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Mobilit IP

Plan
Introduction Quest-ce que la mobilit IP ? Architecture Mobile IP Mcanismes de mobilit IP Dcouverte dagent Enregistrement Tunnelage Fonctionnalits avances Micro-mobilit Support de mobilit fourni par IPv6 Mobile IP & 3G Conclusion

Diffrents types de mobilit

Diffrents types de mobilit


Nomadisme (DHCP) Ordinateurs mobiles (Mobile IP, IEEE 802.11) Rseaux mobiles (rseaux Ad-hoc) Besoin de protocoles fournissant un service de localisation

LANs sans fil aujourdhui : IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth AP IEEE 802.11 AP = pont entre le rseau fixe et le rseau sans fil handoffs de niveau 2 supports mais PAS la mobilit IP (les handoffs sont supports au sein dun mme sous-rseau IP) Mobilit IP Interface sans fil
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Mobilit IP LANs sans fil (WLAN)

Mobilit IP LANs sans fil (WLAN)

Diffrents types de mobilit


Terminal Mobility
- Wireless

connection between a terminal and access point (base station) or between several terminals(ad hoc network) - Keeps registration/call between customer and network while in motion - Enabling fonctions: handover, paging

Personal Mobility
- Enables a customer to be identifiable regardless of the terminal, the terminal type, the operator/provider domain, and the type of network he is currently registered with - User profiles are available across terminal/network/operator boundaries - Number portability

Service Mobility
- Enables usage of tailored and personalized services even if the customer is roaming to foreign networks - Includes service portability

Session Mobility
- Allows to interrupt sessions and to resume them later, possibility from another terminal or another network

Diffrents types de mobilit

Mobilit

Introduction Mobile IP (1)


Sillage des rseaux GSM Mobilit = ncessit pour les utilisateurs dun systme de communication Tous les rseaux existants se donnent pour mission de proposer ce service Standard TCP/IP : rseau le + tendu au monde Principe Anywhere, Any Time, Network Access Rseau IP : lune des principales sources dinformation
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Introduction Mobile IP (2)


chelle plantaire :
Quasi-totalit des rseaux fournissent une entre au rseau Internet Avec mobilit : garantie dun accs universel, simple demploi et pratique

Groupe de travail de lIETF : proposition IP Mobile


Proposer une localisation plantaire par ladresse IP ( linstar du roaming du GSM)

IP prexiste au concept nomade


GSM dot ds lorigine de telles fonctions IP : bricolage de solutions pour ajouter la mobilit

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Cahier des charges pour larchitecture de mobilit IP


Two major requirements arise when considering IP mobility: Application transparency : Dealing with a mobile configuration should not necessitate a mobile-aware application. This is needed in order to avoid application replacement on all Internet hosts! Seamless roaming : When a user goes out of his corporate network and roams around in the Internet, the requirement is to assure a seamless Internet communication between this user and his correspondents whatever the access network used by the mobile roaming user Dealing with mobility at the IP layer provides a way to answer the above requirements

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Problmatique de la mobilit dans IP


Difficults pour intgrer IP de nouvelles fonctions devant offrir la mobilit

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Why isnt IP mobility simple? (1)


The complexity comes from the current use of IP addresses. An IP address is used to identify a particular end-system. In this respect, IP addresses are equivalent to FQDNs (Fully Qualified Domain Names) and the equivalence is maintained in a DNS, Domain Name Server identify a particular TCP session in an IP host since a TCP socket consists of a (destination IP address, destination port number) couple determine a route to a destination IP host. The first two uses come into contradiction with the third use when mobility is considered

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IP mobility: routing

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Why isnt IP mobility simple? (2)


The first use supposes that a hosts IP address should never change since the DNS should always point to the same IP address The second use supposes that a hosts IP address should never change during a TCP session otherwise the session would be lost The third use supposes that when the host is roaming outside its home network (the network which has the prefix of the hosts IP address), it should change its address (and take an address with a prefix given by the visited network) in order to receive the datagrams destined to it

