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HIGHER TIER

JGB2007
ExpIain/give reasons: You are
now being asked to say why
something you have already
described is happening. Use
'because' to help you answer
these questions. There are often
two marks awarded for giving
just one reason. Where this
happens you will be expected to
give a simple statement and its
elaboration.
ommand words tell you exactly what type of information the examiner wants. ommand words tell you exactly what type of information the examiner wants.
ompare: Write
what is similar and
different between
two pieces of
information. Use
the word 'whereas'
to help you
compare.
Describe: Just write
what you see. You may
be asked to describe
what you see on a
photo, graph or map. Do
not explain if you are
only asked to describe.
Justify: You could be
asked to justify a decision
you have made. Explain
your choices in terms of
why they are better than
other options open to you.
Suggest: This is
similar to explain but
tells you that you
are expected to
bring in ideas and
understanding of
our own and is not
provided on the
paper.
at is meant by?: You are
being asked to give a
definition of a geographical
term. You must know the
main terms for each of the
four Units. When asked for a
definition, giving an example
is not enough.
Measure: You may be
asked to measure on a
map or graph. Don't
guess measure
accurately using the scale
provided.
!apers One & Two
Each paper is 90 minutes long and has 90 marks. Once you
have chosen a question to answer out of each pair, you will
have a little less than one minute per mark. Your examiners
will not expect you to write more. Go straight to the point
don't waffle. Be guided by the marks in brackets as to how
many points you need to make.
!apers One & Two
Each paper is 90 minutes long and has 90 marks. Once you
have chosen a question to answer out of each pair, you will
have a little less than one minute per mark. Your examiners
will not expect you to write more. Go straight to the point
don't waffle. Be guided by the marks in brackets as to how
many points you need to make.
!apers Tree & Four
Each of these papers is also 90 minutes
long but has only 60 marks, so there
should be less pressure on time. You will
be given advice at the start of each of the
three parts it is divided into as to how long
you should spend on it. Make sure that
you keep to these times.
The final 'problem-solving' task is in two
parts, a table to help you organise your
ideas and a final letter or report to write.
When completing both, use elaborated
statements. They will gain marks.
!apers Tree & Four
Each of these papers is also 90 minutes
long but has only 60 marks, so there
should be less pressure on time. You will
be given advice at the start of each of the
three parts it is divided into as to how long
you should spend on it. Make sure that
you keep to these times.
The final 'problem-solving' task is in two
parts, a table to help you organise your
ideas and a final letter or report to write.
When completing both, use elaborated
statements. They will gain marks.
%he 2007 Geography exams
tests the four units as
follows:
!apers One & Two
Water, Landforms and
People
Climate, Environment and
People
People, Work and
Development
!apers Tree & Four
People and Place
at is te difference between te two exams?
The idea of Papers Three and Four is to ask you to
solve a problem. n the early parts of the paper you
will be introduced to a place and a problem to be
solved. You will then be given a number of possible
solutions. Your final task on the paper will be to write
what you would do and then justify the decisions you
have made. The final task is in two parts:
a table to help you organise your ideas. When filling
in the table, make sure you use elaborated, 'so what'
statements. They will help you gain marks and will
make it easier to build up your
letter or report to describe and explain the decisions
you have made
FIascards: On small cards, summarise a case study into one (or both) sides of the cards and refer to it
regularly. Make sure that you include key facts and number as you condense the case study to fit the card.
oIour coding: colour code large pieces of text into sections. For example, it could be the social,
economic and environmental impacts of the London Docklands Redevelopment
Memory tests: You could look at an important diagram (erg the cross section of a meander) for 20
seconds, then cover it over and draw what you remember. Then give yourself another 20 seconds to see
what you missed and add it in. Eventually, you will be able to draw the sketch without looking at a copy.
Key words test: You could ask someone to read out 10 definitions and you have to say what the key word
is. Then you could try it the other way around which is harder with someone giving you a key word to define.
Spider diagrams (mind maps): Write a key theme in the centre of an A3 piece of paper. Write the sub-
themes around it with important ideas and case studies to back them up. Look at the example of migration on
the next page to help you. Stick your finished spider diagram somewhere visible where you will be able to
refer to it often (e.g. fridge door, bedroom wall). Take a Iook at te migration spiderdiagram on te next
page!
!ractice exam questions: Look at the examples of past case study questions. Practice writing responses
to these questions using the flashcards or colour coded case studies you have created.
Summarising: Condense a section of text into a set number of bullet points.
Reading aIoud: Read a case study summary aloud, then try to say aloud all the facts and figures you
remember without the summary. You could also read your keyword lists aloud.
Repeated writing: Copy out pieces of information more than one time (five times would be appropriate).
The repetition will help you to fix the facts in your memory.
But I don't know ow to revise! Here are some strategies you couId use. But I don't know ow to revise! Here are some strategies you couId use.
Migration Migration
RuraI-urban
migration
!us factors: things that encourage,
and sometimes force, people to leave
the countryside
not enough jobs
lack of investment
few opportunities
lack of food
political fears
modern machinery means fewer
farmers needed lose jobs
poor facilities e.g. schools, hospitals
crop failure due to natural disasters
such as floods and droughts
overpopulation
!us factors: things that encourage,
and sometimes force, people to leave
the countryside
not enough jobs
lack of investment
few opportunities
lack of food
political fears
modern machinery means fewer
farmers needed lose jobs
poor facilities e.g. schools, hospitals
crop failure due to natural disasters
such as floods and droughts
overpopulation
!uII factors: things that attract
people to the city
more jobs
better housing
education and medical care
'bright lights' entertainment
better way of life
more chance of a good water
supply and more reliable food supply
life expectancy is longer
!uII factors: things that attract
people to the city
more jobs
better housing
education and medical care
'bright lights' entertainment
better way of life
more chance of a good water
supply and more reliable food supply
life expectancy is longer
%he movement of people
from the countryside to the
city (usually LEDCs)
ounterurbanisation
%he process by which people move away
from the major cities to smaller
settlements, often villages (usually
MEDCs).
EmpIoyment: industry declined in inner
cities and move to edge-of-city and rural
sites. People move for promotion or
simply to find a job
Housing: people move away from the
city for large, modern houses with
garages and gardens
EnvironmentaI factors: move away
from noise, air and visual pollution
created by increased traffic in cities to
quieter, less polluted places with open
space
SociaI factors: move away because of
increased crime rates and poorer
educational facilities
%he process by which people move away
from the major cities to smaller
settlements, often villages (usually
MEDCs).
EmpIoyment: industry declined in inner
cities and move to edge-of-city and rural
sites. People move for promotion or
simply to find a job
Housing: people move away from the
city for large, modern houses with
garages and gardens
EnvironmentaI factors: move away
from noise, air and visual pollution
created by increased traffic in cities to
quieter, less polluted places with open
space
SociaI factors: move away because of
increased crime rates and poorer
educational facilities
Forced migration: when people have no
choice and either have to, or are made, to
move.
natural disasters e.g. earthquakes
man-made disasters e.g. war and ethnic
cleansing
overpopulation or a lack of resources,
causing famine
racial discrimination or religious and
political persecution
government schemes e.g. building of a
dam
Forced migration: when people have no
choice and either have to, or are made, to
move.
natural disasters e.g. earthquakes
man-made disasters e.g. war and ethnic
cleansing
overpopulation or a lack of resources,
causing famine
racial discrimination or religious and
political persecution
government schemes e.g. building of a
dam
'oIuntary migration: when
people choose to move
improve standard of living e.g.
better jobs
improve quality of life e.g.
retiring to live in warmer climate
good services and amenities
e.g. schools, hospitals,
entertainment
to be with friends or relatives
'oIuntary migration: when
people choose to move
improve standard of living e.g.
better jobs
improve quality of life e.g.
retiring to live in warmer climate
good services and amenities
e.g. schools, hospitals,
entertainment
to be with friends or relatives
Emigrants: people who leave a
country
Immigrants: people who arrive in a
country
ater, Landforms and !eopIe: Keywords
Abrasion (or corrasion): Erosion caused by the
rubbing and scouring action of rock fragments
carried by rivers.
AIIuvium: Fine soil left behind after a river floods;
also called silt.
Attrition: Erosion caused when rocks and
boulders, transported by rivers and waves, bump
into each other and break up into smaller pieces.
ondensation: The cooling of a gas so that it
changes into a liquid, for instance as water
vapour cools, it condenses to become water
droplets, which, when heavy enough, fall as rain.
onfIuence: The point where two rivers meet.
DeIta: A build up of sediment at the point where a
river meets a sea or lake, due to the water
velocity slowing and the river having less energy
to carry the sediment.
Deposition: The laying down of material carried
by rivers or waves.
Discarge: The amount of water in a river at a
given time, usually measured in cumecs (cubic
metres per second)
Drainage Basin: The area of land drained by a
major river and its tributaries. Also called a 'river
basin'.
Drougt: A prolonged period of weather that is drier
than usual.
Embankment: A raised riverbank built to prevent or
reduce flooding
Erosion: The wearing away of the land by material
carried by rivers and waves.
Estuary: The point at which a river begins to meet the
sea. The river will be tidal, meaning that it will have
both salt water and fresh water in it.
Evaporation: The process by which liquid, such as
water, changes to water vapour when it is warmed.
Evapotranspiration: The loss of moisture from water
surfaces and the soil (evaporation) and vegetation
(transpiration).
