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Consumer Behavior
Chapter Objectives
1 Define consumer behavior and describe the role it plays in marketing decisions. 3 Explain each of the 5 personal determinants of consumer behavior: needs and motives, perceptions, 6 attitudes, learning, and 2 Describe the interpersonal self-concept theory. determinants of consumer behavior: cultural, social, 4 Distinguish between and family influences. high-involvement and low-involvement purchase decisions.

Outline the steps in the consumer decision process.

Differentiate among routinized response behavior, limited problem solving, and extended problem solving by consumers.

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Consumer behavior Process through which buyers make decisions. Marketers borrow extensively from psychology and sociology to better understand consumer behavior.

Consumer behavior is usually understood as a function of interpersonal influences and personal factors.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior


Culture Values, beliefs, preferences, and tastes handed down from one generation to the next. Culture is a broad environmental determinant of behavior.

Core Values in U.S. Culture

Work ethic and desire the accumulate wealth. Importance of family and home life. Individualism, education, freedom, youth, health, and others. Consumers are adopting new values as communication technology changes.

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International Perspective on Cultural Influences

Successful strategies in one country may not extend to others.

Groups within a culture that have their own modes of behavior. In U.S. subcultures can differ by ethnicity, nationality, age, rural versus urban location, religion, and geographic distribution. Population mix in U.S. is changing as the Hispanic, African American, and Asian populations grow.

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Everyone belongs to multiple social groups: family, neighborhood, clubs, and sports teams. Group membership influences buying decisions.

Groups establish norms of behaviorvalues, attitudes, and behaviors that a group deems appropriate for its members.
Differences in status and roles within groups also influence behavior. Some Americans make purchases to enhance their status within social groups, and others work to reduce their consumption dramatically.

The Asch Phenomenon

Theory of psychologist S. E. Asch that individuals conform to majority rule, even if that majority rule goes against their beliefs.

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Reference Groups
Reference groups People or institutions whose opinions are valued and to whom a person looks for guidance in his or her own behavior, values, and conduct, such as family, friends, or celebrities. Influence of reference group depends on two conditions: Purchased product must be seen and identifiable. Purchased product must be conspicuous, something not everybody owns.

Social Classes
Six classes: upper-upper, lower-upper, upper-middle, lower-middle, working class, lower class. Income not always a primary factor. Individuals buying habits sometimes reflect the class to which they aspire.

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Opinion Leaders
Reference groups Trend- setters who purchase new products before others in a group and then influence others in their purchases. Individuals tend to act as opinion leaders for specific goods or services. Information sometimes flows from mass media to opinion leaders to consumers; sometimes flows directly to consumers.

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Like other influences, families have norms of expected behavior, status relationships, and roles. Family structure changing. 1900 Percent of households headed by married couple 80 Today 53

Percent of households that include extended family

Percnet of married women who work outside the home



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Four roles of spouses: Autonomic rolepartners independently make an equal number of decisions.

Husband-dominant rolehusband usually makes certain buying decisions, such as purchasing life insurance.
Wife-dominant rolewife makes buying decisions, such as buying childrens clothing.

Syncratic rolebuying decision made jointly.

Increasing occurrence of two-income households increases likelihood of spouses making joint buying decisions.

Children and Teenagers in Family Purchases

Have $192 billion in purchasing power either directly or by influencing family purchasing decisions.

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Need Imbalance between a consumers actual and desired states. Motive Inner state that directs a person toward the goal of satisfying a need.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Developed by psychologist Abraham H. Maslow Identifies five levels of human needs.

Person must at least partially satisfy lower-level needs before higher-level needs affect behavior.

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Perception Meaning that a person attributes to incoming stimuli gathered through the five senses. Results from two types of factors:

Stimulus factorscharacteristics of the physical object such as size, color, weight, and shape.
Individual factorsunique characteristics of the individual, including not only sensory processes but also experiences with similar inputs and basic motivations and expectations.

Perceptual Screens
Consumers are bombarded by commercial messages. Perceptual screens help people filter out some messages. Advertisers work to break through these screens such as through using large ads, word-of-mouth advertising, and virtual reality.

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Subliminal Perception
Subconscious receipt of incoming information. Use is aimed at subverting perceptual screens. Unlikely to work in customers not already inclined to buy.

Attitudes Persons enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotions, or action tendencies toward some object or idea.

Attitude Components
Cognitiveindividuals knowledge about an object or concept. Affectivedeals with feelings or emotional reactions.

Behavioraltendencies to act in a certain manner.

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Changing Customer Attitudes

Marketers have two choices for appealing to consumer attitudes: Attempt to produce consumer attitudes that will motivate purchase of a particular product. Evaluate existing consumer attitudes and then make the product features appeal to them. Attitudes may not be unfavorable, just not motivating the consumer toward a purchase.

Modifying the Components of Attitude

Provide information about product benefits and correcting misconceptions. Engaging buyers in new behavior. New technologies can encourage changes in customers attitudes.

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Learning Knowledge or skill that is acquired as a result of experience, which changes consumer behavior. Learning process:

Driveany strong stimulus that impels action.

Cueany object in the environment that determines the nature of the consumers response to a drive. Responsean individuals reaction to a set of cues and drives. Reinforcementthe reduction in drive that results from a proper response; creates bond between the drive and the purchase of the product.

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Applying Learning Theory to Marketing Decisions

Marketers use shaping, the process of applying a series of rewards and reinforcements to permit more complex behavior to evolve. Product and promotional strategy work together in the shaping process.

Self-concept Persons multifaceted picture of himself or herself. Four componentsreal self, self-image, looking-glass self, and ideal self influence purchasing decisions.

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High-involvement purchasing decisions include buying a car. Low-involvement purchasing decisions include buying a candy bar.

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Consumer becomes aware of a significant discrepancy between the existing situation and a desired situation.

Consumer gathers information about the attainment of a desired state of affairs.
Evoked set Number of alternatives that a consumer actually considers in making a purchase decision.

Consumer accepts, distorts, or rejects information as they receive it. Evaluative criteria Features that a consumer considers in choosing among alternatives.

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Consumer decides where or from whom to make the purchase.

Buyer feels either satisfaction at the removal of the discrepancy between the existing and desired states or dissatisfaction with the purchase. Cognitive dissonance Imbalance among knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes that occurs after an action or decision, such as a purchase. Reasons dissonance may increase: The dollar value of a purchase increases. The rejected alternatives have desirable features that the chosen alternatives do not provide

The purchase decision has a major effect on the buyer.

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Results from two types of factors:

Routinized Response Behavior

Consumer makes many purchases routinely by choosing a preferred brand or one of a limited group of acceptable brands.

Limited Problem Solving

Consumer has previously set evaluative criteria for a particular kind of purchase but then encounters a new, unknown brand.

Extended Problem Solving

Results when brands are difficult to categorize or evaluate. Typical of high-involvement purchases.