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Why isnt IP mobility simple? (3)


A possible answer to the third constraint would be to use a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server in order to obtain an address on the visited network This however poses a problem with the first two constraints First, the IP address of a host having changed, the DNS in the home network should be updated by the mobile host on the visited network. This may be very dangerous on a security standpoint! Second, this solution can not provide a seamless continuous mobility capability since when the mobile hosts IP address is changed, all TCP sessions involving this host should be dropped and reinitialized with the new IP address
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Mobile IP standardization process


The standardization of Mobile IP is being mainly carried out at the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) The IP Routing for Wireless/Mobile Hosts (MobileIP) Working Group is in charge of defining and specifying the Mobile IP architecture and protocols The major architecture components are already in the standards track (Request For Comments, RFCs 2002-2006) Some very interesting enhanced functionalities are still considered as work in progress and specified in Internet Drafts These documents and other related information may be found at the mobileip WG home page on the Web : http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/mobileip-charter.html

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PLAN
Introduction Quest-ce que la mobilit IP ? Architecture Mobile IP Mcanismes de mobilit IP Dcouverte dagent Enregistrement Tunnelage Fonctionnalits avances Micro-mobilit Support de mobilit fourni par IPv6 Mobile IP & 3G Conclusion
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Overview of the IP mobility architecture

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Functional entities
Mobile node : A host or a router that roams from one network or subnetwork to another outside its home network without changing its long term IP address (the home address) Home agent : This is typically a router on a mobile nodes home network which delivers datagrams to departed mobile nodes, and maintains current location information for each Foreign agent : This is typically a router on a mobile nodes visited network that collaborates with the Home agent to complete the delivery of datagrams to the mobile node while it is away from home

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The Mobile IP basic concept


The Mobile IP basic concept The Mobile IP basic concept The Mobile IP architecture resolves the above contradiction by using 2 IP addresses for a mobile host : The Home address is a permanent address used to identify uniquely the IP host on the Internet (answers the two first IP addresses constraints) The Care-of address is a temporary address used to route the datagrams destined to the mobile host to the current attachment point of this host (answers the last IP addresses constraint)

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Plan
Introduction Quest-ce que la mobilit IP ? Architecture Mobile IP Mcanismes de mobilit IP Dcouverte dagent Enregistrement Tunnelage Fonctionnalits avances Micro-mobilit Support de mobilit fourni par IPv6 Mobile IP & 3G Conclusion
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Main Functions
Agent Discovery : Home Agents & Foreign Agents send advertisements on the link. A mobile can ask for advertisements to be sent. Registration : When a mobile is away, it registers its temporary address with its home agent Tunneling : The packets for the mobile are intercepted by the HA and tunnelled to the mobile
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Mobile IP

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Protocol overview
1. Home Agent & Foreign Agent broadcast or multicast agent advertisements on their respective links. 2. Mobile nodes listen to Agent Advertisements. They examine the contents of these advertisements to determine whether they are on the home or on a visited network 3. A mobile node on a visited network acquires a temporary address (care of address)

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Protocol overview
4. The mobile registers its COA with its home agent 5. The Home Agent sends ARP on the Home Network (IP@ <-> MAC@). The packets for the mobile are intercepted and sent to the current position of the mobile 6. The packets arrive to the COA and are decapsulated in order to extract the original packet 7. The packets from the mobile are sent directly to the correspondents

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IP mobility mechanisms Agent discovery Registration Tunneling

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Agent Discovery
Process by which the mobile detects where it is attached (home or visited network) Allows the mobile to determine a COA when the mobile is on a visited network Based on 2 types of messages: Agent Advertisement : broadcast or multicast by the agents Agent Solicitation : sent by a mobile which does not want to wait for an AA Message authentication
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Agent Solicitation Message