FIood: The flow of water over an area that is usually
dry.
FIoodpIain: The wide, flat area at the bottom of a
valley which is often flooded.
Groundwater: Water stored underground in
permeable rocks.
Hydrograp: A graph showing changes in the
discharge of a river over a period of time.
HydroIogicaI (water) cycIe: The continuous recycling
of water between the sea, air and land.
HydrauIic action: Erosion caused by the sheer
force of water breaking off small pieces of rock.
ImpermeabIe: A rock or soil that does not let water
pass through it.
InfiItration: The downward movement of water that
seeps into the soil or a porous rock.
InterIocking spur: Ridges of high ground that
project into V-shaped valleys. They occur on
alternate sides of a valley and interlink.
Lag time: The period of time between peak rainfall
ad peak river discharge.
Levee: An artificial embankment built to prevent
flooding by a river or the sea.
Meander: The winding course of a river
Mout: The end of the river, where it meets the
sea, or a lake.
OverIand fIow: When water flows over the surface
of the ground. This occurs for a number of reasons:
the soil may be saturated and therefore be unable
to absorb any more water; the underlying rock may
be impermeable or the ground may be frozen.
Oxbow Iake: A crescent-shaped lake which has
been cut off from the main river channel and
abandoned.
!ercoIation: The movement of water through the
soil or underlying porous rock. This water collects
as groundwater.
!ermeabIe: A rock or soil that allows water to pass
through it.
!recipitation: The deposition of moisture usually
from clouds. t includes rain, hail, snow, sleet, dew,
frost and fog.
Runoff: Rainfall carried away from an area by
streams and rivers.
SaItation: A process of transportation by rivers in
which small particles bounce along the bed.
SoIution: A type of chemical weathering in which
water dissolves minerals in rocks.
Suspension: A process of transportation by rives in
which material is picked up and carried along within
the water itself.
TrougfIow: The movement of water within the soil
sideways, towards the river.
Traction: A process of transportation by rivers in
which material is rolled among the bed.
Transpiration: The process by which water from
plants changes into water vapour.
Transportation: The movement of materials by
rivers and waves.
Tributary: A small river that flows into a larger river.
'eIocity: The speed of the flow of the river
' saped vaIIey: A narrow, steep-sided valley
formed as a result of rapid erosion by a stream or
river.
aterfaII: A sudden fall of water over a steep drop.
atersed: The boundary separating two river
basins.
&pper ourse MiddIe ourse Lower ourse
Long !rofiIe
Steeply sloping towards the
lower sections of the river
Shallow slopes towards the
mouth of the river
Almost at sea level, very gently
sloping towards its mouth
ross !rofiIe
Steep sided v-shaped valley.
Thin river channel, deep in
places
v-shaped valley remains with a
wider valley floor and the river
begins to meander across it.
The river channel begins to
widen and become deeper.
Wide, shallow valley, with large
flood plains and meanders.
The river channel is wide, deep
and smooth sided.
Erosion &
Deposition
Primarily vertical erosion,
through attrition, abrasion
and hydraulic action. Large
boulders deposited and
eroded in situ.
Continues to cut vertically. But
it also begins to cut laterally as
it gets closer to base level.
Deposition occurs in the slower
moving insides of meanders.
Primarily cuts laterally as it has
almost reached base level.
The erosive energy of the river
is almost totally concentrated
on cutting sideways. Much
deposition occurs.
Transportation Traction and saltation
Saltation, suspension and
solution
Mainly suspension and
solution.
Features
nterlocking spurs; waterfalls;
V-shaped valley; gorges
Meanders; slip-off slopes; ox-
bow lakes
Deltas; flood plains; levees;
meanders; ox-bow lakes
'eIocity
Relatively slow moving.
Despite areas of fast flowing
water, the large amount of
material on the river channel
bed means that friction will
slow the water down.
The water has increased in
speed as the channel widens
and becomes smoother. Some
boulders cause friction to slow
it down a little.
The fastest section of the river,
as the channel is widest, with
very smooth sides, and the
greatest volume of water.
at are te main features of a river?
ater, Landforms and !eopIe
ase Study Questions for te Higer Tier
A pIace tat as been affected by fIooding
Name the place that has been affected by flooding
Describe the effects of flooding on people and the environment
Explain what caused the place to flood
Case Study: Boscastle. Lynmouth or Bangladesh floods
A Iandform tat brings advantages and
disadvantages to an area
For a landform that you have studied:
Name and locate the landform
Describe how the landform was formed
Explain how it brings advantages and
disadvantages to an area
Case Study: Niagara Falls or Ganges Delta
Te effects of a fIood and fIood prevention
For an area where flooding had taken place:
Name the area
Describe how the flood affected people and the environment
Explain what is being done or could be done to prevent
flooding in this area
Case Study: Bangladesh flood
A sceme to cange te suppIy of water
Name a place where the supply of water had
been, or is being, changed by people
Describe how the supply of water was, or is
being changed
Explain how the changing water supply is
affecting, or will affect, different groups of people
or organisations
A Iandform formed by water tat attracts peopIe
A landform formed by water action that attracts people
Describe what attracts people to the landform
Explain how people's use of the landform brings advantages
and disadvantages
Case Study: Niagara Falls
A river Iandform
Name a place where you have studied a river
landform. Name the landform and state whether
it was created by erosion or deposition
Describe how the landform was created
Explain how the river landform has been or is
being used by people and/or organisations
Case Study: Niagara Falls or Ganges delta
A river Iandform
Name and locate the landform
Describe the landform
Explain how it was formed. Use diagrams to help
Case Study: Niagara Falls or Ganges Delta
ASE ST&DY: FIooding in
BangIades, 1998
at were te causes?
Monsoon climate most places
receive between 1800 and 2600mm of
rain a year. 80% of the total is
concentrated in four or five months
Deforestation in Nepal and Himalayas
increases runoff
Deposition of silt which blocks the
main channel and raises the river bed
Human mismanagement building on
floodplains (urbanisation)
High temperatures increases the
melting of snow and glaciers in the
Himalayas
Poorly maintained embankments
(levees) may leak and collapse.
80% of Bangladesh is a huge
floodplain and delta. t is flat, low lying
and easily flooded. The water can
spread over vast distances.
at were te effects?
They covered almost 70% of the country
and affected two-thirds of the population
The water in Dhaka, the capital, was two
metres deep and covered three-quarters of
the city
Electricity supply was cut off for several
weeks and there was no safe drinking water
as the wells were flooded and the water
polluted
7 million homes were destroyed and over
25 million were made homeless
The death toll was over 1300 most deaths
were due to drowning but others died from
diseases such as dysentery and cholera
There were shortages of food and
medicines
Two million tonnes of rice were destroyed
a quarter of the normal crop yield
Half a million cattle and poultry were also
lost
Thousands of kilometres of roads, a third of
the railways and Dhaka's international airport
were all flooded
Damage was estimated at US$1.5 billion
ASE ST&DY: Lynmout FIood
15
t
August 1952
at were te causes of te fIood?
4 months worth of rain had fallen in
the first 2 weeks of August.
The streams on Exmoor were already
full to overflowing.
The streams dropped over 800m in
just 10 miles.
A storm sat over Exmoor on the
evening of the flood and dropped 11
inches of rain in 24 hours.
Streams flowed down narrow steep
sided valleys, crossed by over 30
small stone bridges with limited span.
Bridges created 'debris dams' as they
were blocked by trees and boulders.
When they burst they released a shock
wave of water which surged down into
the village. Around 200,000 tonnes of
rock were washed downstream.
at were te effects of te fIood?
34 people were killed, 28 bridges and 93
houses were totally destroyed or
damaged beyond repair. 420 people
were also left homeless and 66 cars
damaged or washed out to sea. The
army helped to evacuate people who
were stranded in their homes
y was it suc a disaster?
The normal population of only 450
people had been added to by around
700 holidaymakers.
Signs such as the discolouration of the
water were ignored.
Houses had been built right up to the
river.
There was no warning system in
place.
A lot of people did not hear the flood
warning because it was at night
ASE ST&DY: BoscastIe FIood
at were te causes?
The day had been very warm,
drawing in sea breezes along the
coast. When they joined forces with
a wet southerly air flow they shot
upwards with a dangerous mix of
warm, moist, highly unstable air.
The thunderclouds grew so tall that
they created intense rain leading to
more than 5 inches falling around
Boscastle in just a few hours.
With the ground already saturated
from recent rains, the storm waters
were funnelled down steep river
valleys and burst
at were te effects?
90% of Boscastle's economy is dependent on
tourism.
After the flood, more than 20 accommodation
providers were forced to shut
Seven helicopters from the Coastguard, the
Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force hovered
overhead, winching people to safety
Cars, boulders and uprooted trees were
strewn through the streets.
Cars were swept out to sea, bridges were
washed away and people clung to rooftops and
trees
Work has started on new 4.5m flood
defences to protect the Cornish village of
Boscastle from flooding.
Background
Boscastle is situated on the northwest coast of Cornwall, near Bude
t is situated at the confluence of the River Valency and its tributaries
t happened on Monday 16
th
August 2004
ASE ST&DY: River NiIe
and te Aswan Dam
Background
The Nile has been essential in
providing water and nutrients
for Egypt's agricultural land.
The annual floods led the Nile
to deposit nutrients over the
land it flooded assisting in the
fertilising of crops and land.
