Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 32

IT522

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)


IT522 Computer Networks

mjchoi@postech.ac.kr

1998. 12. 22.

(1)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

Contents
IT522

ATM ATM ATM ATM Cell ATM / ATM/B-ISDN Conclusion References


(2)

1998. 12. 22.

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode ( Header 48Byte Payload) traffic

(1)
)

IT522

53Byte (5Byte

Packet Routing r

Cell

First-Come, First-Serve

1998. 12. 22.

(3)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
Voice Voice

(2)
Telephone

IT522

The Ultimate Integrated services network


Telephone
Data Video Voice

ATM Network
Video

Hub

ATM network moves cells (fixed length packets) with low delay and low delay variation at high speeds Devices at ends translate (e.g., segment and reassemble) between cells and original traffic
1998. 12. 22.
(4)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM

(1)

IT522

Goal of ATM : CCITT chose ATM as the target transfer mode for the B-ISDN(Broadband Integrated Service Digital Network) Facts of ATM Small, Fixed-size Packets called Cells : 53bytes Cell Switching Connection-Oriented Switched Network

1998. 12. 22.

(5)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
ATM
MULTI-MEDIA APPLICATION , , NETWORK

(2)

IT522

CLIENT/SERVER APPLICATION LAN/WAN VOD MICRO-PROCESSOR

1998. 12. 22.

(6)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
ATM
1983 1988 1989 1991 Forum Forum . ATM ITU-TSS 53 , . q 1992 NET (5 AT&T , 64 BYTE time slot B-ISDN (512 BYTE CELL

(3)
. ).

IT522

. ATM ) Cell . ATM ATM .

Cisco, NET, Northern Telecom, Sprint 1992 , 1993 Adaptive

1998. 12. 22.

(7)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
ATM
LAN/WAN Network Link ATM , , DATA

(4)

IT522

End Node

ATM

1998. 12. 22.
(8)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
ATM

(5)

IT522

flow & error control

ATM
cell delay switch bandwidth frame header overhead scheduling algorithm mechanism

1998. 12. 22.

(9)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
ATM
Routing Traffic ( ) ( -

(1)
& ) Routing

IT522

, Service

(Multiplexing & )

1998. 12. 22.

(10)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
Low Speed IPP
MUX

(2)
OPP

IT522

High Speed

1998. 12. 22.

...
IPP IPP IPP

...
OPP
Switching Network

OPP

Control Processor

...
(11)

...

MUX

OPP
IPP : Input Port Processor OPP : Output Port Processor

< ATM

>
POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM Cell (1)


64+5 32+4

IT522

Header
5 bytes

Payload
48 bytes

Header contains information to allow cell to be forwared to its destination Compromise reached in ITU-TS Study Group XVIII in June 1989
1998. 12. 22.
(12)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM Cell (2) - UNI


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

IT522

Generic Flow Virtual Path Control* Identifier Virtual Path Virtual Channel Identifier Identifier Virtual Channel Identifier Payload Type Virtual Channel CLP* * Identifier Identifier Header Error Check Payload (48 bytes)

5 Bytes

48 Bytes

UNI (User Network Interface) NNI (Network to Network Interface)

* Virtual Path Identifier on ATM NNI Cell ** CLP = Cell Loss Priority

1998. 12. 22.

(13)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM Cell (3)


Multi-bit Error Detected (cell discarded)

IT522

No Error Detected (no action)

Correction Mode

No Error Detected (no action)

Detection Mode

Error Detected (cell discarded)

Single-bit Error Detected (correction)

< HEC Operation at Receiver>


1998. 12. 22.
(14)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
Management Plane Control Plane Higher Layer Protocols User Plane Higher Layer Protocols

(1)
Plane Management Layer Management

IT522

Adaptation Layer ATM Layer Physical Layer

< ATM Protocol Reference Model >


1998. 12. 22.
(15)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
AAL ATM PHY UNI ATM Network

(2)

IT522

AAL ATM PHY UNI

PHY = Physical Layer UNI = User Network Interface AAL = ATM Adaptation Layer Different AAL protocols for different traffic types(e.g., data, voice, video)

<
1998. 12. 22.