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Mobile Agent Discovery


An extension, called the Mobility Agent extension, is appended to ICMP Router Advertisement to constitute the Agent Advertisement message A Foreign Agent uses the Agent Advertisement message in order to indicate the Care-of Address to a Mobile Node A Home Agent uses the Agent Advertisement message so that a Mobile Node knows when it has returned to its Home Network A Mobile Node is allowed to send ICMP Router Solicitation messages in order to elicit a Mobility Agent Advertisement

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Mobile Agent Discovery Getting a COA


A Care-of Address may be obtained from the Foreign Agent by an Agent Advertisement. It may also be obtained from a RAS (Remote Access Server) implementing PPP or from a DHCP server on a foreign LAN. In this case the Care-of Address is said to be collocated since it is directly assigned to the Mobile Node interface and not to a Mobile Node through a Foreign Agent. For a collocated Care-of Address, the tunnel terminates at the Mobile Node interface

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Agent Advertisement Message

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Mobile Agent Discovery


It is based upon an extension of the ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) Router Discovery protocol A router periodically broadcasts ICMP Router Advertisement messages on the different directly attached subnetworks This allows the hosts on these subnets to discover the router
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Mobile Agent Discovery


Mobility Agent Advertisement Extension
Flags: R=Registration required at the Foreign Agent B=Busy H=Home Agent F=Foreign Agent M,G,V indicate the encapsulation type Type identifies the Mobility Agent Advertisement extension Length is the total length of this extension which depends on the number of Care-of Addresses Lifetime specifies the duration of the Care-of Address support on the Foreign Agent For a Home Agent, Zero Care-of Address is advertised For a Foreign Agent, typically one Care-of Address is advertised Sequence Number is incremented at each Advertisement

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Registration
Functionnalities Ask for routing functionnalities of the FA Tell the HA the new location of the mobile Update a binding which is about to expire De-register the mobile when it is back on its home network Triggered as soon as the mobile detects it changed its point of attachement Use of the information obtained by agent discovery to determine the type of registration to be done Two registration procedures With the ForeignAgent With the temporary address of the mobile

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Registration
Once the Mobile Node receives a Careof Address, it should register its (Home Address, Care-of Address) binding at his Home Agent This is done using 2 messages : Registration Request Registration Reply They both use a UDP/IP service
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Registration

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Registration request

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Registration

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Registration
Registration Request
Flags : S=Simultaneous Registrations (multiple Care-of Adresses) B=Broadcast D=Care-of Address collocated with the Mobile Node M,G,V indicate the encapsulation type Type identifies the Registration message Lifetime specifies the duration of the mobility addresses binding Home Address is bound to the Care-of Address Home Agent identifies the Home Agent that should register the binding Identification is used to protect against replay attacks and allows to correlate a Registration Request with a Registration Reply message The Mobile-Home authentication extension is used to authenticate the Mobile Node at the Home Agent

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Registration Reply
Registering with the FA The FA receives the message and may reject it: Invalid authentication The lifetime value exceeds what may be accepted by the FA The mobile wishes to use a tunneling type not supported by the FA The FA has not enough resources Otherwise, it forwards the request to the HA Registering with the HA The HA also checks the registration should be accepted (same conditions) If it is accepted, the HA Updates its binding table Sends a proxy ARP message on the local link

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Registration
Registration Reply
Type identifies the Registration message Lifetime specifies the duration of the mobility addresses binding Home Address identifies the Mobile Node to which this message is related Home Agent identifies the Home Agent having registered the binding Identification is used to protect against replay attacks and allows to correlate a Registration Request with a Registration Reply message The Mobile-Home authentication extension is used to authenticate the Home Agent at the Mobile Node Code gives the result of the registration 0 : registration accepted 66, 69, 70... : registration denied by the Foreign Agent 130, 131, 133... : registration denied by the Home Agent

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Registration Reply
The FA receives a registration reply If the RR is invalid, the agent sends a Registration Reply describing the reason why the registration was rejected Otherwise, theagent Updates its binding table Forwards the message to the mobile Starts to handle the messages for the mobile Reception of the RR by the mobile If the registration was rejected, the mobile tries to change its registration procedure Otherwise the mobile updates its routing table
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Registration Reply

