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5

CHAPTER

Consumer Behavior
Chapter Objectives
1 Define consumer behavior and describe the role it plays in marketing decisions. 3 Explain each of the 5 personal determinants of consumer behavior: needs and motives, perceptions, 6 attitudes, learning, and 2 Describe the interpersonal self-concept theory. determinants of consumer behavior: cultural, social, 4 Distinguish between and family influences. high-involvement and low-involvement purchase decisions.

Outline the steps in the consumer decision process.


Differentiate among routinized response behavior, limited problem solving, and extended problem solving by consumers.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

Consumer behavior Process through which buyers make decisions. Marketers borrow extensively from psychology and sociology to better understand consumer behavior.

Consumer behavior is usually understood as a function of interpersonal influences and personal factors.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

INTERPERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR


CULTURAL INFLUENCES
Culture Values, beliefs, preferences, and tastes handed down from one generation to the next. Culture is a broad environmental determinant of behavior.

Core Values in U.S. Culture


Work ethic and desire the accumulate wealth. Importance of family and home life. Individualism, education, freedom, youth, health, and others. Consumers are adopting new values as communication technology changes.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

International Perspective on Cultural Influences


Successful strategies in one country may not extend to others.

Subcultures
Groups within a culture that have their own modes of behavior. In U.S. subcultures can differ by ethnicity, nationality, age, rural versus urban location, religion, and geographic distribution. Population mix in U.S. is changing as the Hispanic, African American, and Asian populations grow.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

SOCIAL INFLUENCES
Everyone belongs to multiple social groups: family, neighborhood, clubs, and sports teams. Group membership influences buying decisions.

Groups establish norms of behaviorvalues, attitudes, and behaviors that a group deems appropriate for its members.
Differences in status and roles within groups also influence behavior. Some Americans make purchases to enhance their status within social groups, and others work to reduce their consumption dramatically.

The Asch Phenomenon


Theory of psychologist S. E. Asch that individuals conform to majority rule, even if that majority rule goes against their beliefs.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

Reference Groups
Reference groups People or institutions whose opinions are valued and to whom a person looks for guidance in his or her own behavior, values, and conduct, such as family, friends, or celebrities. Influence of reference group depends on two conditions: Purchased product must be seen and identifiable. Purchased product must be conspicuous, something not everybody owns.

Social Classes
Six classes: upper-upper, lower-upper, upper-middle, lower-middle, working class, lower class. Income not always a primary factor. Individuals buying habits sometimes reflect the class to which they aspire.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

Opinion Leaders
Reference groups Trend- setters who purchase new products before others in a group and then influence others in their purchases. Individuals tend to act as opinion leaders for specific goods or services. Information sometimes flows from mass media to opinion leaders to consumers; sometimes flows directly to consumers.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

FAMILY INFLUENCES
Like other influences, families have norms of expected behavior, status relationships, and roles. Family structure changing. 1900 Percent of households headed by married couple 80 Today 53

Percent of households that include extended family


Percnet of married women who work outside the home

50
6

10
60

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

FAMILY INFLUENCES
Four roles of spouses: Autonomic rolepartners independently make an equal number of decisions.

Husband-dominant rolehusband usually makes certain buying decisions, such as purchasing life insurance.
Wife-dominant rolewife makes buying decisions, such as buying childrens clothing.

Syncratic rolebuying decision made jointly.


Increasing occurrence of two-income households increases likelihood of spouses making joint buying decisions.

Children and Teenagers in Family Purchases


Have $192 billion in purchasing power either directly or by influencing family purchasing decisions.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

PERSONAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR


NEEDS AND MOTIVES
Need Imbalance between a consumers actual and desired states. Motive Inner state that directs a person toward the goal of satisfying a need.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


Developed by psychologist Abraham H. Maslow Identifies five levels of human needs.

Person must at least partially satisfy lower-level needs before higher-level needs affect behavior.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

PERCEPTIONS
Perception Meaning that a person attributes to incoming stimuli gathered through the five senses. Results from two types of factors:

Stimulus factorscharacteristics of the physical object such as size, color, weight, and shape.
Individual factorsunique characteristics of the individual, including not only sensory processes but also experiences with similar inputs and basic motivations and expectations.

Perceptual Screens
Consumers are bombarded by commercial messages. Perceptual screens help people filter out some messages. Advertisers work to break through these screens such as through using large ads, word-of-mouth advertising, and virtual reality.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

Subliminal Perception
Subconscious receipt of incoming information. Use is aimed at subverting perceptual screens. Unlikely to work in customers not already inclined to buy.

ATTITUDES
Attitudes Persons enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotions, or action tendencies toward some object or idea.

Attitude Components
Cognitiveindividuals knowledge about an object or concept. Affectivedeals with feelings or emotional reactions.

Behavioraltendencies to act in a certain manner.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

Changing Customer Attitudes


Marketers have two choices for appealing to consumer attitudes: Attempt to produce consumer attitudes that will motivate purchase of a particular product. Evaluate existing consumer attitudes and then make the product features appeal to them. Attitudes may not be unfavorable, just not motivating the consumer toward a purchase.

Modifying the Components of Attitude


Provide information about product benefits and correcting misconceptions. Engaging buyers in new behavior. New technologies can encourage changes in customers attitudes.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

LEARNING
Learning Knowledge or skill that is acquired as a result of experience, which changes consumer behavior. Learning process:

Driveany strong stimulus that impels action.


Cueany object in the environment that determines the nature of the consumers response to a drive. Responsean individuals reaction to a set of cues and drives. Reinforcementthe reduction in drive that results from a proper response; creates bond between the drive and the purchase of the product.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

Applying Learning Theory to Marketing Decisions


Marketers use shaping, the process of applying a series of rewards and reinforcements to permit more complex behavior to evolve. Product and promotional strategy work together in the shaping process.

SELF-CONCEPT THEORY
Self-concept Persons multifaceted picture of himself or herself. Four componentsreal self, self-image, looking-glass self, and ideal self influence purchasing decisions.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

THE CONSUMER DECISION PROCESS


High-involvement purchasing decisions include buying a car. Low-involvement purchasing decisions include buying a candy bar.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

PROBLEM OR OPPORTUNITY RECOGNITION


Consumer becomes aware of a significant discrepancy between the existing situation and a desired situation.

SEARCH
Consumer gathers information about the attainment of a desired state of affairs.
Evoked set Number of alternatives that a consumer actually considers in making a purchase decision.

EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES
Consumer accepts, distorts, or rejects information as they receive it. Evaluative criteria Features that a consumer considers in choosing among alternatives.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

PURCHASE DECISION AND PURCHASE ACT


Consumer decides where or from whom to make the purchase.

POST-PURCHASE EVALUATION
Buyer feels either satisfaction at the removal of the discrepancy between the existing and desired states or dissatisfaction with the purchase. Cognitive dissonance Imbalance among knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes that occurs after an action or decision, such as a purchase. Reasons dissonance may increase: The dollar value of a purchase increases. The rejected alternatives have desirable features that the chosen alternatives do not provide

The purchase decision has a major effect on the buyer.

CHAPTER 5 Consumer Behavior

CLASSIFYING CONSUMER PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESSES


Results from two types of factors:

Routinized Response Behavior


Consumer makes many purchases routinely by choosing a preferred brand or one of a limited group of acceptable brands.

Limited Problem Solving


Consumer has previously set evaluative criteria for a particular kind of purchase but then encounters a new, unknown brand.

Extended Problem Solving


Results when brands are difficult to categorize or evaluate. Typical of high-involvement purchases.