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WALL

FUNCTION

To provide protection from weather, animal To divide the areas Act as sound barriers As fire walls to attenuate the spread of fire from one building unit to another Separate the interior spaces To improve the building appearance To provide privacy

MATERIAL FOR WALL CONSTRUCTION

Timber, brick, concrete block, reinforced concrete can be used for wall construction. Good for wall construction due its durability, beauty and able to provide comfortable area Cengal is suitable to be used at hot and cold climate area Meranti can be used for all types of construction in the building. Reinforced concrete used for precast concrete panel

WALL CLASIFICATION
There are 2 types of wall that is: a) Load Bearing Wall Able to carry the load from above (own weight & load from roof) and transfer it to the foundation. b) Non Load Bearing Wall Only carry their own weight

LOAD BEARING WALL


It can be exterior wall or interior wall It brace from the roof to the floor Pre Cast Concrete Wall Retaining Wall Masonry Wall Pre Panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Walls Engineering Brick Wall (115mm, 225mm) Stone Wall

As the height of the building increased, required thickness of wall and resulting stress on foundation will also increase and cause it to be uneconomical.

Able To Carry Other Structure Weight Beside Its Own Weight

Load Bearing Wall

Removing a section of a load bearing wall to create a pass-through requires adding a new beam and columns to support the floor above.

LOAD BEARING WALL

Precast Concrete Wall (Load Bearing Wall)

Pre Panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Walls

Stone Wall (Load Bearing Wall)

Precast Concrete Wall (Load Bearing Wall)

Masonry Wall

Retaining Wall (Load Bearing Wall)

NON LOAD BEARING WALL

known as interior wall (doesnt carry other load than its own load) Types of non load bearing wall a) Hollow Concrete Block b) Faade Bricks c) Hollow Bricks d) Brick Wall (115mm, 225mm)

Brick Wall (Non Load Bearing Wall)

9 Semi Hollow Brick (Non Load Bearing Wall)

Faade Brick Wall (Non Load Bearing Wall)

Hollow Concrete Block Wall (Non Load Bearing Wall)

BRICKS BONDING

Stretcher Bond English Bond Flemish Bond Raking Bond English Garden Wall Bond Common / American Bond Flemish Garden Wall Bond Running Bond Herringbone Bond

Header A brick which is laid in a way that only the short end is visible in the wall

Stretcher A brick which is laid in a way that allows only the longer side of the brick to be exposed.

Flemish Bond Alternate bricks are placed as header and stretcher in every course. Each header is placed centrally between the stretcher immediately above and below. This is not as strong as the English bond at 1 brick thick . Can be successfully applied in cavity wall.

English Bond Alternative courses of headers and stretchers; one header placed centrally above each stretcher. This is a very strong bond when the wall is 1 brick thick (or thicker). One of the strongest brickwork bond patterns.

Stretcher Bond Easiest bond to lay & minimizes the amount of cutting required Originally used for single brick walls, now called 1/2 brick walls it became the obvious choice for cavity walls as less cutting was required.

Raking Bond Herringbone and diagonal bonds can be effective within an exposed framed construction, or contained within restraining brick courses.

English Garden Wall Bond An alternative version of English bond with header courses being inserted at every fourth or sixth course. This is a correspondingly weaker bond. Suitable for free standing wall.

Common / American Bond A brickwork pattern in which all rows are stretchers, except an eighth row of headers

Flemish Garden Wall Bond In this variant of Flemish bond, one header is placed at every third stretcher

Running Bond Consist of all stretchers No header used in this bond so metal ties are used Cavity wall construction & veneered walls of brick

Herringbone Bond It is a purely decorative bond. It is used in floor and wall panels.

CAVITY WALL

A wall constructed in 2 leaves / skins with a space / cavity between them A type of building wall construction consisting of an outer wall fastened to inner wall separated by an air space FUNCTION To prevent the penetration of rain to the internal surface of the wall

Cavity Wall

SHEAR WALL

A framed wall designed to resist lateral wall It is a vertical elements of the horizontal force resisting system It is used to resist wind and earthquake loading on a building. It is typically a wood frame stud walls covered with a structural sheathing material like plywood.

WALL FAILURE

Vertical bowing and horizontal bending or collapse of wall is usually caused by the wall not resisting vertical pressures from foundation or upper floors & roofs or horizontal pressures from strong winds and retained earth.

Usual cause for failure of wall are as follows: - Overloading the wall, deflection of beam above the wall will effect the wall below. - Foundation failure - Earthquake - Timber pest damage weakened the timber wall - Poor workmanship (improper brickwork)

Brick Wall Crack

Brick Wall Failure At The Roof Level

Cracked Wall

Failure In Brick Wall

Dry Rot On Timber Wall Panelling

Wall Failure Due To Earthquake

Termite Damage To The Timber Wall

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DOMO ARIGATO GOZAIMASU / THANK YOU / SYUKRAN