing economies of scale. ensuring high quality standard. reducing material wastages in all sectors of the economy.

The high income oil exporting developing countries like Saudi Arabia, Bahrain etc. are producing energy according to their needs from their own cheap source i.e.,.oil. The other developing countries are giving highest priority to energy. Their main stress is on: accelerated exploitation of coal, hydel and nuclear power etc. intensification of exploration for oil and gas energy consideration.

The Means of Transport and Communication

The means of transport and communication have an important bearing on the economic growth of a country. If a country is well connected with rail road, sea ports and has a developed means of communication including information technology, it then helps in improving the productive capacity of the various sectors of the economy. An efficient transport and communication network contributes to improving the quantity and quality of goods due to competition and reduction in production costs.


Wars the policies of whichever political party happens to be in office natural disasters generational shift change in the makeup of the family anything that is purely political natural, or sociocultural

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Human reltaion theory

Human relations theory is characterized by a shift in emphasis from TASK to WORKER Go beyond physical contributions to include creative, cognitive, and emotional aspects of workers Based on a more dyadic (two-way) conceptualization of communication. SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS are at the heart of organizational behavior-effectiveness is contingent on the social well-being of workers Workers communicate opinions, complaints, suggestions, and feelings to increase satisfaction and production Origins (Hawthorne Studies & work of Chester Barnard) Human Relations School of Management - Elton Mayo (Harvard

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Origin of human relation theory

The Hawthorne Studies
Hawthorne Works of Western Electric Company 1924 - Chicago Research focus: Relation of quality and quantity of illumination to efficiency in industry Four Important Studies

The Hawthorne Studies

Illumination Study (November 1924)
Designed to test the effect of lighting intensity on worker productivity Heuristic value: influence of human relations on work behavior

Relay Assembly Test Room Study (1927-1932)

Assembly of telephone relays Production and satisfaction increased regardless of manipulation Workers increased production and satisfaction related to supervisory practices Human interrelationships are important contributing factors to worker productivity Bottom Line: Supervisory practices increase employee morale AND productivity

Interviewing Program (1928-1930)

Investigate connection between supervisory practices and employee morale Employees expressed their ideas and feelings (e.g., likes and dislikes) Process more important than actual results

Bank Wiring Room Observation Study (November 1931 - May 1932)

Social groups can influence production and individual work behavior RQ: How is social control manifested on the shop floor? Informal organization constrains employee behavior within formal organizational structure

Hawthorne Studies - Implications

Illumination Study (November 1924)

The mere practice of observing peoples behavior tends to alter their behavior (Hawthorne Effect)

Relay Assembly Test Room Study (1927-1932)

Relationships between workers and their supervisors are powerful Human interrelationships increase the amount and quality of worker participation in decision making

Interviewing Program (1928-1930)

Demonstrated powerful influence of upward communication Workers were asked for opinions, told they mattered, and positive attitudes toward company increased

Bank Wiring Room Observation Study (November 1931 - May 1932)

Led future theorists to account for the existence of informal communication

Taken together, these studies helped to document the powerful nature of social relations in the workplace and moved managers more toward the interpersonal aspects of organizing.

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Hr-position in india
In India, managements have been sympathetic to workers, partly due to the general social conditions and also due to paternalism. However, managements approach has to shift to empathy for the rising aspirations of employees. It is not as easy as it sounds. It would be opportune to deregulate industrial relations as was done for industrial licensing 20 years ago. This will help managements and employees to be more engaged through dialogue rather than through laws, rules and confrontation. People connect has to have an emotional component, a meeting of hearts than only minds. Technology, globalisation, demography, societal trends and low carbon will work together to shape the future of work, as pointed out in a May 2010 study by Lynda Gratton of LBS. However, these rapid transformations in technology-enabled communications should not diminish the quality of person-toperson connect. The art of conversation as well as the ability of leaders to invest emotional time in people

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relationships are diminishing. Spending clock time on people transactions is not enough.Managers must relearn to be intuitive as much as they are analytical.
Leaders have to invest in relationships. Emotion is not bad. Leaders have to anticipate a lot more about employee needs and reactions by talking to their people and listening to their people. To be successful, it is important that the manager is perceived as authentic and genuine. The latest research has revealed that managers who are more inclined to appreciate people sensitivities are likely to be more successful than others, and it may not be surprising to see more and more successful leaders are either from social sciences background or those who are sensitive to human emotions.