The irregularity of flooding and
growing demands on the Nile
for providing water led to the
Egyptians wanting to control
the Nile. A growing population
led to an increase in demand
for electricity and agricultural
produce. The answer was to
build the Aswan Dam.
The Aswan Dam was built in
1971. t had a Hydroelectric
Power Station and a large lake
known as Lake Nasser behind
it.
Background
The Nile has been essential in
providing water and nutrients
for Egypt's agricultural land.
The annual floods led the Nile
to deposit nutrients over the
land it flooded assisting in the
fertilising of crops and land.
The irregularity of flooding and
growing demands on the Nile
for providing water led to the
Egyptians wanting to control
the Nile. A growing population
led to an increase in demand
for electricity and agricultural
produce. The answer was to
build the Aswan Dam.
The Aswan Dam was built in
1971. t had a Hydroelectric
Power Station and a large lake
known as Lake Nasser behind
it.
Te benefits and probIems of te Aswan Dam
Fewer nutrients reaching the sea
Flood control
Fewer crops grown for local Egyptians
River navigable all year round
Hydro electric power doubles Egypt's previous output
n time the lake will silt up
More income from cash crops of sugarcane, cotton and
maize
Lack of nutrients reaching the sea has affected shrimp and
sardine catches
High evaporation losses
The large lake can support a fishing industry
Silt not deposited on flood plains because of flood control
meaning fertilisers had to be added
ncrease in Bilharzia
Te Aswan Dam - Facts
Total cost of building the dam was estimated at over $1
billion
One third of the cost was provided by Russia
400 Soviet technicians were employed in the Dams
construction
The Dam was completed in 1968 (but not opened till 1971)
The dam covers an area of over 480km in length and 16
km wide
The Hydro Electric producing capacity is 2,100 megawatts
Te benefits and probIems of te Aswan Dam
Fewer nutrients reaching the sea
Flood control
Fewer crops grown for local Egyptians
River navigable all year round
Hydro electric power doubles Egypt's previous output
n time the lake will silt up
More income from cash crops of sugarcane, cotton and
maize
Lack of nutrients reaching the sea has affected shrimp and
sardine catches
High evaporation losses
The large lake can support a fishing industry
Silt not deposited on flood plains because of flood control
meaning fertilisers had to be added
ncrease in Bilharzia
Te Aswan Dam - Facts
Total cost of building the dam was estimated at over $1
billion
One third of the cost was provided by Russia
400 Soviet technicians were employed in the Dams
construction
The Dam was completed in 1968 (but not opened till 1971)
The dam covers an area of over 480km in length and 16
km wide
The Hydro Electric producing capacity is 2,100 megawatts
ASE ST&DY: A Iandform
formed by deposition -
Ganges DeIta
The Ganges and the
Brahmaputra rivers slow down as
they reach the mouth. They start
to deposit the massive loads of
sediment collected on their
journeys.
Now they are one river, but
sediment blocks the main path.
The river is forced to split its way
to the ocean. These channels
are called distributaries.
The Ganges River has eight
main distributaries, and there are
hundreds of smaller ones.
The entire delta region covers
an area of around 75,000 square
kilometres, which makes it the
biggest in the world.
The Ganges and the
Brahmaputra rivers slow down as
they reach the mouth. They start
to deposit the massive loads of
sediment collected on their
journeys.
Now they are one river, but
sediment blocks the main path.
The river is forced to split its way
to the ocean. These channels
are called distributaries.
The Ganges River has eight
main distributaries, and there are
hundreds of smaller ones.
The entire delta region covers
an area of around 75,000 square
kilometres, which makes it the
biggest in the world.
FertiIe fIoodpIains
Bangladesh's delta is one of the most populated in the world. Many
of the country's 132 million people depend on the delta for their
survival.
Two-thirds of Bangladeshis work in agriculture, and grow crops on
the fertile delta floodplains. Jute fibre, used to make twine and
sacking, is Bangladesh's main export crop.
Farming depends on the annual flooding of the Ganges to bring
fresh supplies of nutrient rich sediment to their fields. But living in the
path of the Ganges is a dangerous. One way people have adapted to
this risk is to build their homes on top of earthen platforms, or
embankments.
FertiIe fIoodpIains
Bangladesh's delta is one of the most populated in the world. Many
of the country's 132 million people depend on the delta for their
survival.
Two-thirds of Bangladeshis work in agriculture, and grow crops on
the fertile delta floodplains. Jute fibre, used to make twine and
sacking, is Bangladesh's main export crop.
Farming depends on the annual flooding of the Ganges to bring
fresh supplies of nutrient rich sediment to their fields. But living in the
path of the Ganges is a dangerous. One way people have adapted to
this risk is to build their homes on top of earthen platforms, or
embankments.
Economy
Fishing has long played a part in the lives of the Bangladeshi people,
and its fisheries are the biggest in the world after China and ndia.
Where the freshwater of the Ganges mixes with the saltwater of the
ndian Ocean, the brackish (slightly salty) water is ideal for producing
shrimp by a new and fast-growing type of fish farming called
aquaculture.
Here, high-value fish like shrimp and salmon are farmed in containers
or cages that are submerged in the open water. The fish are mainly
sold for export.
Economy
Fishing has long played a part in the lives of the Bangladeshi people,
and its fisheries are the biggest in the world after China and ndia.
Where the freshwater of the Ganges mixes with the saltwater of the
ndian Ocean, the brackish (slightly salty) water is ideal for producing
shrimp by a new and fast-growing type of fish farming called
aquaculture.
Here, high-value fish like shrimp and salmon are farmed in containers
or cages that are submerged in the open water. The fish are mainly
sold for export.
GIobaI arming
One of the likely results of global warming is a gradual rise in sea levels. This could be 0.5 metres by 2100.
t could mean that six million Bangladeshis loose their homes. t could permanently flood the low-lying delta
region we have travelled through. t could also increase the frequency of cyclones, and after the timing and
severity of monsoons.
GIobaI arming
One of the likely results of global warming is a gradual rise in sea levels. This could be 0.5 metres by 2100.
t could mean that six million Bangladeshis loose their homes. t could permanently flood the low-lying delta
region we have travelled through. t could also increase the frequency of cyclones, and after the timing and
severity of monsoons.
ASE ST&DY: Drougt in te &K, 1995-96 ASE ST&DY: Drougt in te &K, 1995-96
The UK has a temperate climate and can expect to
have rain throughout the year enough to supply the
country's needs.
Since the 1950s the country has suffered two major
droughts causing unexpected problems
n the north of England water was so scarce that a
fleet of 200 tankers working 24 hours a day, 7 days a
week was used to transfer water to empty reservoirs.
1995 and 1996 were the two driest consecutive years
for over 200 years.
at were te sort term effects?
Garden hosepipes were banned and water rationing
was introduced
Clay soils dried out and buildings were damaged as
their foundations moved.
Grass stopped growing, leaving a shortage of cattle
feed
Crops died in the hot, dry conditions
at were te Iong term effects?
Legislation was introduced to try to reduce water
consumption by both private and industrial users.
Water authorities planned to increase water storage
capacity and link reservoirs to make transfers easier.
at were te causes?
The 1995 "high summer" in the UK was
the warmest and driest on record.
The exceptional warmth began in the last
week of June, and the mean July and
August Central England temperature was
3C higher than the average recorded
between 1961 and 1990.
Total England and Wales rainfall for July
and August was only 47mm compared to a
1961-1990 average of 139mm.
ASE ST&DY: Drougt in te Etiopia, 1983-84 ASE ST&DY: Drougt in te Etiopia, 1983-84
Ethiopia is one of the world's poorest
countries
Aid came from charities like Oxfam and
Band Aid as well as from governments and
other organisations. Sadly, civil war and poor
transport left much of the donated foodstuffs
rotting in ports
at were te sort term effects?
serious shortage of food and water caused
widespread starvation and illness
about 500 000 people died. The young and
elderly were especially affected.
people migrated from areas that were too
remote to receive food aid. Many ended up
in refugee camps.
at were te Iong term effects?
up to a million people who were
malnourished and poverty stricken continued
to need aid
regular aid from developed countries has
imporved agricultural output and provided
people with security
!eopIe and !Iace: Keywords
AccessibiIity: how easy a place is to get to
Birt rate: the number of live births per 1000
people per year
BrownfieId site: An area of land that has been
built on and is ready for redevelopment
Bustee: an ndian term for a shanty town
entraI Business District (BD): The
commercial and business centre of a town or city
where land values are at their highest
ommuter: A person who lives some distance
from their home to their place of work
ounter urbanisation: the movement of people
and employment away from large cities to
smaller settlements within the countryside
Deat rate: the number of deaths per 1000
people per year
Demograpic transition modeI: a model that
tries to show how changes in birth and death
rates over a period of time may be related to
different stages of development
DenseIy popuIated: an area of land that is
crowded with people
DeveIoped countries: Countries that are usually quite
rich, have many services and a high standard of living.
Also called 'more economically developed countries'
(MEDCs)
DeveIoping countries: Countries that are often quite
poor, have few services and a low standard of living.
Also called 'less economically developed countries'
(LEDCs)
Function: the main purpose of a town or settlement.
Functions include markets, industry, port and resort
facilities.
Green beIt: an area of land around a city where the
development of housing and industry is severely
restricted and the countryside is protected for farming
and recreation.