N
(16)

>
POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
1. N:2 N

(3)

IT522

Transmission Convergence Sublayer Physical Medium Sublayer


N (Physical Medium Sublayer) Bit Timing Physical Medium N ( Transmission Convergence Sublayer) Cell Rate Decoupling HEC Header Generation/Verification Cell Delineation Transmission Frame Adaptation Transmission Frame Generation/Recovery
(17)

1998. 12. 22.

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
2. ATM N (ATM Layer) ATM Cell(HEC field )
Cell Header Generation/Extraction Cell VPI/VCI Translation Cell Multiplex and De-multiplex N

(4)
N

IT522

General Flow Control

1998. 12. 22.

(18)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM

(5) - ATM

IT522

Physical Link Virtual Path

Virtual Channel

1998. 12. 22.

(19)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM

VCI = 31 VCI = 32 VCI = 31 VCI = 40 VCI = 94 VCI = 97


VPI = 1 VPI = 2 VPI = 3

(5) - ATM
VPI = 4 VPI = 5 VPI = 6

IT522

VCI = 55 VCI = 57 VCI = 99 VCI = 32 VCI = 96 VCI = 97

Bundles of Virtual Channels are switched via Virtual Paths Virtual Path service from a carrier allows reconfiguration of Virtual Channels without service orders to carrier

1998. 12. 22.

(20)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM

(5) - ATM
3 76 Video

IT522

37 Video 42 Data

4 88 Voice ATM switch 5 52 Data 6 22 Video

2
37 Video 78 Voice

Port Video 1 Voice 1 Data 2 Video 2


1998. 12. 22.

Connection Table VPI/VCI Port 0/37 3 0/42 5 0/37 6 0/78 4


(21)

VPI/VCI 0/76 0/52 0/22 0/88


POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
QoS ATM

(5) - ATM

IT522

Generic Flow Control (GFC)

Payload Type
/ (OAM) , , Segment
Bit 3: Used to discriminate data cells from operation, administration, maintenance cells. Bit 2: Used to indicate congestion in data cells (Bit 3 = 0)  Rules for setting not specified 3 2  Rules for responding not specified Bit 1: Carried transparently end-to-end in data cells  Used by AAL5

Cell Loss Priority (CLP)


CLP=1
1998. 12. 22.
(22)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
Attribute SDU Type Timing relation between Source & destination Bit Rate Connection Mode AAL(s) Examples

/
Class A Bit Stream

(6) - ATM
Service Class Class B Class C Packet Packet

IT522

Class D Packet

Required (Realtime) Constant AAL1 64Kbps digital voice

Non Required (Non Realtime) Variable

Connection-Oriented Connectionless AAL2 AAL3/4,AAL5 AAL3/4,AAL5 Frame Relay IP Variable X.25 SMDS Bit rate Encoded video

< ATM/B-ISDN Service Class >


1998. 12. 22.
(23)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
AAL 1

(7) - ATM

IT522

: Voice-band, Circuit Emulation, Audio, Video ,

AAL 3/4
: Frame Relay, SMDS(Switched Multi-megabit Data Service) Packet , /

AAL 5
: 48 Bytes Payload Multiplexing , MPEG-2 , PT AAL3/4

1998. 12. 22.

(24)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
1 byte AAL1 Header
SN(4) SNP(4)

(8) - ATM
47 bytes Payload <

IT522

AAL1 for The Class A

SN : Sequence Number SNP : Sequence Number Protection

> Lost cell detection Used by Adaptive Clock Method Byte alignment Allows channelized circuit emulation e.g., channelized DS1 Time stamp Used for end-to-end clock synchronization e.g., Synchronous Residual Time Stamp method
(25)

1998. 12. 22.

