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Name of Group Members: Alfian Imaduddin Immalatul Husna Inas M Jauhari Lutfia Aswin Putu Callista Gita

What is Watering Jug?

The function of this thing is can be used as a place to keep water that will be used to watering flower or plants. The characteristics that are required for the basic materials for watering jug is the material should be resistant to corrosion and should be light enough to carry a large amount of water, but also tough and not easily broke.

Properties of Aluminum
Density/Specific Gravity (g.cm-3 at 20C) Melting Point (C) Specific heat at 100 C, cal.g-1K-1 (Jkg-1K1) Latent heat of fusion, cal.g-1 (kJ.kg-1) Electrical conductivity at 20C (% of international annealed copper standard) Thermal conductivity (cal.sec-1cm-1K-1) Thermal emmisivity at 100F (%) Reflectivity for light, tungsten filament (%) Yield strength (pure aluminium) 0.5 3.0 90.0 7-11 MPa 64.94 0.2241 (938) 94.7 (397.0) 2.70 660

The third most abundant materials in the earth The metal that reactive chemically non magnetic non sparking decorative easily formed, machined, and cast alloys with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, and other elements have very useful properties. strong. Depending on its purity, for example 99.996 per cent pure aluminium has a tensile strength of about 49 megapascals (MPa), rising to 700 MPa following alloying and suitable heat treatment. low density (2,7 g.cm-3 at 20C) corrosion resistant because of the phenomenon of passivation heat and electricity conductor non-combustible malleable

Process Bauxite to Alumina


Crushing and Grinding

Sort it by size Crushed into the same size Transferred into large grinding mills

Mixed it with caustic soda solution in high temperature and pressure

The product: slurry The contains: solution of sodium aluminate and undissolved bauxite residues Digesting Heated until 300o F or 145o C, when it is under 50 pounds per square inch Last in the digester from 30 minutes to several hours


Produces sodium aluminate

3. Settling

Using the gravity The impurities in the slurry will settling in the bottom The liquor on the top moved through a series of filters

The filtered liquor pumped to the precipitators

The tank in this process is like a building with six floor inside, then every floor is called the precipitators. Fine particles of alumina called seed crystals (alumina hydrate), are added to start the precipitation Alumina crystals begin to grow around the seeds

4. Precipitation

It settle to the bottom of the tank

Filtered again then transferred into the calcination kilns

5. Calcination

Is heating process to remove the chemically combined water from the alumina hydrate Calcining kiln is brick-lined inside and gas-fired to a temperature of 2,000 oF or 1,100 oC It rotates slowly

The result of this process is white powder: pure alumina

Process Alumina To Aluminum

Hall- Herault process Use molten cryolite (a sodium aluminum fluoride mineral) to dissolve alumina Takes place in large carbon or graphite lined steel This process would produce metallic aluminum The Hall- Herault reaction Al2O3 Al2+ + 3O: Al + 3e- Al x4 : 2O- O2 + 4ex3 4Al + 6O- 4Al + 3O2 Then O2 react with C become CO2. So the result of this process is 3C(s) + 4Al+ + 6O- 4Al(l) + 3CO2(s) Katode (-) Anode (+)

Process Aluminium becomes Watering Jug

to make a watering jug, the shape of tube and shower is made separately then both of them can be welded. The tube is formed by metal spinning and the shower is formed by sand casting

Form A Tube with Metal Spinning

The metal spinning process is simple enough. Block that has been set up mounted on the lathe. A pre-metal disc is clamped against the block with pressure pad which is attached to the tailstock. The block and workpiece are then rotated together at high speeds. Next, the workpiece to flow over the block because a localized force is then applied. In order to understand process metal spinning, lets see this video...

This picture is taken from http://www.custompartnet.com/wu/SandCasting

Series of Steps Sand Casting

This picture is taken from http://www.google.co.id/imgres?imgurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/1560050305003.png&imgrefurl=http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm%3 Farticleid%3D877387%26show%3Dhtml&usg=__FUioNsBfwKvDdxwUl01JwYI03rc=&h=463&w=1045&sz=22&hl=id&start=18&sig2=2rLj73M93Q8jEmzCjfcT6A&zoom=1&t bnid=KK995u4KgOR8M:&tbnh=66&tbnw=150&ei=LbmOTqqBJOOuiQfKoaCcDg&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dgambar%2Bproses%2Bsand%2Bcasting%26hl%3Did%26sa%3DX%26biw%3 D1024%26bih%3D466%26tbm%3Disch%26prmd%3Dimvns&itbs=1

Welding Process

Welding is a fabrication process to join the materials, usually metals, by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool). The most common welding methods for aluminium are by Gas Metal Arc Wedding (GMAW) and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW).

Gas Metal Arc Wedding (GMAW)

semi-automatic or automatic arc welding process the heat is produced by electric arc between two electron and basic materials. the shielding gas we use is argon and helium.

GMAW weld area. (1) Direction of travel, (2) Contact tube, (3) Electrode, (4) Shielding gas, (5) Molten weld metal, (6) Solidified weld metal, (7) Workpiece.

Gas Tungsten ArcWelding (GTAW)

Scratching the electrode
scratch start arc is beaten strike an arc

The torch create a welding pool reduce the arc gradually