GreenfieId site: an area of land that has not previously
been built on
Gross nationaI product (GN!) per capita: The total
value of goods and services produced by a country in a
year divided by its total population.
Hierarcy: a ranking of settlements or shopping
centres according to some measure of their importance
e.g. number of services, size, population etc
Hig order goods: products that are usually
expensive and only bought occasionally
Immigrant: a person who arrives in a country with
the intention of living there
Infant mortaIity: the average number of deaths of
children under one year of age per 1000 live births
Inner city: the part of an urban area next to the city
centre characterised by older housing and industry
Life expectancy: The average number of years a
person born in a particular country can be expected
to live
Literacy rate: the proportion of people who can
read and write
Location: the position of a place or feature
Low order goods: products that are usually low
cost and bought often
Migration: the movement of people from one place
to another to live or work
NaturaI increase: the growth in population resulting
from birth rates being greater than death rates
!opuIation density: the number of people living in
a given area, usually one square kilometre (1 km)
!opuIation distribution: how people are spread
out over an area
!opuIation expIosion: a sudden rapid rise in the
number of people in an area
!opuIation growt: the increase in the number of
people in an area
!opuIation pyramid: a type of horizontal bar
graph used to show the population structure of an
area
!uII factors: things that attract people to live in an
area
!us factors: things that make people want to
leave an area
QuaIity of Iife: a measure of how happy and
content people are with their lives
RedeveIopment: attempts to improve an area
Refugees: people who have been forced to move
away from their own country and are therefore
homeless
Regeneration: renewing or improving something
that has been lost or destroyed
RetaiIing: the sale of goods individually or in small
quantities, usually to shoppers
RuraI-urban fringe: the area where the city and
countryside meet. There is often competition for
land use here.
RuraI-urban migration: the movement of people from the
countryside to towns and cities where they wish to live
SeIf-eIp sceme: a method of improving shanty town areas by
encouraging and helping people to improve their own housing
Santy town: a collection of shacks and poor quality housing
which often lack electricity, a water supply or any means of
sewage disposal. They are common in developing countries and
may also be called 'squatter', 'spontaneous' or 'informal'
settlements
Site: the actual place where a settlement is located
Situation: the location of a settlement in relation to the places
surrounding it.
SparseIy popuIated: an area that has few people living in it
Suburbanised viIIages: small settlements which have grown in
size and become urban areas in countryside surroundings. Also
called 'dormitory towns' or 'commuter settlements', as many
residents who live and sleep there travel to nearby towns for work
Suburbs: a zone of housing around the edge of a city
&rban growt: the increase in the size of towns and cities
&rban Iand use modeI: a simple map to show how land is used
in a city
&rban sprawI: the unplanned, uncontrolled growth of urban
areas into the surrounding countryside
&rbanisation: the increase in the proportion of people living in
towns and cities
!eopIe and !Iace
ase Study Questions for te Higer Tier
!opuIation cange and ow it affects a pIace
Name a place where the population is changing
Describe how the population is changing
Explain to what extent the changes have affected the place
Case Study: Woodbury or Mexico to USA
Different types of ousing in a town or city
For a named town or city in an MEDC or an LEDC
Name the town or city
Describe the distribution of different types of housing
Explain why different groups of people live in these
housing areas
Case Study: Rio de Janeiro
An area tat ad been improved in a town or city
in an MED
For a named town or city in an MEDC
Name and locate an area that has been improved
Describe the problems that needed solving in the
area
Explain how successful the improvements have been
for different groups of people living in or close to this
area
Case Study: London Docklands
anges in Iand-use or a service
Name a place you have studied where a land-use or a service
has changed
Describe how the land-use or service had changed
Explain how the change affected different groups of people and
the environment
Case Study: Metrocentre Gateshead
A pIace from were peopIe ave migrated
Name a place from where people have migrated
Describe the place they migrated away from
Explain why the moved away. Refer to push and pull
factors
Case Study: Mexico to USA, Zimbabwe to South
Africa
A pIace tat peopIe ave migrated away from
Name a place from where people have migrated
Was this place urban or rural?
Describe the factors that caused people to migrate. Refer to push
and pull factors
Explain how the areas they migrated away from was affected
Case Study: Mexico to USA
Improving services
Name a place where services have been improved
State whether this place is an urban or rural area
Describe how the services have been improved
Explain how these improvements affected different groups of
people
Case Study: London Docklands or Metrocentre Gateshead
SociaI Improvements
22 000 new homes created luxury flats
several huge shopping malls
10 000 refurbished former council terraced
houses
post-16 college and campus for new
University of East London
leisure facilities including water sports
marina
SociaI Improvements
22 000 new homes created luxury flats
several huge shopping malls
10 000 refurbished former council terraced
houses
post-16 college and campus for new
University of East London
leisure facilities including water sports
marina
EnvironmentaI Improvements
750 hectares of derelict land reclaimed
200 000 trees planted and 130 hectares of
open space created
EnvironmentaI Improvements
750 hectares of derelict land reclaimed
200 000 trees planted and 130 hectares of
open space created
Economic Improvements
Jobs rose from 27 000 in 1981 to 90 000 in
2000
Many new firms and institutions e.g. TV
studios
Many high rise office blocks
Docklands Light Railway links the area with
central London
City Airport
Jubilee Line Underground Extension
Many new roads, including M11 link
Economic Improvements
Jobs rose from 27 000 in 1981 to 90 000 in
2000
Many new firms and institutions e.g. TV
studios
Many high rise office blocks
Docklands Light Railway links the area with
central London
City Airport
Jubilee Line Underground Extension
Many new roads, including M11 link
y was redeveIopment needed?
During the 19
th
century, London was the world's
busiest port.
By 1981, tecnoIogy had created the decline and
closure of the docks.
ontainerisation decreased the need for many
dockers. Goods arriving in the port now came in big
containers and were loaded and unloaded by cranes
needing less workers.
Larger ships could no longer reach the port.
The area has become virtually derelict, with few
jobs, few amenities and poor living conditions.
How did tey attract new businesses?
They established the area as an Enterprise Zone
means businesses can trade tax free for the first 10
years. Land rents were also lowered.
as it a success for everyone?
local residents couldn't afford the expensive flats
jobs in new ig-tec industries are few in
number and requires the skills that former dockers
didn't have
'yuppie' newcomers didn't mix with original
'Eastenders' close knit communities broken up
not enough services provided e.g. hospitals and
care for the elderly
ASE ST&DY: London DockIands
ASE ST&DY: &rban probIems in MEDs - London ASE ST&DY: &rban probIems in MEDs - London
There is an estimated 400 homeless people in London every night. Men make up 90% of those sleeping on
the streets.
London produces enough litter to fill an Olympic sized swimming pool every four hours!
Graffiti artists cost London 100 million a year. This includes removing their 'art' from the walls of schools,
hospitals and businesses. t means that vital cash is not being used to improve public services.
High unemployment in inner city areas (where the old industries were once located) leads to social
problems.
The government say a tax of 1p a packet is needed on chewing gum to help pay for the 150 million per
year cost of cleaning it off the streets.
Each year, 2 700 tonnes of smoking-related litter is thrown on London's streets.
Air pollution caused by nitrogen dioxide in parts of London is almost three times higher than it should be.
Rundown areas of London have been awarded a total of 2.5 million in grants to help pay for regeneration
projects.
The most expensive land in the UK is in London and the South East. The price of a hectare of land is now
nearly 5.5 million. n 1983, it was just 759 000.
Experts say that air pollution is quickening the death of 8 000 people per year who are already ill.
Building new, affordable homes in urban areas is difficult. Land values are very high and land is in short
supply.
Racial tension was to blame for transforming Brixton in south London into a battlefield in 1981. Hundreds
of black and white youths attacked the police, set cars alight and looted shops. Over 300 people were injured
and an estimated 7.5 million damage was caused.
nner city areas are the worst affected by violence, robbery and burglary.
Traffic is a problem. Car ownership and commuting means an increase in congestion and pollution.
Wasteland is an eyesore and affects local communities. This might include areas such as disused
factories, rundown parks, neglected council estates or pot-holed car parks.
ASE ST&DY: Migration from Mexico into &SA
Background
n, 1998, there were 5 million migrants into the USA and only one million were legal. Over half,
2.7 million, were from Mexico. Last year there were 356 deaths along the border. The USA
claims the main cause was exhaustion. Many try to cross the border in the hope of a better life.
The border is 1, 950 miles long and patrolled by armed guards in jeeps, on horses and in
helicopters with searchlights. Many become "Jonaleros, Mexican migrants who wait on street
corners in American cities to be collected for work such as painting, moving furniture,
gardening and farming. Many try to cross the Rio Grande which forms half of the border to
separate the two countries.
y do Mexicans risk teir Iives to get into te &SA?
Five percent of Mexico's population are undernourished. This isn't a problem in the
USA.
88% of people in Mexico have access to safe drinking water. n the USA everybody
has access to safe drinking water.
The average hourly wage in Mexico is $ 3.49 but it is $ 6.75 in California, USA.
Unemployment is rising in large parts of Mexico. Mining is no longer as profitable.
The USA government spends more money on education and healthcare than Mexico's
government.