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Registration Reply

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Registration
Via le Foreign Agent :

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Exemple
Adresse home du mobile node =129.34.78.5 HA du mobile node = 129.34.78.254 FA address = 137.0.0.11 FA care of address = 9.2.20.11 Home node source port = 434 Mobile node source port = 1094 FA source port = 1105 Care-of-address registration lifetime = 60000 s HA granted lifetime = 35000 s
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Exemple

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Exemple

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Exemple
Annuler lenregistrement (au retour au rseau home) :

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Exemple

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De-registration

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Discovering the HA's address


Manual configuration on the mobile Automatically By broadcasting a registration request

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Learning the HA address

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Learning the HA address

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Learning the HA address

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Movement detection
Using the lifetime field If the lifetimeexpires, the mobile supposes it has attached to a new link or the agent has failed. It waits for an Agent Advertisement or sends an Agent Sollicitation Detection using the network prefix
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Routing
To the home network The packets for a mobile are always sent to its home network No specific routing conventional routing If the mobile sends data, it behaves as any other node on the Internet To a visitednetwork A router on the local link broadcasts an ARP request to inform the packets for the mobile should be sent to it. The packets are intercepted by the HA and tunnelled to the mobile's COA(s) At the end of the tunnel, they are decapsulated and delivered to the mobile

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Interception by the HA
2 possibilities Accessibility advertisement : only on HA routers with several interfaces Using the proxy ARP Mobile's IP@ <-> HA's MAC@ Updated by the HA and by the mobile node when it returns on its home network
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Packet interception by the HA

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Home Network configurations

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Proxy and Gratuitous ARP Proxy


In the cases A and B above, the Home Agent should intercept the datagrams intended to Mobile Nodes using a Proxy ARP mechanism In the case C, all datagrams intended to Mobile nodes will be naturally intercepted by the Home Agent. Here, all the hosts are outside their Home Network which become a Virtual Network Gratuitous ARP should be used by the Home Agent in order to change the ARP cache entry for a roaming Mobile nodes Home Address on the Home Network When the Mobile Node gets back to its Home Network, Gratuitous ARP should again be used by the Mobile Node itself to restore the ARP cache entry

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Security aspects (1)


The security issue is fundamental for registration messages otherwise impersonation and session hijacking attacks would be trivial Authentication should be applied to these messages The Mobile IP architecture specifies its own security mechanisms for use with IPv4 since IPsec, the new standardized security architecture, is not mandatory with IPv4 An authentication extension is thus appended to each of the above messages The default authentication algorithm is a keyed-MD5 in prefix + suffix mode The result of the authentication is thus a 128 bit message digest transmitted in the authentication extension

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Security aspects (2)


Type identifies the authentication extension (Mobile-Home, Home AgentForeign Agent,...) SPI specifies the authentication context (algorithm, mode, key...) The Authenticator is calculated over the entire message + this authentication extension

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Firewalls and packet filtering problems (1)

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Firewalls and packet filtering problems (2)


Ingress filtering is often applied in the border gateway of a corporate network playing the role of a firewall This prevents Mobile Node generated datagrams to reach the Internet coming from the Visited Network Solutions Send datagrams with Source Address=Care-of Address this is a loosing proposition because it runs counter to the architecture Send datagrams encapsulated in an outer IP header with Source Address=Care-of Address this is a better proposition but the Correspondent Nodes are not required to be able to do the decapsulation Encapsulated datagrams may be sent to the Home Agent which sends them back to the Correspondent Node this is a suboptimal solution on the routing standpoint
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Firewalls and packet filtering problems (3)


Correlated problem : the firewall on the Home Network side should also filter all datagrams coming from the Internet with a Source Address corresponding to an inner address (with the same prefix as the Home Network) Solutions : If the Home Agent is collocated with the Gateway/Firewall, the firewall will know when such datagrams should be accepted Otherwise, a protocol between the Home Agent and the Firewall may be necessary Finally, a solution may consist in tunneling all such datagrams to the Home Agent which should play the role of a bastion host and be attached to a DMZ for safety