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
ST SN MID

(9) - ATM
Payload
LI

IT522

AAL3/4 for The Class C and D


CRC

ST(Sequence Type) : 2bits SN (Sequence Number) : 4bits MID(Multiplexing Identification) : 10bits 44 bytes of data per cell LI(Length Identification) : 6bits CRC(Cyclic Redundancy Check) : 10bits checking per cell Multiplexing Identifier (MID) allows multiple interleaved packets on a virtual connection
(26)

1998. 12. 22.

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM
CBR VBR

IT522

Constant Bit Rate A steady, continuous flows of data with a guaranteed quality of delivery Variable Bit Rate A data rate that varies within limits, with a guaranteed quality of delivery

UBR
Unspecified Bit Rate Data will be delivered on a "Best Effort" basis: No Guarantees!

ABR
Available Bit Rate Data will be delivered using available bandwidth. Flow control is used to provide little of no data loss A minimum bandwidth may be specified

1998. 12. 22.

(27)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM/B-ISDN
Virtual Channel Connection (VCC) Virtual Channel Link (VCL) Virtual Path Connection (VPC) ATM Layer Virtual Path Link (VPL)

(1)

IT522

F5 - Virtual channel level

F4 - Virtual Path level

Transmission Path (TP) F3 - Transmission path level (SONET path) Digital Section (DS) Physical Layer Regenerator Section (DS) F1 Regenerator section level (SONET section) Endpoint of the corresponding levels Connecting Point of the corresponding levels F2 Digital section level (SONET line)

< ATM
1998. 12. 22.
(28)

>
POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM/B-ISDN
Hierarchy Regenerator section Function Signal detection Frame Alignment Section error monitoring Section error monitoring Section error reporting Cell rate decoupling Cell delineation Customer network status monitoring Header error detection / correction Header error performance monitoring Path error monitoring and reporting OAM-Flow

(2)
Failure detection

IT522

F1

Loss of signal (LOS) Loss of Frame (LOF) Degraded / error performance (optional) Degraded / error performance Degraded / error performance Failure of insertion & suppression of idle cells Loss of cell synchronization Customer Network not available Un-correctable error Degraded header error performance Degraded / error performance

Digital Section

F2

Transmission Path

F3

<
1998. 12. 22.

N
(29)

>
POSTECH DPE Lab.

ATM/B-ISDN
OAM Cell Type OAM Function Type Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) Remote Defect Indication (RDI / FERF) Continuity Check (CC) Loopback Performance Management Activation / Deactivation Forward Monitoring Backward Monitoring Performance Monitoring Continuity Check Main Application

(3)
Report defect indication in the forward direction

IT522

Report remote defect indication in the backward direction Monitoring continuity On-demand connectivity monitoring Fault localization Pre-service connectivity verification Estimating performance Reporting performance estimation in the backward direction PM activation / deactivation Continuity check activation / deactivation

Fault Management

< ATM
1998. 12. 22.

N
(30)

>
POSTECH DPE Lab.

Conclusion
IT522

ATM ATM

? ?

1998. 12. 22.

(31)

POSTECH DPE Lab.

References

IT522

[1] ATM : Theory and Application, David E. McDysan, Darren.Spohn, McGraw-Hill Serieson Computer Communications, 1996. [2] Data and Computer Communications, William Stallings, Prentice Hall, 1997. [3] A Brief Tutorial on ATM, http://www.cisco.com/univered/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/55755.htm [4] ITU, http://www.itu.ch. [5] HIC(Han/B-ISDN Information center , http://hic.etri.re.kr [6] ATM Forum, http://www.atmforum.com. [7] The ATM Forum Glossary, http://www. Atmforum.com/atmforum/library/glossary-print.html. [8] , eATM-ISDN f, KNOM, 1998 [9] ATM , http://commlab.hanyang.ac.kr/data/atm/ATM.html. [10] ATM, http://comis.kaist.ac.kr/~israin/lecture/atm/atm.html [11] ATM Networks, http://dbmain.snu.ac.kr/tgkwon.atm-html/atm-0.html [12] ATM Reference, http://www.dit.upm.es/infowin/atmeurope/atmrefs.html

1998. 12. 22.

(32)

POSTECH DPE Lab.