18% of people in Mexico live on less than 60 pence per day, it is less than 1% in the
USA.
n the USA, 8 out of 10 have a car. n Mexico, 2 out of 10 have a car.
ase Study: Metroentre, Gatesead - an out of town sopping centre ase Study: Metroentre, Gatesead - an out of town sopping centre
Advantages of te site
an enterprise zone allowed a
relaxation in planning controls and
exemption from rates
the area was previously marshland
and relatively cheap to buy, and the
47 hectare site had possibilities for
future expansion
t is adjacent to the western by-pass
which links with the North East's
modern road network
1.3 million people live within 30
minutes drive
t is next to a main railway line, with
its own station
Advantages of te site
an enterprise zone allowed a
relaxation in planning controls and
exemption from rates
the area was previously marshland
and relatively cheap to buy, and the
47 hectare site had possibilities for
future expansion
t is adjacent to the western by-pass
which links with the North East's
modern road network
1.3 million people live within 30
minutes drive
t is next to a main railway line, with
its own station
Te sceme
Free parking for 10 000 cars with special
facilities for the disabled driver, and new bus
and rail stations for non-motorists.
There are over 300 shops and 40 eating
places
pleasant shopping environment wide, tree-
lined malls, air conditioning, one kilometre of
glazed roof to let in natural light, numerous
seats for relaxing, window boxes and
escalators and lifts for the disabled
a market effect has been created by traders
selling goods fro decorative streets barrows,
and there is a wide variety of places to eat
leisure is a vital part there is a ten-screen
cinema, a crche for children, a space city for
computer and space enthusiasts, a covered
fantasy land with attractions of the fair, a
children's village with children's shops.
A 150 room luxury hotel has been built as
part of the complex
Te sceme
Free parking for 10 000 cars with special
facilities for the disabled driver, and new bus
and rail stations for non-motorists.
There are over 300 shops and 40 eating
places
pleasant shopping environment wide, tree-
lined malls, air conditioning, one kilometre of
glazed roof to let in natural light, numerous
seats for relaxing, window boxes and
escalators and lifts for the disabled
a market effect has been created by traders
selling goods fro decorative streets barrows,
and there is a wide variety of places to eat
leisure is a vital part there is a ten-screen
cinema, a crche for children, a space city for
computer and space enthusiasts, a covered
fantasy land with attractions of the fair, a
children's village with children's shops.
A 150 room luxury hotel has been built as
part of the complex
ASE ST&DY: !robIems in an LED
city - Rio de Janeiro
ASE ST&DY: !robIems in an LED
city - Rio de Janeiro
Location and growt
Situated around a huge harbour in
south-east Brazil
n 2002, some 6 million people lived in
the main urban area and 10 million in the
metropolitan area
Location and growt
Situated around a huge harbour in
south-east Brazil
n 2002, some 6 million people lived in
the main urban area and 10 million in the
metropolitan area
!robIem 1: Housing
Half a million homeless street dwellers, over 1
million people live in favelas and another 1 million
in poor quality local authority housing (periferia)
There are over 600 favelas, with the largest
being Rocinha with a population of 100 000
The houses are made from any materials
available wood, corrugated iron, broken bricks
Most favelas are built on hillsides that are too
steep for normal houses
When it rains, flash floods and mudslides carry
away the weak houses storms in 1988 killed
over 200 people
There's a strong community spirit, a rich street
life and plenty of football and samba music
!robIem 1: Housing
Half a million homeless street dwellers, over 1
million people live in favelas and another 1 million
in poor quality local authority housing (periferia)
There are over 600 favelas, with the largest
being Rocinha with a population of 100 000
The houses are made from any materials
available wood, corrugated iron, broken bricks
Most favelas are built on hillsides that are too
steep for normal houses
When it rains, flash floods and mudslides carry
away the weak houses storms in 1988 killed
over 200 people
There's a strong community spirit, a rich street
life and plenty of football and samba music
!robIem 2: rime
Favelas perceived as areas associated with
organised crime, violence and drug trafficking
Well off Rio residents now moving out of the city
to places such as Barra da Tijuca think its cleaner
and safer
Tourists are warned no to take valuables or wear
jewellery or watches on the beach
!robIem 2: rime
Favelas perceived as areas associated with
organised crime, violence and drug trafficking
Well off Rio residents now moving out of the city
to places such as Barra da Tijuca think its cleaner
and safer
Tourists are warned no to take valuables or wear
jewellery or watches on the beach
!robIem 3: Traffic
Mountains contain the city and
force traffic along a limited
number of routes. There is
severe congestion, pollution and
24 hour noise
!robIem 3: Traffic
Mountains contain the city and
force traffic along a limited
number of routes. There is
severe congestion, pollution and
24 hour noise
!robIem 4: !oIIution
ndustrial haze, made worse by traffic
fumes, hangs over Guanabara Bay. The
beaches and sea are also polluted.
Huge amount of waste produced. n the
favelas waste is unlikely to be collected.
Together with polluted water supplies and
sewage in open drains causes health risks
(outbreak of cholera in 1992)
ASE ST&DY: SoIutions to
probIems in LED cities - Rio de
Janeiro
ASE ST&DY: SoIutions to
probIems in LED cities - Rio de
Janeiro
SeIf-eIp scemes -
Rocina
Slowly transformed their
favela into a small city. Most
of the original temporary
wooden buildings have been
upgraded to brick and tile.
Residents have set up their
own shops and small
industries (informal sector)
and created places of
entertainment.
Authorities work with local
residents associations. They
have added electricity
(satellite TV!), paved and lit
some of the steeper streets
and added water pipes.
mprovements are restricted
by the high density of
housing.
SeIf-eIp scemes -
Rocina
Slowly transformed their
favela into a small city. Most
of the original temporary
wooden buildings have been
upgraded to brick and tile.
Residents have set up their
own shops and small
industries (informal sector)
and created places of
entertainment.
Authorities work with local
residents associations. They
have added electricity
(satellite TV!), paved and lit
some of the steeper streets
and added water pipes.
mprovements are restricted
by the high density of
housing.
Te city autority's FaveIa Bairro project
n the 1990s the city authorities set aside 200
million to improve living conditions in 60 of the 600
favelas.
Authorities claimed that they wanted to transform
the favelas socially and culturally and to integrate
them as part of the city
Te city autority's FaveIa Bairro project
n the 1990s the city authorities set aside 200
million to improve living conditions in 60 of the 600
favelas.
Authorities claimed that they wanted to transform
the favelas socially and culturally and to integrate
them as part of the city
at did te project invoIve?
Replacing old buildings with brick-built housing the new
houses are much larger (5 x 4 metres) and have a yard of
equal size
Widening selected streets so that emergency services and
waste collection vehicles can get through
Laying pavements, concrete paths, water pipes and
electricity cables
mproving sanitation, adding health facilities and providing
sports areas
Using labour within each favela so that residents can
develop and use new skills in return residents have to pay
taxes to the authorities.
at did te project invoIve?
Replacing old buildings with brick-built housing the new
houses are much larger (5 x 4 metres) and have a yard of
equal size
Widening selected streets so that emergency services and
waste collection vehicles can get through
Laying pavements, concrete paths, water pipes and
electricity cables
mproving sanitation, adding health facilities and providing
sports areas
Using labour within each favela so that residents can
develop and use new skills in return residents have to pay
taxes to the authorities.
Iimate, Environment and !eopIe: Keywords
Acid rain: Rainwater containing chemicals that result
from burning fossil fuels
AItitude: the height of a place above sea level
AnticycIone: an area of high pressure usually
associated with fine, settled weather
Aspect: the direction towards which a slope or
building faces
Biome: a large ecosystem containing the same types
of vegetation and animal life. Examples include the
tropical rainforest and savanna grasslands
Iimate: the average weather conditions of a place
over many years
ondensation: the process by which water vapour
changes to a liquid (rain) or a solid (snow) when
cooled
onservation: the care and protection of resources
and the environment
onvectionaI rainfaII: rain that is produced when
the sun heats the ground causing warm air to rise
Deforestation: the complete clearance of forested
land.
Depression: an area of low pressure usually
associated with cloud, rain and strong winds
Desertification: the gradual change of land into
desert
Ecosystem: a system where plants and animals
interact with each other and their natural
surroundings
Environment: the surrounding in which people,
plants and animals live
Food cain or food web: the transfer of energy
through and ecosystem from primary producers to
consumers and decomposers
FossiI fueIs: energy resources such as coal, oil
and natural gas which come from the fossilised
remains of plants and animals
Front: the boundary between two masses of air
one of which is colder and drier than the other
FrontaI rainfaII: rain that occurs where warm air
rises over cold air in a depression
GIobaI arming: the increase in the world's
average temperature, believed to result from the
release of carbon dioxide and other gases into
the atmosphere
Greenouse effect: the way that gases in the
atmosphere trap heat from the sun
Hurricane: A severe tropical storm with low pressure,
heavy rainfall, and winds of extreme strength which an
cause widespread damage. Also called a tropical
cyclone
Isobar: a line joining points of equal pressure
Latitude: the distance of a place north or south from the
equator
Nutrient recycIing: the process by which minerals
necessary for plant growth are constantly re-used. They
are taken up from the soil by plants then returned when
the plants shed their leaves or die.
