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Refrigeration is the process of providing and maintaining the low temperature below that of surrounding temperature.

Heat is removed from a place where it is not required and rejected where it is not objectionable Analogous to transferring of water from lower level to higher level.

Usually the refrigeration system capacity is represented in tons of refrigeration. It is the quantity of heat required/absorbed to convert one tonne of ice/water at 0 degree C into water/ ice at same 0 degree C in 24 hours. In British Unit 1 Ton of Refrigeration =200 Btu./ min In S I Unit 1 Ton of Refrigeration=3.5 kW

COP =

Useful refrigerating effect --------------------------------Net energy supplied from external source

Mechanical vapor compression system

Vapor absorption refrigeration system

Mechanical vapor compression system


i. ii. iii. iv. The system consists of four processes, vaporization of the refrigerant liquid, compression of the vapor, liquefaction of vapor and Expansion of the liquid refrigerant by using expansion devices.

Major Components Compressor Condenser Expansion Device Evaporator

Components
Compressor Condenser Expansion Valve Evaporator

Process
Compression Condensation Throttling Evaporation

Return air

Motor

Compressor

Metering
Device

Condenser

Compressor Compresses the low pressure & low temp.vapor refrigerant into high pressure & high temp.vapor refrigerant

Condenser Condenses the high pressure & high temp.vapor refrigerant into high pressure &high temp.liquid refrigerant using a cooling medium

Expansion Valve It converts the high pressure & high temp. liquid refrigerant into low pressure & low temp.liquid temp by expansion

Evaporator The low pressure & low temp. liquid refrigerant is converted into low pressure & low temp.vapor refrigerant by absorbing heat

Types of Compressor
Reciprocating Compressor Rotary Compressor Scroll Compressor Centrifugal Compressor Screw Compressor

Reciprocating Compressor

Rotary Compressor...

Scroll Compressor

Scroll Compressor
Suction

(With Centrifugal Compressor)

Refrigeration cycle

Types of Condenser
Air Cooled Condenser Water Cooled Condenser Evaporative Condenser

Air Cooled Condenser

Evaporative Condenser

Expansion Devices
Capillary Tube Automatic Expansion Valve Thermostatic Expansion Valve Electronic Expansion Valve

Thermostatic Expansion valve

Electronic Expansion Valve

Evaporators
Flooded Evaporator

Dry Evaporator

DX Evaporator-Shell &Tube type Water flow thru the shell. Refrigerant is in tubes.

DX Evaporator- Shell &Tube type Water flow thru the shell Refrigerant is in tubes

Refrigerants
Refrigerants are the working fluids in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heat pumping systems They absorb heat from one area, such as an air-conditioned space, and reject it into another, such as outdoors

Phase change
phase changes occur both in absorption and mechanical vapor compression systems. The design of the refrigeration equipment depends strongly on the properties of the selected refrigerant.

Refrigerant selection
A refrigerant must satisfy many requirements, some of which do not directly relate to its ability to transfer heat. Chemical stability under conditions of use is the most important characteristic. Safety codes may require a nonflammable refrigerant of low toxicity for some applications

Cost,availability, efficiency,and compatibility with compressor lubricants and materials with which the equipment is constructed are other concerns. The environmental consequences of a refrigerant that leaks from a system must also be considered.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs),
Because of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) great stability, fully halogenated compounds, it persists in the atmosphere for many years and eventually diffuse into the stratosphere. The molecules of CFCs, such as R-11 and R-12, contain only carbon and the halogens chlorine and fluorine. Once in the upper atmosphere, CFC molecules break down and release chlorine, which destroys ozone (ozone depletion).

Hydro chlorofluorocarbons
(HCFCs).
Substitution of a hydrogen atom for one or more of the halogens in a CFC molecule greatly reduces its atmospheric lifetime and lessens its environmental impact. These compounds are called hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). These compounds containing bromine, fluorine, and carbon. Like CFCs, halons break down, but release bromine, which is even more destructive to stratospheric ozone than chlorine.

Phase out of refrigerants


The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty that controls the production of ozone-depleting substances, including refrigerants containing chlorine and/or bromine (U.N. 1994, 1996). The original Protocol was signed September 16, 1987, by the European Economic Community (currently the European Union) and 24 nations, including the United States. It entered into force on January 1, 1989, and limits the 1998 production of specified CFCs to 50% of their 1986 levels. Starting in 1992, the production of specified halons (including R-13B1) was frozen at 1986 levels. Developing countries were granted additional time to meet these deadlines

Refrigerant properties
Physical Properties i. Low freezing temperature ii. High critical temperature iii. Low specific volume iv. High latent heat Chemical properties i. Chemically stable at all pressures & temperatures ii. Easily mix with lubricating oil iii. No effect on the stored product iv. Should not react with pipe materials

Refrigerant properties
Thermodynamic properties i. Low sp. Heat in gas & high sp. Heat in liquid ii. Non flammable iii. Non toxic iv. Positive pr. in the evaporator
Miscellaneous properties i. Leaking should be easily detected ii. High COP iii. Low power consumption iv. Easily available v. Cheaper price

Leak detection
Leak detection in refrigeration equipment is a major problem for manufacturers and service engineers. The following leak detection methods are used Soap Solution Halogen Leak detector Electronic Detection The electronic detector is the most sensitive of the various leak detection methods.