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METAMATERIALS

n>0

n<0

Light deflection

Light focusing

Submitted byIsha Jain MT2310201 ECE DEPTT.

Introduction to Metamaterials
Engineered (at the atomic level) materials that have unique properties not found in nature due to the arrangement and design of their constituents.

According to David R. Smith, any material composed of periodic, macroscopic structures so as to achieve a desired electromagnetic response can be referred to as a Metamaterials.
Others prefer to restrict the term Metamaterials to materials with electromagnetic properties not found in nature.
NOTE: THE PROPERTIES ARE THAT OF THE ENTIRE ARRANGEMENT AND NOT THE CONSTITUENTS THEMSELVES

-Theoretical design by Victor Veselago in 1968.He predicted metamaterials act in exact opposite manner than natural materials -Dr. John Pendry showed practical method of making metamaterials in 1999. -Normally waves propagate and interact with media according to Snells law. -Metamaterials grabs waves and redirects them due to negative index of refraction.

n=
-Material units used in metamaterials must be small comparatively to the wavelength being manipulated.

Negative refractive index


In naturally exiting substances permittivity and permeability are positve (except the cases of noble metals like gold silver etc where permitivitty is negative for certain range of frequency).

0 0

neff

( )( )

TYPES OF METAMATERIALS-Electromagnetic -Acoustic -Seismic

REALISATION OF METAMATERIALSNegative Thin metallic wires are arranged periodically. Negative An array of split-ring resonators (SRRs) are arranged periodically.

PHOTONIC CRYSTALS
Another example of composite material with negative refraction index is the photonic crystal:
Photonic crystals may behave as if they possess a negative refractive effect without actually having a negative refractive index. Additionally, e and are not defined for photonic crystals as they are not homogeneous systems at their operational wavelength.

Electromagnetic Material Properties


The electromagnetic response of a material is defined by its electromagnetic properties: permittivity and permeability

Plasmas (ENG)

Conventional Materials (DPS)

0, 0
no transmission

0, 0
n

Negative Index Materials(DNG)

0, 0
no transmission

0, 0
n

Split Rings (MNG)

LITERATURE REVIEW
Negative Refractive Index Materials VICTOR VESELAGO,
LEONID BRAGINSKY, VALERY SHKLOVER, CHRISTAIN HAFNER

In this paper following things are reviewed-PHENOMENON OF NEGATIVE REFRACTION -PHOTONIC CRYSTALS -DESIGN OF METAMATERIALS -PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF METAMATERIALS

APPLICATIONS OF METAMATERIALS
-CLOAKING DEVICE
LIGHT SOURCE

OBJECT

LIGHT RAYS METAMATERIAL

-SUPER LENS WITH NEGATIVE REFRACTIVE INDEX


Image a: The red lines represent the evanescent waves fon n<0 with the light getting focused. While the blue dotted are for n>0 and the light getting scattered. Image b is the amplitude of the evanescent light in negative and positive materials.

-The evanescent waves, waves which exponentially decay in mater, actually contain information that is smaller than the wavelength, but this is normally lost -In negative index materials the evanescent waves are actually enhanced

-Metamaterial antennas
-Small antenna size -Tunable operational frequency -High directivity

-Seismic metamaterials
-Long wavelengths of earthquake waves can be shortened -Negate the destructive effect of seismic waves on surface structures

DISADVANTAGES
-Metamaterials works only for limited range of wavelengths. -Metamaterials are lossy. -Metamaterials are tiny structures fabricated with high precision. -For a given functionality, the shape of the metamaterial cannot be changed during operation.

CONCLUSION
Although theorized over 40 years ago NIM have
only been made within the last decade

NIM act in many unconventional ways, wave phase

front moves in opposite direction of group velocity, evanescent waves increase. devices like super lenses that can overcome traditional optical limits

These properties lend themselves to making unique The difficulty in making them comes from the

negative permeability, which has to be artificially manufactured

FUTURE WORK
-Reduce size of the structures -Push the frequency range towards optical frequencies -Widen the frequency band and reduce losses -Reduce the fabrication costs

Thank You