Ocean currents: the flow of water in certain directions
within the sea
OvercuItivation: the exhaustion of the soil by growing
crops especially the same crop on the same piece of
land year after year
Overgrazing: where there are too many animals form
the amount of food available, which may lead to the
destruction and loss of the protective vegetation cover
!otosyntesis: the process by which green plants
turn sunlight into plant growth
!oIIution: noise, dirt and other harmful substances
produced by people and machines which spoil an area
!recipitation: the deposition of moisture
usually from clouds. t includes rain, hail,
snow, sleet, dew, frost and fog
!revaiIing wind: the direction from which the
wind usually comes
ReIief: the shape and height of the land
ReIief rainfaII: rain caused by air being forced
to rise over hills or mountains
Resource: an material or product that people
find useful
SoiI erosion: the wearing away and loss of
topsoil, mainly by the action of wind, rain and
running water.
Storm surge: a rapid rise in sea level caused
by storms especially tropical cyclones
forcing water into a narrowing sea area
Synoptic cart: a map showing the state of
the weather at a given time
eater: the day to day conditions of the
atmosphere, including temperature, sunshine,
rainfall and wind
Iimate, Environment and !eopIe
ase Study Questions for te Higer Tier
A weater event
Name a weather event you have studied
Describe how the weather event affected
different groups of people and the environment
Explain why the weather event took place
Case Study: 1987 Great Storm or Hurricane
Katrina
onserving an ecosystem tat is
being damaged
Name and locate an ecosystem that is
being damaged
Describe how the ecosystem is being
damaged
Explain how different groups of people
or organisations are trying to conserve
this ecosystem
Case Study: Amazon (tropical)
rainforest
Te effects of peopIe on an ecosystem
Name and locate an ecosystem
Describe the structure of the ecosystem. Refer to
plants and animals
Explain how and why people are changing (or
have changed) the ecosystem
Case Study: Amazon (tropical) rainforest
An ecosystem tat is being used in an
unsustainabIe way
Name a place where you have studied
an ecosystem that is being used in an
unsustainable way by people or
organisations
Name the type of ecosystem you have
studied
Describe how people or organisations
are using this ecosystem
Explain why this makes the ecosystem
unsustainable
Case Study: Amazon (tropical)
rainforest
A type of cIimate
Name a type of climate you have studied
Name a place where this type of climate can be
found
Describe the main features of this type of
climate. Refer to a whole year
Explain how plants and wildlife or different
groups of people are affected by this type of
climate
Case Study: Equatorial climate
Narrow zone which extends roughly 5S north and south of the
equator. The zone is not continuous it is broken by mountain ranges
such as the Andes in South America.
The main areas are the Amazon, Congo and extreme south-east of
Asia
Hot, wet and humid throughout the year
There are no seasons and the daily weather pattern is repeated
every day of the year
Temperatures
High and constant throughout the year with a small annual
range (2SC)
Position of the sun influences temperatures high angle in the
sky
Evening temperatures rarely fall below 22SC while daytime
temperatures, due to afternoon cloud and rain, rarely rise above
32SC
Places on the equator receive 12 hours of daylight and 12
hours of darkness every day
RainfaII
Annual totals of places on the
equator exceed 2000mm per year
The rain falls most afternoons in
heavy convectional thunderstorms
EquatoriaI
cIimate
EquatoriaI
cIimate
DaiIy pattern of weater
Sun rises at 0600 hours and its heat
soon evaporates the morning mist and
heavy overnight dew
By 0800 hours the temperatures are
as high as 25SC and by noon, when
the sun is vertical, they reach 33SC
High temperatures cause air to rise
in powerful convection currents. The
rising air, which is very moist due to
rapid evapotranspiration from swamps,
rivers and the rainforest vegetation,
cools on reaching higher altitudes
When it cools and condenses large
cumulonimbus clouds develop. By
mid afternoon they produce torrential
downpours, with thunder and lightning
By sunset at about 1800 hours, the
clouds have begun to break up
ASE ST&DY: Deforestation in
te Amazon Basin
ASE ST&DY: Deforestation in
te Amazon Basin
ause 1: Farming
SIas and Burn: traditional method of
forest clearance
Subsistence farming: increase when
the government gave land to 25 million
landless people in Brazil. 10km strips
of land cleared along highways and
settlers from outside brought in
ommerciaI cattIe rancing: large
transnational companies sell beef
mainly to fast food chains. They burn
the forest, replacing trees with grass
ause 1: Farming
SIas and Burn: traditional method of
forest clearance
Subsistence farming: increase when
the government gave land to 25 million
landless people in Brazil. 10km strips
of land cleared along highways and
settlers from outside brought in
ommerciaI cattIe rancing: large
transnational companies sell beef
mainly to fast food chains. They burn
the forest, replacing trees with grass
ause 2: Transport
Over 12 000km of new roads have
been built, the largest being the
5300km Trans-Amazonian highway.
These roads were built to transport
timber, minerals, farm produce and
people. A 900km railway has been built
from Carajas to the coast.
ause 2: Transport
Over 12 000km of new roads have
been built, the largest being the
5300km Trans-Amazonian highway.
These roads were built to transport
timber, minerals, farm produce and
people. A 900km railway has been built
from Carajas to the coast.
ause 4: Resources
Timber, mainly hard
woods is cut down by
logging companies little
attempt made to replant
MineraIs including iron
ore, bauxite, manganese,
diamonds, gold and silver
Hydro-eIectricity is an
important renewable
resource but the building of
large dams and lakes has
caused large areas of
forest to flood
ause 4: Resources
Timber, mainly hard
woods is cut down by
logging companies little
attempt made to replant
MineraIs including iron
ore, bauxite, manganese,
diamonds, gold and silver
Hydro-eIectricity is an
important renewable
resource but the building of
large dams and lakes has
caused large areas of
forest to flood
ause 3: SettIement
ncrease in population from 2 million in
1960 to 30 million in 2000. large areas
claimed for new settlements
ause 3: SettIement
ncrease in population from 2 million in
1960 to 30 million in 2000. large areas
claimed for new settlements
Rates of forest cIearance
Some environmental
groups claim up to 40% of
the Amazon rainforest has
been destroyed since
1960. This would mean
15 hectares (about 15
football pitches) have been
destroyed every minute!
Rates of forest cIearance
Some environmental
groups claim up to 40% of
the Amazon rainforest has
been destroyed since
1960. This would mean
15 hectares (about 15
football pitches) have been
destroyed every minute!
at are te effects?
Of 30 million species on earth
28 million are found in the
rainforest. Habitats of these
species are being destroyed.
We get half our medicines from
rainforest
Reduction in the number of
Amerindians (6 million in 1960
to 200 000 today) traditional
culture and way of life
threatened
No canopy to protect soil from
heavy afternoon rain or roots to
hold it together leads to soil
erosion. Nutrients are washed
(leached) out of the soil
Rivers have been polluted due
to mining operations
Causing climate change less
evapotranspiration meaning
there's less moisture in the
water cycle leading to droughts.
Burning of forest releases
carbon dioxide
change the composition of the
atmosphere over one-third of
the world's oxygen supply
comes from the rainforest.
at are te effects?
Of 30 million species on earth
28 million are found in the
rainforest. Habitats of these
species are being destroyed.
We get half our medicines from
rainforest
Reduction in the number of
Amerindians (6 million in 1960
to 200 000 today) traditional
culture and way of life
threatened
No canopy to protect soil from
heavy afternoon rain or roots to
hold it together leads to soil
erosion. Nutrients are washed
(leached) out of the soil
Rivers have been polluted due
to mining operations
Causing climate change less
evapotranspiration meaning
there's less moisture in the
water cycle leading to droughts.
Burning of forest releases
carbon dioxide
change the composition of the
atmosphere over one-third of
the world's oxygen supply
comes from the rainforest.
ASE ST&DY: TropicaI
rainforest biome
They grow in places with an equatorial climate. Luxuriant vegetation but
its trees have to adapt to constant high temperatures, heavy rainfall and a
continuous growing season. Over a third of the world's trees are grown
here.
The continuous growing season allows trees to shed their leaves at any
time.
Vegetation grows in layers (see diagram). Trees have to grow rapidly to
reach the sunlight
Trees trunks are straight and in their lower parts branchless to help them
grow tall.
Large buttress roots stand above the ground to give support to the trees
Lianas, which are vine like plants, use the large trees as a support in
their efforts to reach the canopy and sunlight
As only 1% of sunlight reaches the forest floor, there is little undergrowth.
Shrubs and other plants here have had to adapt to the lack of light
During the wetter months, large areas of land near the rivers may flood
Leaves have drip tips to shed the heavy rainfall
Fallen leaves soon decay in the hot, wet climate
There are over 1000 different species of tree, including mahogany
They grow in places with an equatorial climate. Luxuriant vegetation but
its trees have to adapt to constant high temperatures, heavy rainfall and a
continuous growing season. Over a third of the world's trees are grown
here.
The continuous growing season allows trees to shed their leaves at any
time.
Vegetation grows in layers (see diagram). Trees have to grow rapidly to
reach the sunlight
Trees trunks are straight and in their lower parts branchless to help them
grow tall.
Large buttress roots stand above the ground to give support to the trees
Lianas, which are vine like plants, use the large trees as a support in
their efforts to reach the canopy and sunlight
As only 1% of sunlight reaches the forest floor, there is little undergrowth.
Shrubs and other plants here have had to adapt to the lack of light
During the wetter months, large areas of land near the rivers may flood
Leaves have drip tips to shed the heavy rainfall
Fallen leaves soon decay in the hot, wet climate
There are over 1000 different species of tree, including mahogany
The rainforest is a fragile
environment that relies on the
rapid and unbroken recycling
of nutrients. Once the forest
is cleared (deforestation), the
cycle is broken. Humus is
not replaced and the
underlying soil soon becomes
unfertile.
