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DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

ANDHRA PRADESH
Name : U.Rajya Lakshmi
Designation : Lecturer
Branch : Computer Engg.,
Institute : Govt.Polytechnic for Women,
PALAMANER.
Year/Semester : III Semester
Subject : Computer Architecture
Subject Code : CM-303
Topic : CPU Organization
Sub Topic : Instruction Cycle
Duration : 50 Min
Teaching aids : PPT,drawings
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Recap

• Two basic cycles involved in the instruction


execution
Fetch Cycle
Execute Cycle
• Fetch Cycle
During this cycle new instruction is read out from
memory
• Execute Cycle
During this cycle the operation is performed on data

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Objectives

On completion of this period, you would be able


to learn
• Instruction cycle

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Introduction

• Program is a set of instructions

• It is stored sequentially in main memory

• CPU executes each instruction by going


through a cycle, called an instruction cycle

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Instruction Cycle

• Instruction Cycle
The sequence of operations involved in
processing an instruction

• Instruction Cycle
Divided in to two sub cycles
• Fetch phase (or) fetch cycle

• Execute phase (or) execute cycle


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During fetch cycle

• New Instruction is read out from memory

• Then copied in to Instruction Register(IR)

• Program Counter(PC) contents are


updated

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During execute cycle
Contd..

• The instruction is decoded by Instruction


Decoder
and
• The operations specified by instruction are
performed

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During execute cycle
• The time needed to complete fetch operation is
known as fetch cycle time (FC)

• The time taken to perform execution operation is


known as execute cycle time (EC)

• The total time required to perform these two


cycles is called Instruction cycle time(IC)
thus IC=FC+EC

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Timing diagram of Instruction Cycle

Instruction Cycle
clock

time
Fetch cycle Execute cycle

Fig 1 CM303.10 9
Summary
• In this class you have learnt
• The two basic cycles involved in an instruction
execution
Fetch Cycle
Execute Cycle
• New instruction is read out during Fetch cycle
• Operations specified by the instruction are
executed during execute cycle

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Quiz

1. The instruction is read out from memory during

a) Fetch Cycle
b) Execute cycle
c) Instruction cycle

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Quiz

1. The instruction is read out from memory during

• Fetch Cycle
• Execute cycle
• Instruction cycle

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Quiz

2. The two sub cycles of Instruction cycle are

a) Read cycle & execute cycle


b) Fetch cycle & execute cycle
c) Execute cycle & write cycle
d) None of the above

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Quiz

2. The two sub cycles of Instruction cycle are

• Read cycle & execute cycle


• Fetch cycle & execute cycle
• Execute cycle & write cycle
• None of the above

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Frequently Asked Questions

• Define and Explain Instruction cycle with timing


diagram

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