Human reltaion movement

Human Relations Movement refers to those researchers of organizational development who study the behavior of people in groups, in particular workplace groups. It originated in the 1930s. Hawthorne studies, which examined the effects of social relations, motivation and employee satisfaction on factory productivity. The movement viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies, rather than as interchangeable parts. "The hallmark of human-relation theories is the primacy given to organizations as human cooperative systems rather than mechanical contraptions. George Elton Mayo stressed the following: Natural groups, in which social aspects take precedence over functional organizational structures Upwards communication, by which communication is two way, from worker to chief executive, as well as vice versa. Cohesive and good leadership is needed to communicate goals and to ensure effective and coherent decision making

Human relation movement

Fred Luthans defines Organizational Behaviour as "the understanding, prediction and management of human behaviour in organizations." According to Fred Luthans, three major events took place which led to the Human Relations Movement these were
The Great Depression The Rise of Trade Unionism The Hawthorne experiments

the Great Depression Prior to the industrial revolution, people worked in small groups and had simple work relationships. They were however subjected to unhealthy working conditions and scarcity of resources, so they hardly had any job satisfaction. During the early stages of industrial revolution, the conditions of workers showed no signs of improvement. However, as increased industrial activity led to greater supply of goods and wages, the level of job satisfaction gradually improved. The Great Depression however made people realize that production could no longer be the only major responsibility of Management. The depression left in its wake severe problems of unemployment, discontent and insecurity which gradually led to greater importance given to the management of personnel. The Human factor gradually but quickly gained more and more importance.

The Rise of Trade Unionism

The passage of the Wagner Act led to emergence of organized labour movement. The revival of militant unionism triggered workers' interests in business activities of the organization. In India, the Trade Union Act 1926 enforced the belief that organized labour movements were here to stay. The only way to deal with organized labour movements or Trade Unions was to understand the foster the Human Relations. This gave the added impetus to the Human Relations Movement.

The Hawthorne experiments

The Hawthorne Works of the General Electric Company was a progressive organization. However, its managers were disturbed by the large number of

complaints and high level of dissatisfaction among workers. The company hired efficiency experts to find out the cause of the problem, but the investigations failed. Later the Company requested the National Academy of Sciences to help them. The Academy conducted various experiments which became known as the Illumination experiments. These experiments showed that productivity was influenced by some other variable or variables beyond wages, hours of work and working conditions.

the Relay assembly room experiments were conducted by a team of Harvard Business School. These are considered to be the actual beginning of the Hawthorne Studies since the Illumination Studies failed to come out with any conclusion. A group of six girls were selected for these experiments. Various changes like change in the number of hours in a work week, number of hours in a work day, number of breaks, lunch timings, etc. were planned and informed to the girls. The findings took the researchers by surprise, since irrespective of the changes made, there was an overall increase in productivity. They realized that since the girls were given a great deal of freedom, they had formed an informal group including the observer. The researchers thus discovered the concept of informal organization. They found that workplaces were social environments and that there were factors other than just economic selfinterest. An important conclusion drawn was that every aspect of an industrial work environment had a social value.

In the Interview phase, all the employees in the Hawthorne plant were interviewed. Many generalizations were observed and noted down, notably the social aspects.

The Bank wiring observation room experiments led to the observation that Group acceptance appeared to be more important to the worker than money. The participants lack of trust in the objectives of the project made them restrict the production of the group members by preventing them from producing beyond a certain number of units, ignoring the additional monetary benefits promised to them. Other reasons were noted as fear of unemployment, aim to protect slow workers, apprehension of management raising the standards and a complacent attitude of the management.

Many believe that the production increase in the relay room was due to the fact that the participants received more attention and it was altogether a new experience for them. This was termed as the 'Hawthorne effect.' The Hawthorne Studies thus laid the foundation for the Human Relations Movemebr and was responsible for the development of various concepts like participatory management, team building, etc.

Human relation factors

Human Relations Factors Human Relations is a study of human problems arising from organizational and interpersonal relations. The human relation movement is the study of the behavior of people in groups, in particular workplace groups. It emphasizes the important roles of human factors in organizations. (Razik& Swanson, 2001, p159) The movement viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies, rather than as interchangeable parts. It has become a concern of many organizations to improve the job-oriented interpersonal skills of employees. Companies need their employees to be able to successfully communicate and convey information, to be able to interpret others' emotions, to be open to others' feelings, and to be able to solve conflicts and arrive at resolutions. By acquiring these skills, all stakeholders can maintain more compatible relationships. Human relations have many factors that influence the relations in an organization and I have highlighted a few:

Informal Organizations, Motivation, Employee Needs, Employee Satisfaction, Management Style, Maturity Level, Morale and Quality of Work Life. Camden City Schools makes every attempt to address all of these areas in building human relations with their stakeholders. Camden City may not always be successful in meeting all the factors they do make the attempt. Informal organization networks are expected, so educational leaders must be aware of and use these networks to positively impact productivity of the organization. We have informal meeting times with members of our departments to discuss strategies that we use in our classes and share ideas on what is helpful and what is not. Educational leaders must not only learn to live with informal groups, they must learn to use them productively, because these informal organizations also have beneficial effects. They satisfy employees social needs, provide communication network, provide emotional escape valve, and complement the formal...

