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Petroleum and Petrochemicals

By Group 1

What is Petroleum?
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixtures. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. It is refined and separated, most easily by boiling point, into a large number of consumer products, from petrol and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is often known as MOTHER OF ALL COMMODITIES because of its use in manufacturing a wide variety of materials.

Petroleum and Petroleum Refineries

What are Petrochemicals?

Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane.

Petrochemical Refineries

Petroleum Refineries

Types of Petrochemicals
Plastic: A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic solids used in the manufacture of industrial products. There are two types of plastics: thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers. Thermoplastics are the plastics that do not undergo chemical change in their composition when heated and can be moulded again and again; examples are polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl and chloride. Thermosets can melt and take shape once; after they have solidified, they stay solid.

Types of Petrochemicals
Ethanol: Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid. It is a psychoactive drug and one of the oldest recreational drugs. Best known as the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, it is also used in thermometers, as a solvent, and as a fuel. In common usage, it is often referred to simply as alcohol or spirit.


Uses of Petrochemicals
Plastic Bottles: are made from petrochemicals too. Polyester is used in the making of most plastic commodities. Besides this, compact discs and cassettes are made up of polyester or petrochemical oil. Ethylene: (a by product obtained by heating or distilling the oil) is the most essential constituent of petrochemical oil and is used to make garbage bags, camera films, milk crates, bags etc.

Thus, petrochemicals have enormous uses. The petrochemical products are used in every nook and corner of the world ranging from household applications to the massive industrial production taking place across the world.

Petrochemical Industries
Petrochemical Industries are industries where the petrochemicals are made from the petroleum.
The largest petrochemical industries are located in the USA and Western Europe; however, major growth in new production capacity is in the Middle East and Asia. There is substantial inter-regional petrochemical trade.