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Datagram Tunneling
A Correspondent Node sends datagrams to a Mobile Node with the Destination Address field containing the Mobile Nodes Home Address Based on the destination address, these datagrams reach the Home Network There, the Home Agent intercepts the datagrams and encapsulates them into an outer IP header that tunnels the initial datagrams to the Foreign Agent or directly to the Mobile Node (in the case of a collocated Care-of Address) Multiple encapsulation schemes may be used including : IP-within-IP encapsulation Minimal encapsulation The datagrams sent by the Mobile Node reach directly the Correspondent Node
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Reminder : IPv4 header format

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IP-within-IP encapsulation
The original IP header remains unchanged when transmitted in the tunnel (the TTL field is decremented) Source Address : Correspondent Node Address Destination Address : Mobile Nodes Home Address The new IP header has : Source Address : Home Agent Address Destination Address : Care-of Address When fragmentation is needed, it should be done at the inner IP datagram level otherwise the fragments wont transport the Mobile Nodes Home Address used at the Foreign Agent to send the decapsulated datagram on the right data link

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Minimal encapsulation

S indicates the presence of the Original Source Address field Minimal encapsulation limits the number of supplementary bytes necessary for tunneling It prevents however from performing fragmentation
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Soft Tunnel State


It is interesting to maintain at the Home Agent level (the entry point of the tunnel) a number of parameters on the state of each established tunnel. These parameters constitute the Soft Tunnel State and include : The Path MTU on this tunnel for fragmentation purposes The state of the tunnel (broken or not) The Correspondent Node using the tunnel The Home Agent may then relay ICMP error messages to the Correspondent Node source of the tunneled datagrams Typically, ICMP host unreachable messages are sent back to the Correspondent Node when the datagrams are not delivered through the tunnel
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Plan
Introduction Quest-ce que la mobilit IP ? Architecture Mobile IP Mcanismes de mobilit IP Dcouverte dagent Enregistrement Tunnelage Fonctionnalits avances Micro-mobilit Support de mobilit fourni par IPv6 Mobile IP & 3G Conclusion
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Enhanced functionnalities
Optimisation du routage Smooth handoff

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Routing optimisation
Goal : Avoid triangle routing Idea: Tell the correspondents the current position of the mobile node Problem: Change the correspondent's IP stack
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Triangle Routing

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Route optimization (1)


The basic Mobile IP mechanisms create a Triangle Routing between the Correspondent Node, the Home Agent and the Mobile Node. This Triangle Routing is far from being optimal especially in the case of a Correspondent Node very close to the Mobile Node Route optimization consists of eliminating this problem This is done by updating the Correspondent Node giving it the mobility binding (Home Address, Care-of Address) of the Mobile Node For security purposes, it is the responsibility of the Home Agent to send the mobility binding to the Correspondent Nodes that need them

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Route optimization (2)

Correspondent Node
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Route optimization (3)


Binding updates are authenticated by a route optimization authentication extension (same as for the MobileHome authentication extension) Route optimization offers an efficient routing technique but supposes that the Correspondent Nodes are able to implement the route optimization protocol This may be the main reason why this mechanism has not yet been definitively adopted as an RFC
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Foreign Agent - Smooth Handoff


When a mobile moves, it registers with a new FA Goal: Tell the old FA the current position so that the packets in transit are redirected to the mobile (avoid losses and retransmissions) Protocol: The mobile registers with the new FA and tells the address of its old FA The new FA sends a BU to the old FA so that it forwards the packets to the new location of the mobile
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Smooth Handoff (1)

Correspondent Node
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Smooth Handoff (2)


