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Defining a Model of CALL

Chapter 7, Ken Beatty (2003)

Main Issues

What variables are traditionally involved in the educational process?

How do these variables differ in CALL materials? How can CALL be portrayed in a model?



A Model of non-CALL Language Learning (I)

Breen (1998) variables affecting language learning

What the learner brings or contributes to the process The nature of the actual language learning process The outcomes from the process in terms of linguistic or communicative competence in the target language

A Model of non-CALL Language Learning (II)

Dunkin and Biddle (1974)

a general classroom teaching model that can be used to study a language classroom

Presage variables (teacher formative experiences, Context variables (learner properties, and school,
community and classroom contexts)

teacher training experiences, and teacher properties)

Process variables (teacher classroom behavior and

student classroom behavior)

Product variables (immediate learner growth and longterm learner effects)

Dunkin and Biddles Model (1974) for the Study of Classroom Teaching (in Beatty, p. 135)

An Instructional Model in a CALL Context (I)

Beattys three ways of considering CALL programs (2003):

1. 2. 3.

As a supplementary learning material (a tool) As an autonomous process (a tutor) As a virtual teacher for distance learning

An Instructional Model in a CALL Context (II)

Butler-Pascoe and Wiburg's model of computerbased English language learning (2003):

Focus on the learning process


Individualized skill development programs

Collaborative learning centers


Butler-Pascoe and Wiburg's Model (2003) of Computer-based English Language Learning (p. 153)

An Instructional Model in a CALL Context (III)

Sloane (1990) and Boyd & Mitchell (1992): considering CALL a conversational activity shared among

The learner

The machine tutor (i.e. computer program)

The educator (and/or) The material developer

An Instructional Model in a CALL Context (IV)

Dunkin and Biddles Model in a CALL Context

(in Beatty, p. 146)

Comparison in Presage Variables

Teacher attributes vs. Program attributes

Presage variables in a CALL context
Materials developers collective experiences Ideas of models of instruction

Presage variables in a non-CALL context

Teacher formative experiences Teacher training experiences

Teacher properties (personality traits, abilities, attitudes, etc.)

Technical affordances of the program (user-friendliness)

Comparison in Context Variables

Context variables in a non-CALL context
Learner formative experiences Learner properties

Context variables in a CALL context

Learner formative experiences in CALL Learner properties in CALL (e.g., computer literacy level) Learning interaction in CALL (student computer and/or teacher ) Learning environments in CALL (p.141) (goals, navigation, structure, format)

Classroom learning interaction (student teacher) Classroom learning environments (goals, structure, format)

Comparison in Process Variables (I)

Teacher behavior vs. Program interface

Locus of control:
the continuum between the programs and the learners responsibility for decisions about the learning outcomes, sequence of learning, learner interactions, and even content.

(Chandlers categories of CAI/CALL activities, 1984)


Tutorial | Games | Simulation | Experimental | Content-free | Programming games simulations tools languages

The Internet, CMC

Behaviorist Model Individualism & Competitiveness

Constructivist Model Collaboration & Negotiation

Comparison in Process Variables (II)

Blooms Taxonomy of Questions

Knowledge (memorizing, recalling)

Comprehension (interpreting)
Application (problem solving) Analysis (subdividing, classifying, finding the underlying structure) Synthesis (combining ideas to form a new whole) Evaluation (making value decisions, developing opinions)

Bloom believed that 95% of all classroom questions were at the low level of checking factual information for learner memorization of knowledge. CALL programs (e.g., using multiple modalities and hyperlinks) can challenge students to perform at higher levels of cognitive strategies.

Comparison in Product Variables

The differences between a traditional classroom teaching model and a CALL model:

What is measured How it is measured

Traditional measurement of language learning CALL programs measurement of learning
- Time spent in each section - Computer-assisted tests - Immediate computer-based feedback on progress - E-portfolios

- Teacher observations - Tests - Teacher feedback

A Virtual Classroom

A virtual classroom is an electronic classroom which can be expandable in time, space, and content.
Its informational territory can grow indefinitely as new knowledge and resources are acquired and as the capabilities of new members are added. In a virtual classroom learners can find not only pedagogical resources but also human (social) resources to support their learning. Information and problem-solving capabilities can be mutually shared and reinforced through collaborative interconnection.

Reexamining Dunkin and Biddles Model in a CALL Context

Do you think this model appropriately describes how language is learned and taught in a CALL context? What may be missing in this model?
(in Beatty, p. 146)

Teacher formative exp. training exp. & properties

Teacher behavior