Personnel management and human resource management

Personnel management is regarded to be more administrative in nature. Personnel management basically deals with the employees, their payroll and employment laws.

Human Resources Management deals with the management of the work force, and contributes to an organizations success.

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Personnel management can be considered as reactive, in the sense that it provides concerns and demands as they are presented.

Human resources Management can be stated to be proactive, as it pertains to the continuous development of policies and functions for improving a companys workforce.

While Personnel management tends to motivate the employees with compensations, rewards and bonuses,

Human Resources Management tends to provide motivation through human resources, effective strategies for facing challenges, work groups, and job creativity.

Personnel management focuses on administrating people.

On the contrary, the prime focus of Human Resources Development is to build a dynamic culture.

HRM basically deals with developing personnel management skills.

It is Human Resources Management that develops a team of employees for an organization.

the personnel approach tends to be tactical in its approach to activities.

the focus of human resource management approach is more strategic

the personnel approach tends to be short-term and responsive to others demands;

the HRM approach is to think of the long term and initiate policies on major new initiatives

the personnel approach tends to be a rather piecemeal way of tackling issues;

the HRM approach to the same issues is to place them within a clearly defined, integrated framework which has been worked out to benefit the organisation and to which the HRM manager and other staff have contributed

personnel management tends to rely on traditional forms of communication;

HRM tends to use a variety of communication channels

personnel management tends to operate in organisations where there are traditional ways of working and where there is not much involvement of the workforce in decision making;

human resource management emphasises the importance of the involvement of everyone in teams or in quality circles

personnel management tends to work in traditionally unionised organisations;

human resource management tends to encourage single status agreements and de-emphasises the role of trade unions

personnel management tends to use traditional pay systems;

human resource management emphasises the need to manage performance and motivate people by the use of various payment systems which are integrated with the organisations objectives

the personnel management approach tends to reflect the status quo and resist change;

human resource management tends to encourage change and increased flexibility in ways of working

the personnel management approach tends to operate from a pluralistic point of view where different points of view are tolerated; the

human resource management approach tends to operate from a unitary perspective emphasising the need for everyone in the organisation to work towards a common goal, so unions are not encouraged since they are not seen to be necessary

personnel managers may sometimes need to help individuals with their problems;

human resource managers feel individuals should be prepared to take responsibility for their own decisions and actions

Case 1 Susan works in a knitwear manufacturing company and much of her time is taken up in recruitment, training and development. She has an assistant who helps in these areas and who does much of the actual interviewing along with the line managers for the appropriate sections. Susan is also involved in disciplinary situations. The line manager in the section issues the first warning, but later disciplinary action is handled by Susan in the presence of the line manager and, of course, the shop steward. Susan spends time negotiating with the trade union on a range of issues, but also likes to find time to go around the factory each day to get to know the staff and their problems. She gathers information about absenteeism from the mangers on her daily rounds, and this gives both them and their staff a chance to approach her with any problems. Both she and her assistant often spend time helping individuals who come to see them with problems.

Case 2 Paul works in a building society and has a small department of staff who work with him. The building society is concerned to provide the best possible service for its customers, and this is stated in its mission statement. Pauls boss is a Director and is concerned with strategic issues of employing people. Paul has clear objectives which he and his department work towards, and one of these is to reduce the levels of absenteeism by 5% in the next six months. They are also involved in new ways of getting employees to work more efficiently and effectively, and Paul spends a great deal of his time reviewing policies and procedures and getting his staff to work with members of the workforce in the design of these. He is particularly interested in providing more effective ways of communicating with the workforce, and at present his department communicates with employees through weekly newsletters and the internal e-mail system on computers. Paul tends to rarely leave his office and most of his contacts are with other mangers in other specialisms. His personal computer provides information about daily absenteeism levels, levels of labour turnover and other staff statistics. His department will provide advice to line mangers and will coordinate recruitment campaigns and advertising, but in general the line mangers are encouraged to take responsibility for their own team from recruitment through to dismissal. There is no recognised trade union, but team working is strongly encouraged.

Which approach human resource management or personnel management do you personally feel more at ease with?