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ME 305 Machine Elements -1

Chapter-5 Static Design Criteria


Department of Mechanical Engineering Atlm University Dr. Ekin Bingl

Factor of Safety

Strength n Stress
A structural member must be designed so that its ultimate load is considereble larger than the load the member or component will be allowed . The ratio of the ultimate load to the alloweble load is defined as the factor of safety.

Ultimate load n Design load

Stress Concentration In the development of the basic stress equations for tension, compression, bending, and torsion, it was assumed that no geometric irregularities occurred in the member under consideration.

But in reality, machine elements have: shoulders in shafts to fit bearings, key slots in shafts for securing pulleys and gears. A bolt has a head on one end and screw threads on the other end Other parts require holes, oil grooves, and notches of various kinds.

Any discontinuity in a machine part alters the stress distribution in the neighborhood of the discontinuity so that the elementary stress equations no longer describe the state of stress in the part at these locations. Such discontinuities are called stress raisers, and the regions in which they occur are called areas of stress concentration.

A theoretical, or geometric, stress-concentration factor Kt or Kts is used to relate the actual maximum stress at the discontinuity to the nominal stress. The factors are defined by the equations

Kt is used for normal stresses and Kts for shear stresses.

It is a highly localized effect.

Static load A static load is a stationary force or couple applied to a member. To be stationary, the force or couple must be unchanging in magnitude, point or points of application, and direction Failure Can mean a part has separated into two or more pieces; has become permanently distorted, thus ruining its geometry; has had its reliability downgraded; or has had its function compromised, whatever the reason.

Static Strength it is necessary to design using published values of yield strength, ultimate strength, percentage reduction in area, and percentage elongation. Important thing is, to design against both static and dynamic loads, 2-D and 3-D stress states, high and low temperatures, and very large and very small parts.

Failure Theories there is no universal theory of failure for the general case of material properties and stress state. Structural metal behavior is typically classified as: Ductile materials (Snek Malzemeler) and Brittle materials(Gevrek Malzemeler ) .

general falure crtera for steady loadng

Ductile materials (yield criteria) f 0.05 and have an identifiable yield strength that is often the same in compression as in tension (Syt (tension yield strength)= Syc(compressive yield strength ) = Sy ) Maximum shear stress (MSS), Distortion energy (DE), Ductile Coulomb-Mohr (DCM). Brittle materials (fracture criteria) f (true strain at fracture ) < 0.05, do not exhibit an identifiable yield strength, and are typically classified by ultimate tensile and compressive strengths, Sut and Suc, Maximum normal stress (MNS) Brittle Coulomb-Mohr (BCM), Modified Mohr (MM)

fracture

Yield strength: the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically

Yielding begins whenever the maximum shear stress in a part becomes equal to the maximum shear stress in a tension test specimen that begins to yield.

The shear yield strength is equal to one-half of the tension yield strength.

(maximum shear stress at yield is max = Sy/2) P , max A 2

For a general state of stress, three principal stresses can be determined and ordered such that 1 2 3. The maximum shear stress is then

General Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory predicts yielding when :

yield strength in shear For design purposes , modifiy to incorporate a factor of safety, n.