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Theoretical Framework. Hypothesis Development.

Ch. 5 Steps (4) & (5) from the Research Process

What is a theoretical framework?


A sequential diagram showing the logical sense of the relationships among several factors that have been identified as important to the problem. It discusses the interrelationship among variables affecting or contributing to the problem being studied. It helps formulate a hypothesis.

Variables in a Theoretical Framework


Independent

variable. Dependent variable. Moderating variable. Intervening variable.

Definition
Variable:

is anything that can take on a different value each time it is being measured. Examples: level production / level of absenteeism / level of motivation & morale.

Dependent variable
Is

the variable of primary or main interest to the researcher. (The problem) It has to be measured and quantified to be investigated. Other factors influencing that dependent variable have to be identified.

Examples:

A manager is concerned that the sales of a new product introduced after test marketing it do not meet with his expectations. A researcher is interested in investigating the debt-to-equity ratio of manufacturing companies in southern California. A VP is worried that the employees are not loyal to the organization & want to resign.

Individual exercises

An applied researcher wants to increase the performance of organizational members in a particular bank.

A marketing manager wonders why the recent advertising strategy does not.

What would be the dependent variables in these cases?

The independent Variable


Is the one that influences the dependent variable either positively or negatively. Similar to the concept of contributing factors. When the independent variable is present, the dependent variable is also present in the given situation.

Examples

Research studies indicate that successful new product development has an influence on the stock market price of the company.
New Product Development Stock Market Price Of Company

Cross-cultural studies indicate that managerial values govern the power distance between superiors and subordinates.

Managerial Values

Power Distance

Individual Exercises

A manager believes that good supervision & training would increase the production level of workers.

A consultant is of the opinion that much benefit would accrue by buying & selling at the appropriate times in a financial environment where stocks are volatile.

Good Supervision & Training

Production Level Of Workers

Buying & Selling at Volatile times

Much Benefit At Profitable Stock Prices

The Moderating Variable


A variable that has a strong contingent effect on the relationship between the dependent & independent variables. Its presence modifies the original relationship between the first two variables.

Example One:

A research found that there is a relationship between the availability of Reference Manuals that manufacturing employees have access to, & product rejects.
Availability Of Reference Manuals
Independent Variable

Number Of Faulty Products Rejected


Dependent Variable

This relationship is conditional, or contingent on the assumption that employees use the manual each time they adopt a new procedure.
Number Of Faulty Products Rejected Interest & Inclination Of Employees
Moderating Variable Dependent Variable

Availability Of Reference Manuals


Independent Variable

Example Two:
The Diversity of a workforce contributes more to organizational effectiveness because each group brings its own special expertise & skills to the workplace. This synergy is only exploited if managers know how to extract those special talents of the diverse workforce, otherwise they will remain sealed.

Workforce Diversity
Independent Variable (IV)

Organizational Effectiveness

Dependent Variable (DV)

Managerial expertise & ability to harness Diverse talents


Moderating Variable (MV)

Individual Exercise
Situation One A research study indicates that the better quality of the training programs in organizations & the greater the growth needs of the employees, the greater is their ability to learn how to do new things.
Training programs. Growth needs of employees
IV

Ability to learn How to do new things


DV

Situation Two Another research claims that the willingness of employees to learn new ways to do things is not influenced by the quality of training, UNLESS they have the yearn to grow in their careers. Only those with high growth needs show a greater ability to learn new ways to do things at work.

Training programs.

Ability to learn How to do new things

IV DV

Growth need Among employees


MV

Class Exercise

A manger finds that off-the-job training has a great impact on the productivity of the employees in her department. However, she also observes that employees over 60 years of age do not seem to derive much benefit & do not improve with such training.

Identify the IV, MV, DV


The availability of a large number of books will enhance reading abilities among children. The impact of gender-role stereotyping & access to info. on women advancement to executive levels have been increased. Quick diagnosis of cancer, together with good adherence to doctors instructions could lead to a speedy recovery.