The rainforest is a fragile
environment that relies on the
rapid and unbroken recycling
of nutrients. Once the forest
is cleared (deforestation), the
cycle is broken. Humus is
not replaced and the
underlying soil soon becomes
unfertile.
ASE ST&DY:
Hurricane Katrina
t formed over the Bahamas on August 23 2005
and crossed southern Florida as a moderate
Category 1 hurricane before strengthening rapidly
in the Gulf of Mexico.
Flooded roughly 80% of the city.
Katrina is estimated to be responsible for $75
billion in damages
The storm killed at least 1,836 people.
The storm rapidly got worse after entering the
Gulf, due in part to the storm's movement over
the warm sea surface temperatures. t weakened
to a Category 4 storm before hitting New Orleans.
By 28 August it reached its peak with maximum
sustained winds of 280km/h and a minimum
central pressure of 902 millibars
1.3 million acres of forest lands in Mississippi
were destroyed
Hundreds of thousands of local residents were
left unemployed
Katrina redistributed New Orleans's population
across the southern United States. Houston,
Texas saw an increase of 35,000 people
The storm surge caused substantial beach
erosion - Dauphin sland was pushed closer
towards land. The lands that were lost were
also breeding grounds for marine mammals,
turtles and fish as well as migratory species.
There were early reports of fatalities amid
mayhem at the Superdome, only six deaths
were confirmed there, with four of these
originating from natural causes, one from a
drug overdose and one a suicide.
Almost 900,000 people in Louisiana lost
power.
Some estimates claimed that 80% of the 1.3
million residents of the greater New Orleans
metropolitan area were evacuated before the
storm.
People who couldn't leave went to the
massive Louisiana Superdome, which
sheltered approximately 26,000 people and
provided them with food and water for several
days.
n Mississippi, 90% of the structures within
half a mile of the coastline were completely
destroyed.
Approximately 58,000 National Guard
personnel were activated to deal with the
storm's aftermath
!eopIe, ork and DeveIopment: Keywords
Aid: help usually given by the richer countries of
the world, or by international charities, to the
poorer countries. t may be short term aid such
as food given for an emergency, or long term aid
such as training in health care
Appropriate tecnoIogy: development
schemes that meet the needs of the local people
and the environment in which they live
Business park: a group of new offices or
modern factories built in pleasant surroundings,
usually on the edge of a city
DeveIopment: the use of resources and
technology to increase wealth and improve
standards of living a measure of how rich or
how poor a country is
EmpIoyment structure: the proportion of
people working in primary, secondary and
tertiary occupations
Exports: goods and services produced by a
country and sold to other countries
FootIoose industry: an industry that is not tied
to raw materials and so has a wide choice of
location
FormaI sector empIoyment: work that
provides a regular income. t may be an office,
a shop or an organised factory
Free trade: when governments neither restrict
nor encourage the movement of goods between
countries
Heavy industry: the manufacture of goods that
require large amounts of bulky or heavy raw
materials
Hig-tec industry: an industry using
advanced techniques to make high value
goods. Examples include computing,
biotechnology and telecommunications.
Human DeveIopment Index (HDI): a measure
of development adopted by the United Nations
to compare countries. t uses health, education
and wealth to measure both social and
economic progress
Imports: goods and services bought by a
country from other countries
Industry: any type of economic activity, or
employment, that produces goods or provides
services
InformaI sector empIoyment: self-employed
work that is irregular and has little or no security.
Examples include street trading and shoe
shining
Interdependence: when countries work together
and rely on each other for help
Ligt industry: the production of high value
goods such as car stereos and fashion clothing
Market: a place where raw materials and goods
are sold; or a group of people who by raw
materials and goods
MuItinationaI company: a large company
which, by having factories and offices in several
countries, is global because it operates across
national boundaries. Also called a 'transnational
corporation'.
NewIy industriaIised countries (NIs):
Countries, mainly Pacific Rim of Asia, that have
undergone rapid and successful industrialisation
since the early 1980s.
!rimary industries: industries that extract raw
materials directly from the land or sea.
Examples include farming, fishing, forestry and
mining
Quaternary industries: industries that
provide information and advice or are
involved in research. Example of quaternary
occupations include financial advisers and
research scientists
Raw materiaIs: natural resources that are
used to make things
Science park: an estate of modern offices
and high tech industries having links which a
university
Secondary industries: industries that
make, or manufacture, things. They process
raw materials or assemble components to
make a finished product. Examples include
steel making and car assembly.
Tertiary industries: occupations such as
health, education, transport and retailing that
provide a service for people. They may also
be called service industries.
Trade: the movement and sale of goods and
services between one country and another
!eopIe, ork and DeveIopment
ase Study Questions for te Higer Tier
A country tat ad received aid
Name a country that has received aid
Describe the type of aid received by this country
Explain the extent to which the country has benefited from
this aid
Case Study: Tanzania
A Iocation were a MuIti-nationaI company (MN) as
created empIoyment opportunities
Name and locate where an MNC has created
employment opportunities
Describe the direct and indirect employment
opportunities created
Explain why the MNC located at this place
Case Study: Ford in USA, Panasonic in Japan, Pepsi
in Sao Paulo
Te Iocation of new job opportunities
Name a place where new job opportunities have been
created
Draw a labelled sketch map to show the location of this
place
Explain why new job opportunities were located in this
place. You may annotate your map to show this
Case Study: Cambridge Science Park
Overseas investment in a MED
Name a MEDC that you have studied
Describe the nature of overseas investment in the
MEDC
Explain how the overseas investment had affected
people and the environment in the MEDC
Te Iocation of a primary or tertiary economic activity
Name a place where you have studied primary or tertiary
economic activity
Draw a labelled sketch map to show the location of the
economic activity
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of this location
now
Case Study: iron and steel in South Wales
Te Iocation of an economic activity
Name a primary or secondary or tertiary economic
activity you have studied
Name the place where this economic activity can be
found
Draw a labelled map to show the location of this
economic activity
Explain how this economic activity affects different
groups of people and the environment in the area around
its location
Case Study: iron and steel in South Wales
A country tat trades wit oter countries
Name a country that trades with other countries
Describe this country's pattern of trade
Explain how this country is affected by this trade
ASE ST&DY: ambridge Science !ark ASE ST&DY: ambridge Science !ark
The M11 offers a very quick route to London and beyond.
Stansted airport is 30 minutes down the motorway. There are close links with the university,
allowing researchers from there to work in tandem with researchers from the companies of the
Science Park.
Much of the work is research and development in areas such as pharmaceuticals and micro-
electronics, from kidney dialysis machines to lasers and computers.
Established by Trinity College in 1970 on 50 hectares of land, Cambridge Science Park is the UK's
oldest and most prestigious science park.
Now home to 71 hi-tech companies and 5,000 personnel, Cambridge Science Park continues to
attract new businesses
The area is landscaped with trees, lakes and ornamental gardens
The largest firm employs 320 people but more than half the companies have fewer than 20 people
working for them. Most employees are university graduates
large, flat Greenfield site on edge of city room on site for further expansion
highly skilled and qualified workforce
available
closely linked with excellence of Cambridge
University
working links with other companies on
site
close to M11 and M25 motorways
near to Stansted airport for international
links
good leisure facilities in nearby Cambridge
pleasant housing and open space nearby
y did it Iocate tere? y did it Iocate tere?
ASE ST&DY: Industry in an
MED - Osaka-Kobe, Japan
ASE ST&DY: Industry in an
MED - Osaka-Kobe, Japan
Location
The Osaka-Kobe conurbation is one
of Japan's major industrial areas.
t is a natural harbour protected from
typhoon winds by the island of Shikoku
Osaka imports many of the raw
materials needed in Japan. Many are
processed within the port e.g. oil, iron
ore. The port is also the outlet for
Japan's exports
The land is one of the few areas of
flat land in a country that is 83%
mountainous.
Land in Osaka Bay has been
reclaimed for port development, new
industries and an international airport
t has a population of over 9 million
which provides a highly skilled
dedicated workforce and a large,
wealthy market
High-tech industries have grown
rapidly as a consequence of Japanese
inventiveness
t is the centre of many banks and
large Japanese companies
Location
The Osaka-Kobe conurbation is one
of Japan's major industrial areas.
t is a natural harbour protected from
typhoon winds by the island of Shikoku
Osaka imports many of the raw
materials needed in Japan. Many are
processed within the port e.g. oil, iron
ore. The port is also the outlet for
Japan's exports
The land is one of the few areas of
flat land in a country that is 83%
mountainous.
Land in Osaka Bay has been
reclaimed for port development, new
industries and an international airport
t has a population of over 9 million
which provides a highly skilled
dedicated workforce and a large,
wealthy market
High-tech industries have grown
rapidly as a consequence of Japanese
inventiveness
t is the centre of many banks and
large Japanese companies
Thousands of small, often family run, firms. Small firms, usually
employing fewer than 6 people, account for 90% of Japanese
companies
Medium-sized companies which, together with small firms,
produce 60% of Japan's manufactured goods
Large corporations, many of which have become transnationals
such as Toyota, Nissan, Panasonic and Mitsubishi
Up to 11 new science parks have been built in pleasant
environments beyond the present urban limits
Major problem facing Japan is the competition from the NCs,
whose labour and other production costs are cheaper.
