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Hybrid system for home lighting application

Presented by Deepika.N 4gw05ee009 Rajeshwari.M.S 4gw06ee023 Rajisha.K.P 4gw06ee025 Under the guidance of Sri.Sai Shankar Sri.M.V.Rambabu Lecturer, E&E dept, Senior Engineer GSSSIETW,Mysore BEL, Bangalore

Energy scenario in India:


India

ranks sixth in the world in total energy consumption. Per capita energy consumption in India. Energy consumption pattern in India

Problem definition:
Limitations

of conventional sources Availability of renewable resources Factors limiting the use of the renewable resources Overcoming the disadvantages of renewable sources

Objective of project:
Development

of the source selecting circuit for the solar, wind and conventional source hybrid system considered for the typical home application. Priority setting of the sources.

Hybrid systems:
Definition Aim

of designing of hybrid systems Stages in the design of hybrid system Load analysis of a typical home

Load Analysis:
Name of the Home appliances
Fluorescent tubes Electric bulbs Refrigerator Mixer Television Water pump with level detector Fans Washing machine Iron box Personal computer Boiler

Quantity

Working time Per day


6 hr 2hr 12 hr 15 min 8hr 1 hr 12 hr 30 min 15 min 2 hr 30min

Rated power In watts


40 40 165 550 160 3700 58 400 1000 470 2825

5 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1

Load During Morning:

Load During Afternoon:

Name of the appliances

Working Time

Rated power In watts

Power Consumed in watts

Name of the appliances

Working time

Rated Power In watts

Power consumed In watts

Refrigerator3 hr

165

495

Refrigerator 3 hr

165

495

Mixer

5 min

550

45.833 Mixer 5 min 550 45.833

Television

1 hr

160

160 Television 3 hr 160 480

Water pump Iron box

1 hr

3700

3700 Fan 2 hr 58 116

15 min

1000

250 Washing 30 min machin e 400 200

Boiler

30 min

2825

1412

TOTAL= 495-45.833+160+3700-250-1412= 2647.167 watts

TOTAL=495-45.833+480+116-200= 845.167 watts

Load During Evening:


Name of the appliances Quantity Working Time Rated Power in watts Power Consumed in watts

Tubes

2 3 3 1 1 1 1 1

6hr 1.5hr 2hr 3hr 5min 4hr 1hr 2hr

40 40 165 550 160 58 470

660 240 495 45.833 640 58 940

Bulbs Refrigerator Mixer Television Fan Personal computer

TOTAL=660-240+495-45.833+640+58+940= 2507.167 watts

Load During Night:


Name of the appliances Quantity Working time Rated Power In watts Power Consumed in watts

Fans

8hr each

58

928

Refrigerator

3hr

165

495

TOTAL=928+495= 1423 watts Therefore average load per day = 1855.625 watts (or) 1.855kw

Basic block diagram:

Solar energy conversion system:

India receives the solar energy up to 5 to 7kwh/sq.m Principal of photovoltaic effect Solar cell working Solar modules Standard modules available Orientation of modules

Wind energy conversion system:


Harnessing of wind energy Aero turbines Other components required Average wind speed Height of wind mills

Battery Bank:

Safe charging & discharging are ensured

Inverter:

DC to AC conversion Drives are used to control the output

Implementation:
Development

of source switching circuit for hybrid system

PCB layout:

Hardware description:
Power supply: Power supply Voltage Power supply current Circuit performance

8051 microcontroller:
Features

available Description of microcontroller chip Crystal oscillator employed Inputs & outputs connected

Micro DC Motor:
Principle

of working Rating of motor Purpose of its employment in present circuit

IC ULN2003:

It is a high voltage & high current Darlington transistor arrays. Consists of 7 NPN Darlington pairs with commoncathode clamp diode. Collector current rating of a single pair is 500mA.

Relay:
Electromechanical Working

relay

principle Rating of relay coil Contacts of relay Protection diode

Transformer:
Works

on the principle of mutual inductance Core type Primary winding-230v Secondary-12v-0-12v

Filter Capacitor:

DC Regulator:

It moderates output voltage & current fluctuations in rectifier output.

Electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level.

Potentiometer:

It is a three terminal resistor

with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider.

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD):

It is a electronically modulated optical device It uses very small amount of electrical power LCDs 14 data pins are interfaced with the PIC microcontroller

PIC Microcontroller:

Harvard architecture Lost cost & wide availability General features of PIC microcontroller Features of PIC16F877

Flow Charts:

Priority Table:
SOLAR ENERGY
1 0 0 1 0 1 1

WIND ENERGY
0 1 0 1 1 0 1

KEB
0 0 1 0 1 1 1

OUTPUT
SOLAR WIND KEB SOLAR WIND SOLAR SOLAR

Working:

8051 microcontroller will trigger the relays through IC ULN2003 The relay outputs are step down to 12v The 12v AC is rectified & regulated to 5v DC Input voltage level to the PIC are varied by using the pots Load relay will be triggered based on the source selected source selected is displayed on LCD

Merits:
Pollution

free Advanced design with excellent protections and indications. Provides DC and AC output for various applications. Reduction in the electric bills. Promises the continuous power supply. Improves the standard of living.

Demerits:
High

capital investment. Regular maintenance of batteries. Best suited only where solar and wind are available.

Other Applications:
Traffic

signals. Street lighting. As emergency systems. Large and medium scale industries

Conclusion:
It

ensures an uninterrupted power supply It is a one time investment The hybrid system also represents much more cost effective solutions for electricity supply in remote areas

Future Scope:
By

employing this system the further usage of renewable sources will be increased up to 50% or more the future research, some other criteria such as convenience of region, environmental conscious and performance reliability can be taken into account to make Multi-criteria process

For

References:

Non- conventional Sources of Energy-4th Edition, Rai, G.D Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 2007. Non- Conventional Energy Resources- Khan, B.H., TMH, New Delhi, 2006. Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Systems Mukherjee. D, and Chakrabarti.S, New Age International Publishers, 2005. Electrical India Constrains in Growth of Solar Power Dec2009. Electrical India Wind Energy and its Impact on Environment Dec-2009. Power Line Wind Power in India Grand Hyatt, Mumbai Oct2009. www.//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/solar www.google.com