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ISSUES & CONTROL MEASURES

FATS IN SEWERS:

26 July 2011
Avesh Ramburan Pollution and Environment Branch
Water and Sanitation

OVERVIEW

Case Study Sources of Problem Control Measures Impacts on Infrastructure/Environment Way Forward

Case Study: Mount Edgecombe Estate

Sewer overflows experienced - past 10 years Up to twice/week 2 tons of fats/month removed from sewer Several food outlets on same sewer network Heavy rain aggravates the problem

Mount Edgecombe Estate

Source of Problem

Constriction of Flow Fat Blockages


Restaurants / Food Outlets Residence to a lesser extent

Hydraulic Over-loading Cross Connections

Storm water entering sewer network

Source of Problem

10 Food Outlets Inspected


Marco Paulo Woolworths Food My Kitchen (chinese) Pride of Curry MTN Canteen Steers Scooters Pizza SPAR Mountedgecombe Remo's Blakes 2 Golf Course Dr 4 Flanders Rd 4 Flanders Rd 4 Flanders Rd 24 Flanders Rd 38 Flanders Rd 4 Flanders Rd 1 Flanders Rd 4 Flanders Rd 5 Flanders Rd

Source of Problem

70% had FOGTs All restaurants recycled used oils 60% FOGTs were poorly designed All claimed to maintain FOGT regularly Most FOGTs was positioned close to wash basin/dish washer

FOGT Operating Principle

Motion of an oil particle


Vv > Vf Vf Vv

Vf Vh Vv

FOGT Design Principles

Stokes Law
2r 2 g Vf particle fluid 9

Rising velocity of the oil droplet Larger particles separates faster Requires less time to separate Emulsions therefore require more separation time, hence larger volume FOGT Emulsion occur at higher temperatures and high flows (turbulence)

FOGT Design Principles

FOGT should be positioned a reasonable distance from dishwaters/wash basins Reduce temperature Cross-sectional area of a FOGT

Higher loads require larger area Too small - turbulence - emulsions

FOGT Design Principles

Length of a FOGT

If no turbulence Should be chosen allowing enough time for oil to rise above the exit point Larger FOGTs will require less frequent maintenance

Overall size

FOGT Design Principles

Sludge will accumulate - food solids will separate quicker than oils After maintenance the FOGT must be filled with water
OIL/FAT Outlet

Inlet

WATER

SLUDGE

Siphon Principle

Impacts on Infrastructure/Environment

Sewer lines/Pump station blockage overflows into storm water drains/rivers. WWTW

Increased COD loading Reduced aeration efficiency Accumulation in aeration tanks / clarifiers Reduced chlorination efficiency Coates instrumentation (DO/pH probes) affects process control

Maintenance costs millions per annum

Local / International Regulations

Effluent Discharge Std: Fats/Oils/Greases


150 mg/L 200 mg/L 200 mg/L 250 mg/L

U.S. EPA Dallas, Texas Kansas City, Mo. eThekwini Municipality, RSA

Way Forward

Advise companies to purchase FOGTs that will work efficiently and economically Ensure food outlet owners install a sample point on their final effluent line Regulate effluent quality using bylaw limits for vegetable oils/greases Educate the public on the impacts of fats and oils on our infrastructure/environment

Thank You!