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DIGITAL CIRCUIT DESIGN & QUANTUM DOT CELLULAR AUTOMATA(QCA)

PRESENTED BY: AAMIR RASHID A1218309019

OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION TO QCA WORKING OF A QCA CELL MAJORITY VOTER IN QCA CLOCKING IN QCA IMPLEMENTATION OF VARIOUS CIRCUITS IN QCA VERIFICATION USING TTL CHIPS APPLICATIONS OF QCA DESIGNED CIRCUITS CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION
The logic unit in QCA is the QCA cell which was proposed by researchers at the University of Notre Dame. The QCA cell is composed of 4 or 5 quantum dots. A quantum dot is a nanometer sized structure that is capable of trapping electrons in three dimensions. Quantum dots are made by creating an island of conductive material surrounded by insulating material. Electrons that enter the quantum dot will be confined because of the high potential required to escape.

QCA- Four dot device

U se s e l ctro n s i ce l s to sto re a n d e n l tra n sm i d a ta . t E l ctro n s m o ve b e tw e e n d i re n t e ffe p o si o n s vi e l ctro n tu n n e l n g . ti a e i Lo g i fu n cti n s p e rfo rm e d b y c o C o u l m b i i te ra cti n s. o c n o

Quantum Dots operate as Cellular Automata


2 extra electrons are introduced to the quantum cell. Electrons have the ability to tunnel from one quantum dot to the next. Repelling force of electrons moves the charge to opposite corners of the quantum cell, resulting in two possible arrangements, representing binary 0 and 1. Quantum Cell

ebinary 1 0

e-

e-

e-

Quantum Dot Wire


By placing two cells adjacent to each other and forcing the first cell into a certain state , the second cell will assume the same state in order to lower its energy .

e
e

e
e

The net effect is that a 1 has moved on to the e next cell . By stringing cells together in this way , a pseudo - wire can ebe made to transport a signal . e In contrast however , no to a real wire , current flows .

Example of a complete geometricallogical system for QD

Remember about the difficulty of equal time delays. Special CAD needed.

Other QCA Structures-- Wires


90-degree wire 45-degree wire Normal and inverted signal available on the same wire

Observe that in this logic an inverter costs nothing

Quantum Dot Inverter


Two cells that are off center will invert a signal.
out in out in

out in

QCA The Circuit

Fundamental circuit is shown above


This is a 90-degree wire 45-degree wires can also be constructed

Binary value alternates between polarization +1 and 1 as it travels down the wire Ripper cells can be placed to get the actual binary value or complemented value from the wire

Quantum Dot Majority Gate


Logic gates can be constructed with quantum dot cells

The basic logic gate for a quantum dot cell is the majority gate.

in

in

in

out

in

out

in

in

Basic QCA Gate Majority


Input A Output Input B

Input C Can be used to implement AND, OR by setting one input to 0, 1

Special cases of Majority


Program Line
0
AND Gate (Program Line = 0) A 1 1 0 0 B 1 0 1 0 OUT 1 0 0 0

Input A

Output

1 Input B

*by simply changing the program line to 1, the device is transformed to an OR gate

Majority 0 , 0 , 1 0
Input A Output Input B

0 0
Input C

0 1
Stronger wins !

Majority 0,1,11
0 1 0 1 1

Majority 0 , 0 , 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

Quantum Dot Logic Gates that use NOT


AND, OR, NAND, etc can be formed from the NOT and the MAJ gates

0 1 A 0 B A 0 0 A and B 1 1 1 A 1 1

0 A nand B

B A or B

CLOCKING IN QCA CIRCUITS:


Unlike FET based circuits, QCA circuits have no predefined direction of flow, in a QCA circuit information will tend to flow in alldirections. By using clocking, we can synchronize and direct

CLOCKING IN QCA CIRCUITS:


QCA circuits typically use a clock with fourzones. Even a wire can be clocked, in such a case it is like a pump, sequentially and discretely moving information down the wire. QCA circuits are inherently pipelined. Will be discussed during implementation of

IMPLENTATION OF VARIOUS CIRCUITS USING QCA


All the circuit designs will be shown by using QCA simulator

VERIFICATION OF THESE CIRCUITS USING TTL CHIPS Transistor Logic or simply TTL is a class Transistor
of digital circuit built from bipolar junctions and resistors. It is call transistor transistorlogic because both the logic gating function and the amplifying function are performed by transistor. TTL chips being a widespread integrated circuits are being widely used in computers, industrial controls, test equipment and instrumentation, synthesizers and other electionic devices.

CODING IN TTL SERIES


7400 7401 7404 7408 7432 7486 : : : : : : NAND GATE NOR GATE NOT GATE AND GATE OR GATE XOR GATE

TTL CHIPS

The circuits were first designed using work bench and then applied on breadboard.

breadboardis a construction base forprototypingof electronic circuits. Figure shows a typical representation of a breadboard.

IMPLEMENTATION USING TTL CHIPS

USING WORK BENCH

USING BREADBOARD

XOR GATE

HALF ADDER

USING WORKBENCH USING BREADBOARD

HALF SUBTRACTOR

USING WORKBENCH

USING BREADBOARD

FULL ADDER

USING WORKBENCH USING BREADBOARD

FULL SUBTRACTOR

USING WORK BENCH

USING BREADBOARD

APPLICATIONS
Very small size circuits. Very high switching speed.(In Tera Hertz) Area consumed is very low. For a dot size of 10 nm, area required is less than 1.5m and replaces about 30 transistors.

Very low power is used. Power dessipation is low. Polarity not effected by other quantum dots because of clocking.
QCA is improvement over CMOS technology. And research work is going on.

APPLICATIONS

This is a feature that is not available in conventional microelectronics

CONCLUSION
Due to their high switching speed and lesser area requirement QCA circuits are considered to be most economical and power efficient and in the near future most of the electronic devices and computational machines will have QCA circuits as their main component.

THANK YOU!