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Effective Communication

Written Communication

Provides records, references and legal defenses. It promotes uniformity in policy and procedure making. Wastage of paper and can be poorly expressed. Does not provide immediate action.

Oral Communication

Expressing ideas and information as well as influencing others through the spoken word Important for any career, whether you use it in informal conversations or business presentations Key Concepts: speaker, message, channel, receiver, feedback, noise, context It does not save time for the managers.

Nonverbal Communication

This includes facial expression and body

Gesture. Estimates vary, but experts agree that at least 50 percent of our communication is nonverbal. Research also shows that confusion, misunderstandings and conflicts arise from nonverbal cues that give the wrong message.

Barriers and Breakdowns in communication

Language : The communication message might not use vocabulary that is understood by the receiver e.g. too much use of technical or financial jargon and international environment. Noise : Various things stop a message from getting through or being heard e.g. poor connection, background noise, distractions, too many people speaking. Overload : Too much information can cause problems e.g. slow down decision making. Emotion : The relationship between the sender and receiver of communication might adversely affect the message which could be ignored or misinterpreted. Gaps : Too many intermediaries (e.g. too many layers in hierarchy through which message has to be passed) might prevent or distort the message.

Guidelines for Improving Communication

Clarify the purpose of the Message Use Intelligible Encoding Consult others views Consider Receivers needs Use appropriate Tone and language Get feedback Consider receivers emotion and motivations Listen


Clearly, listening is a skill that we can all benefit from improving. By becoming better listener, you will improve your productivity, as well as your ability to influence, persuade and negotiate. What's more, you'll avoid conflict and misunderstandings. All of these are necessary for workplace success. We listen to obtain information. We listen to understand. We listen for enjoyment. We listen to learn.

Listening Skills
Listening is a skill that can be developed through appropriate techniques developed by John W.Newstrom and Keith Davis. 1. Stop talking 2. Put the talker at ease. 3. Show the talker that you want to listen 4. Remove distractions 5. Empathize with the talker 6. Be patient 7. Hold your temper 8. Go easy on arguments 9. Ask questions 10. Stop talking.

Electronic Media in Communication

Uses of Electronic Media


software that enables members of groups and teams to share information with each other and improve communication.


company-wide system of computer networks for information sharing by employees inside the firm.


system of computer networks that is easy to join and is used by employees to communicate inside and outside their companies

Information Handling and Networking

Instant Messaging

It shows whether a friend or colleague is connected to the internet; if connected, messages can be exchanged instantly. EX: Google Talk

Information technology makes the global organization possible and enables companies to respond faster to global changes.
With invention of new technology brings a lost of new problem like, privacy invasion, security breaches, and even threats to freedom.

Telecommunication & Teleconferencing

Telecommunication is the use of information transmission over significant distances to communicate.

EX: Computerized airline reservation system facilitates

flight booking.

Group Think

Phenomena in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action