The Intervening Variable


A

variable that surfaces between the time the independent variable starts influencing the dependent variable. It is a function of the independent variable.

Example
The Diversity of a workforce contributes more to organizational effectiveness because each group brings its own special expertise & skills to the workplace. This synergy is only exploited if managers know how to extract those special talents of the diverse workforce, otherwise they will remain sealed.

Example:
Independent Intervening variable Dependent variable

Workforce Diversity

Creative Synergy

Organizational Effectiveness

Managerial Expertise
Moderating variable

Class Exercise
Failure to follow accounting principles causes immense confusion, which in turn creates a number of problems for the organization. Those with vast experience in bookkeeping, however, are able to avert the problems by taking timely corrective action.

Following accounting principles

IV

IVV

Experience In Book-keeping
MV

Good management & Supervision

DV

Organizations Efficiency

Class Exercise
A promotion campaign will increase purchase activity, especially when free prizes are offered. The results come from the urging desire among consumers to save.

IV

IVV

DV

Promotion Campaign

Desire To Save

Purchase Activity

Free Prizes offered

MV

Class Exercise
The manager of Haines co. observes that the morale of employees in her company is low. She thinks that if their working conditions are improved, pay scales raised, & the vacation benefits made attractive, the morale would be boosted. She doubts, however, if an increase of pay scales would raise the morale of all employees. Her conjecture is that, those that have other sources of income will not be turned on by higher pay, & only those without side incomes will be happy with increased pay, and their morale will be boosted.

The Theoretical Framework


The foundation on which the research paper is based. After identifying the variables that contribute to, or affect the problem, the framework should show how they interact with each other. Next, the Hypothesis is developed.

DELTA AIRLINES Co.

According to reports, delta airlines faced charges of air-safety violations due to its cost-cutting schemes. One accident lead to 137 deaths in 1987. The cause were four important factors: poor communication between ground staff & flight crew, poor coordination, minimal training given to flight crew, & a decentralized management structure.

Poor communication
Poor Coordination

Air Safety Violations


DV

Decentralization

Inadequate Training
IVs

Nervousness Low Confidence


IVV

Poor communication
Poor Coordination

Air Safety Violations

Decentralization
DV IVs

Inadequate Training
MV

Hypothesis Development
A hypothesis is a logically defined relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of a testable statement. By testing the hypothesis, it is expected that solutions to the problem can be made.

Example: (a Testable Statement)


If the pilots are given adequate training to handle midair crowded situations, air-safety violations will be reduced.
The above statement can be tested by measuring the extent of training given & the no. of violations committed over a period of time. A statistically significant result would be 95% of those who received training did not encounter violations midair.

Hypotheses Formats
Testable

Statements. IF THEN Statements. Directional & Non-directional Statements. Null hypothesis Statements. Alternate hypothesis Statements.

Directional & Non-Directional

When stating the relationship between two variables or comparing two groups while using terms like: positive,

negative, more than, less than, greater than, better than.

Non-directional statements show a relationship, but without showing the direction of this relationship; cant tell if its positive or negative.

Examples:

1.
2.

3.

4. 5.

Employees who are more healthy will take sick leave less frequently. If employees are more healthy, then they will take sick leave less frequently. The greater the stress experienced in the job, the lower the job satisfaction of employees. Women are more motivated than men. There is a relationship between age & job satisfaction.

Answers to Class Assignment


IVs Skills Required Satisfaction Performance Motivation Attraction of Rewards MV IVV DV

Rewards

Hypotheses
1.

2.

If Attractive rewards are given to skilled employees, then satisfaction & motivation will help improve job performance. Employees who have the required skills & are attracted to the rewards offered, will be motivated & satisfied with their jobs & will improve their performance.

Hypotheses
The more attractive the rewards given to skillful employees, the more likely they will be satisfied & motivated to improve their job performance. Attractive rewards together with the required skills among employees, job performance will be affected.