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To Learn ABC (1) software projected in an abstract environment like Alice In The Wonderland, where Alice has to investigate each materials (objects) to navigate her direction. The same analogy applied in the software for children to explore in the main menu. It promotes the basic literacy skills such as learning the name of letters and objects, and spelling. These are the objectives of the software. The software provides seven events for children to practice on in order to build vocabulary. The events level begin from easy to complexity. Alphabet Park : Name of letters read out in digitized voice and method of writing them are shown. Listen and Choose : In this game, children are assessed on how much they can recall the symbol representing the call letters. Memory Land : Flashcard technique is used to assess children memory on the names of alphabet. Spelling Corner : Objects represent respective letters are introduced. Spelling and reading short phrases are engaged in the activity.

Missing Letter : Fill in the blank with letters to complete the spelling of given words accompany
with picture-cue.

Music Studio : Sing along ( ABC and Twinkle! Twinkle! Little Star)
Puzzle : Easy set of problem solving games for children to play.


1) Age Appropriate
To Learn ABC (1) by Penerbitan Daya Sdn. Bhd. Is an efficient and easy software which it read letters and words, and spell words. Hence, children receive immediate feedback rather than having to wait until their teacher reads to them.

And teacher is free to handle critical task if occurs in the classroom.

Unfortunately, it didnt give much opportunities to children to explore and discover emerging literacy skills but rather drill the children to memorise each letter name and each word spelling. Hence, it does not meet childrens developmental needs. Thus the software is not a good software utilizing an appropriate method to teach children. The software utilizes visual-cue recognition approach to enable children to grasp the basic language skills. Therefore, simplified materials are applied. It facilities language use within the classroom. Teaching children about letters, words and language is an appropriate learning objective as this is the foundation of

Language Development. Thus To Learn ABC (1) software

teaches realistic concept.

2) Child Control
The software generates most of the events in predetermined or random sequence of activities where children have to answer the random pop-up questions. Children are the reactors in this program.

Usually, it rushes the children to produce an answer within a period of time by

announcing Kid! Come on. or Kid, what are you waiting for? though the children can answer at their own pace but the peaceful learning process lost. Hence, children are unable to initiate and decide the sequence of activities at their comfortable speed. However, children are allowed to navigates easily from an event to another. They can change their direction whenever they desire as they click on the home action button to return to main menu.

Listen and Choose Event

Main Menu

8) Real World Model

The graphics did not resemble childrens reality world and,

no actual scale, colour and movement presentation.

The software has no concrete representations, objects function, and simple, reliable model.

However, it presents accurate information and no advertisement.

Still it is an inappropriate developmental software.

9) Technical Features
The program is easy to install and operates quickly after self-loaded. Sometimes the consistency of operation interrupted if run from CD. Therefore, boredom occur while waiting for the program to run smoothly again. The graphics are cluttered in the main menu. Unrealistic graphics presented colourfully which easily capture children attention. If animation is applied too, the learning opportunities will be more unique. Disadvantage, no hands on experience s are to be acquired by children as they have no control on the animation. No purpose to save children work as the program promotes no exploration and

discovery task. Hence no integration between computer experiences and

concrete activities.

10) Transformation
To Learn ABC (1) software unable to provide children the opportunities to control transformations.

Children do not experience how objects and situations change as the software has already predetermined the activities in each events. Therefore no exploration, experiment and discovery for children to practice on and to witness the changes happening. Secondly, children are unable to explore the language through phoneticapproach by blending sound to form word. Hence, children cannot learn the impact of phonemes blending that enhance proper pronunciation of each words.

As a result, objects and situations change, and process highlighter are still remain untapped in this software.

11) Anti-Bias Deduction

The software apply mixed gender role equity as it utilise by children go all gender (boys and girls) and the characters are given an equal role to play.

In it, no multi languages environment and universal focus are applied. Only English language is taught to children with abstract setting compare to childrens daily environment.

People of diverse cultures, differing ages and abilities and diverse family styles are exempted from the software.

Therefore, children are unable to vision the realistic world due to natural component of settings and situations are unavailable for them to explore.


On the overall view, To Learn ABC (1) software is a non developmental children software, as it did not comply with childrens holistic learning developmental. It resembles a developmental software with reinforcements which enhance verbal skills. Through drilling and practicing, the software shows negative and detrimental effect on childrens creative abilities. No opportunities for developing creative thinking and problem solving skills especially for

second language learners.

Furthermore, no communication and teamwork opportunities provided as the program developed for individual participant only. Thus no sharing discovery and communication are promoted. The activities such as filling in the blanks with letters lacks child control and is developmentally inappropriate for young children. Unfortunately, the program has limited activities to accommodate older children needs. Nevertheless, all text and illustrations were verbalised in order to be accessible for children.

Lastly, I still find To Learn ABC (1) software is a total inappropriate developmental
childrens language software.

Title : Publisher : Date Evaluated Evaluated by

To Learn ABC Penerbitan Daya Sdn. Bhd. 8/4/2004 Choong Hardware Eval. On Multiple Platforms Win 95 and above Updated by Copyright

Age: Cost:

Preschool RM13.90

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka & Penerbitan Daya Sdn Bhd


A language program that promotes basic language skills. Children learn the alphabets and objects that begin with the respective letters. Children can select from the seven events to practice on recalling name of letters and spelling or have fun sing along in Music Studio or solve puzzles.

The majority of the activities are close-ended, disallowing children to explore and discover, and be creative while learning literacy skills. Hence no teamwork, no problem solving and no negotiation between peers, which discourage communication and cooperation. Children are drill to practice and memorise the alphabets and spelling. This is clearly a shortcoming of the software. However, easy access feature such as verbalise the text and illustration is utilise to promote childrens friendly criteria. Anyway, the software is a developmentally inappropriate for young children.

Age Appropriate


Realistic Concepts Appropriate Methods

Child In Control


Actors not Reactors

Children Set Pace

Subscore Anti Bias TOTAL

3.5 0.0 3.5

Navigates Easily Throughout Site

Trial & Error


Clear Instructions


Icons Purposes Clear Simple, Precise Directions Verbal Instructions

Expanding Complexity


Low Entry, High Ceiling

Learning Sequence Is Clear

Teaches Powerful Ideas



Adult Supervision Not Needed After Initial Exposure

Non Violence


Software is free of violent characters and actions

Software models positive social values

Process Orientation


Discovery Learning, Not Skill Drilling Intrinsic Motivation Process Engages, Product Secondary

Real World Model


Accurate Information Advertising is Minimal or Not Apparent Concrete Representations Objects Function Simple, Reliable Model


Technical Features


Animation Colourful Operates Consistently Operates Quickly After Loading Prints Realistic Corresponding Sound Effects or Music Uncluttered Realistic Graphics



Objects and Situations Change Process Highlighter

Multiple Languages Universal Focus Mixed Gender and role Equity

Multiple Languages Universal Focus Mixed Gender and Role Equity Exempt

People of Diverse Cultures

People of Diverse Cultures Exempt

Differing Ages and Abilities

Diverse Family Styles

Differing Ability or Age Exempt

Diverse Family Styles Exempt