Thousands of small, often family run, firms. Small firms, usually
employing fewer than 6 people, account for 90% of Japanese
companies
Medium-sized companies which, together with small firms,
produce 60% of Japan's manufactured goods
Large corporations, many of which have become transnationals
such as Toyota, Nissan, Panasonic and Mitsubishi
Up to 11 new science parks have been built in pleasant
environments beyond the present urban limits
Major problem facing Japan is the competition from the NCs,
whose labour and other production costs are cheaper.
Imports and Exports
ASE ST&DY: Industry in a LED - Sao !auIo ASE ST&DY: Industry in a LED - Sao !auIo
Brazil is the most industrialised of the world's developing countries mainly concentrated in and around
Sao Paulo
Sao Paulo's rapid urbanisation and industrialisation took place during the 1960s and 1970s.
At this time, half a million people a year migrated to the city looking for work. Today the city has a
population of 23 million.
The region around Sao Paulo had minerals including iron ore and had access to energy resources. This
led to the development of iron and steel and engineering industries and the manufacture of machinery,
aircraft and cars.
Brazil is the world's 9th largest producer of cars. Four large transnational corporations Ford,
Volkswagen, General Motors and Mercedes all have assembly plants in Sao Paulo.
Brazilian car workers may earn twice the average Brazilian wage, but to international manufacturers
they are cheaper to employ than car workers in developed countries.
Problems: Heavy industry and traffic have caused air pollution; the great number of cars has led to
gridlock; and the location of commercial buildings (e.g. banks) and offices has created a 'sky scraper
jungle', high land prices and a lack of open space.
Some industry has moved to new towns. These have been made to attract industry, by building major
roads and locating in a cleaner, less congested environment.
Jundaia is a new town 100km from Sao Paulo. Several transnational companies have already located
there, including Pepsi. Despite using mostly machinery, it still employs 350 people.
Pepsi workers not only have a regular job with regular pay, they also get free lunches and free medical
care. Many people living and working in Jundaia are experiencing a rising standard of living although
others still have to seek low paid jobs.
Nearer the CBD, some of the increasing wealth of the city is being used to turn run down areas into
modern business, retail and leisure centres. However, this usually takes place by clearing existing
favelas.
One third of Sao Paulo's population are still employed in the informal sector recycling materials,
repairing goods, processing and/or selling food. They are not enjoying a rising standard of living.
ASE ST&DY: Ford - a
transnationaI company
ASE ST&DY: Ford - a
transnationaI company
Ford corporation originally located in
Detroit in the 1980s. By the late 1990s,
it was:
Manufacturing and/or assembling cars
worldwide. Bulk parts were produced in
MEDCs such as the USA and Japan
ncreasingly locating it new factories in
LEDCs such as Brazil
ncreasingly making parts in several
countries so that each particular model
is no longer made in one country
(reduces strikes)
Facing increased competition,
especially from Japanese
manufacturers.
Working in Detroit with its previous
rivals, Chrysler and General Motors, to
produce a car that will use less fuel,
cause less pollution and challenge
Japanese cars.
Detroit - motor city
Henry Ford saw Detroit as an ideal
location for the world's first mass
production line.
He built his factory on flat land next
to the Detroit River at the heart of
the Great Lakes waterway system.
Steel was produced on an adjacent
site using relatively local iron ore
(brought by ship) and coal (brought
by train).
Ford developed a large local
market by paying his workers $5 a
day, when the national average was
$9 a week, enabling them to buy
their own cars.
High wages attracted workers from
all over the world. Later, Chrysler
and General Motors located their
main factories in Detroit.
ASE ST&DY: MaIaysia - a newIy
industriaIised country
Since 1990, Malaysia's annual economic growth was averaged 8%. This has been done
without high inflation or unmanageable foreign aid. Much of this has been due to government
policies.
'Malaysia nc.' is the governments aim of turning Malaysia into a fully industrialised country by
2020 (an MEDC)
n 1983, the decision was made to privatise many of the industries and economic sectors.
Government policy changed to one based on rapid industrialisation to one that should be
successful and sustainable.
The government is investing less money in industries that require large workforces and more
in ones where the emphasis is on technology.
A government 'Technology Action Plan' covers automated manufacturing, micro electrics,
biotechnology and information technology
n 1997, there was little unemployment in fact the country has to rely on migrant workers
from ndonesia and the Philippines.
t has attracted many foreign investors and high-tech firms, and is building a new international
airport, a new town and several science parks.
n 1985, the government founded the Proton car company
By the mid-1990s, industry was confined to specifically designed areas such as the new town
of Shah Alam. Firms locating here did not have to pay taxes for the first 10 years. This
encouraged many of the world's transnationals to locate there.
Malaysia has embarked on a series of expensive 'prestige' projects including the Petronas
(the world's tallest building in 1998)
ASE ST&DY: Iron and steeI industry in Sout aIes ASE ST&DY: Iron and steeI industry in Sout aIes
1850 - mid-20
t
century
The valleys of South Wales were ideal for
iron making. Coal and iron ore were found
together on valley sides
The valleys led to coastal ports where iron
products and surplus coal were exported to
many parts of the world.
The industry was centred on areas like Ebbw
Vale and Merthyr Tydfil
By 1850 there were 35 ironworks in the area.
Whole villages, built in a linear pattern, were
totally dependent on the local ironworks.
After 1860, steelworks replaced iron
foundries due to an improvement in iron
smelting.
1850 - mid-20
t
century
The valleys of South Wales were ideal for
iron making. Coal and iron ore were found
together on valley sides
The valleys led to coastal ports where iron
products and surplus coal were exported to
many parts of the world.
The industry was centred on areas like Ebbw
Vale and Merthyr Tydfil
By 1850 there were 35 ironworks in the area.
Whole villages, built in a linear pattern, were
totally dependent on the local ironworks.
After 1860, steelworks replaced iron
foundries due to an improvement in iron
smelting.
1970s onwards
By the 1970s, there were only two steelworks left
in South Wales. They were not in the valleys but
on the coast at Port Talbot and Llanwern.
The initial advantages for steelmaking had gone.
Only a few coal mines remained open and the iron
ore had long since been exhausted.
Raw materials needed importing better to
locate new modern steelworks on the coast at
break of bulk locations. This is when a product
has to be transferred from one form of transport to
another a process that takes up time and money
t was easier and cheaper to have the new
steelworks where imported raw materials were
unloaded.
it was also a government decision as they were
financially helping to locate new sites on the coast
Port Talbot is one of Britain's three remaining
integrated steelworks and uses the latest
technology. ntegrated means all the stages in the
manufacture take place on the same site
the Llanwern works was closed in 2001 due to
overseas competition, global overproduction and a
fall in the price of steel.
1970s onwards
By the 1970s, there were only two steelworks left
in South Wales. They were not in the valleys but
on the coast at Port Talbot and Llanwern.
The initial advantages for steelmaking had gone.
Only a few coal mines remained open and the iron
ore had long since been exhausted.
Raw materials needed importing better to
locate new modern steelworks on the coast at
break of bulk locations. This is when a product
has to be transferred from one form of transport to
another a process that takes up time and money
t was easier and cheaper to have the new
steelworks where imported raw materials were
unloaded.
it was also a government decision as they were
financially helping to locate new sites on the coast
Port Talbot is one of Britain's three remaining
integrated steelworks and uses the latest
technology. ntegrated means all the stages in the
manufacture take place on the same site
the Llanwern works was closed in 2001 due to
overseas competition, global overproduction and a
fall in the price of steel.
!ort TaIbot
SmaII ScaIe Aid (N.G.O.) - Oxfam
Aim: to help young people develop skills for
the future
Set up group called Youth Builders
Train 1 person building & carpentry skills, he
then trains others, this is a Cascading system
of training
At first they build cheap houses
Cost to Oxfam aid was: 6200 to buy the
tools
As the team becomes more skilled they
started to build more complex buildings (mill,
clinic, school) these help the local
community
This scheme helps create local jobs &
improves local community spirit and is based
on cheap local raw materials
All profits reinvested/shared amongst group
Young people as a result stay in the local
community & don't migrate to the city
A good example of SeIf ReIiance/SeIf HeIp
Aid, based on local materials & teaching
Permanent Skills
Large ScaIe Aid (Bi-IateraI) - Tanzania -
anada eat !roject
Hanang Plains. 17000ha, converted wheat
production
African bush has been converted into "Prairies
type landscape
Canadians helped in finance, assistance,
advice & equipment
This is a High-Tech, large scale & highly
mechanised project
80% of all wheat grown in Tanzania
50% of all wheat used in Tanzania, the rest is
exported
Highly mechanised few local jobs
Machinery has to be imported from Canada, at
the start it was free, but eventually Tanzania has
to pay for it. Originally paid in Tanzanian
Schillings, but eventually in Canadian Dollars.
e.g. Tractor tyres $300 1000each.
Impact on te peopIe of Tanzania
Nomads thrown off their land
Limited job opportunities for the Nomads
arable rather than pastoral
Bread goes to the urban rich not the rural poor
Wheat milled 2 days journey away
Loaf costs 63p. Wages 10/week most can't
afford it
ASE ST&DY: Aid in Tanzania, Africa
Tanzanian economy based on subsistence
agriculture, arable & pastoral nomads,
based on traditional lifestyles