During the handoff, it is important that the datagrams intended to the Mobile Node and received by the previous Foreign Agent not be lost A smooth handoff may be obtained if the previous Foreign Agent receives a binding update with the new Care-of Address of the Mobile Node allowing it to relay the datagrams to the new Foreign Agent This is best achieved if it remains a local mechanism between the Mobile Node and both the current and previous Foreign Agents (the Home Agent is too far to perform this binding update) This poses however a security problem since it is highly improbable, in the current state of Internet security, that an authentication security association be established between the Mobile Node and the Foreign Agents

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Smooth Handoff (3)

Correspondent Node
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Smooth Handoff (4)


If the previous Foreign Agent does not hold the new mobility binding for the Mobile Node, it may send back the decapsulated datagram to the Home Agent. This may create routing loops if the Foreign Agent has lost the trace of the Mobile Node and the Mobile Node is not connected elsewhere The Foreign Agent should re-encapsulate the decapsulated datagram into a Special Tunnel getting it back to the Home Agent with the Care-of Address as the source address of the outer header This allows the Home Agent to compare the current registration with the returned Care-of Address and decide whether it should tunnel the datagram or not thus avoiding routing loops

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Plan
Introduction Quest-ce que la mobilit IP ? Architecture Mobile IP Mcanismes de mobilit IP Dcouverte dagent Enregistrement Tunnelage Fonctionnalits avances Micro-mobilit Support de mobilit fourni par IPv6 Mobile IP & 3G Conclusion

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Micro mobility: Diffrents types de mobilit

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Micro mobility
A mobile has to register with its HA every time it moves Macro mobility (Mobile IP) Micro Mobility (Hawaii, Cellular IP ) Smaller cells + more mobiles => need to ditinguish micro/macro mobility The mobile registers with the HA when it moves to a new mciro mobility domain
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Micro mobility IP
Fonctionnement en mode paquet Diffrence par rapport aux autres rseaux cellulaires publics GSM, UMTS, CDMA 2000 : interfaces radio majoritairement en mode circuit Universalit du protocole IP Infrastructures rpandues dans le monde entier Micromobilit : va devenir une donne primordiale des rseaux Protocole de micro mobilit = complmentaire d'IP mobile Macromobilit : possibilit pour un utilisateur de quitter son rseau d'abonnement pour se rendre dans un autre domaine du rseau IP Adresse temporaire dans le nouveau domaine Enregistrement auprs de l'agent local de sa zone d'abonnement Gnration d'un temps de latence change de nombreux messages de signalisation Micro mobilit : mobilit locale Transparente pour le rseau d'abonnement de l'utilisateur mobile

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Micro mobility

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Macro / Micro mobility

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Solutions de micro mobilit


Enregistrements rgionaux HMIP Cellular IP Hawaii

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Regionalized registration (1)

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Regionalized registration (2)


Regionalized registration is a solution to the reduction of the registration traffic between a Home and a Visited Network over the Internet in order to update the mobility binding of the Mobile Nodes The idea is to construct a hierarchy of Foreign Agents, each FA registering a Care-of Address for the Mobile Node at its father FA level Multiple successive tunnels are thus constructed to reach the Mobile Node from the Home Agent When a Mobile Node moves from the region of FA7 to FA8, a registration should only be sent to FA4 and the tunnel FA4FA7 would be replaced by a tunnel FA4FA8 When a Mobile Node moves from the region of FA7 to FA9, a registration should be sent to FA1 (and not to the Home Agent) and the tunnels would be replaced accordingly

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Solutions de micro mobilit


Enregistrements rgionaux HMIP Cellular IP Hawaii

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HMIP: Hierarchical Mobile IP


Problem: a mobile registers with its HA every time it moves Goal: reduce registration time by using regional registrations

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HMIP: Registration(1)

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HMIP: Registration(2)

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HMIP: Routing

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HMIP: Ericsson(1)
Several levels in the hierarchy FA sends advertisements @FA7,@FA3,@FA1@GF A (pour FA7) @FA6,@FA4,@FA2,@GF A (pour FA6) The MN registers the GFA@ with its HA IP tunnels are set up between the FAs
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HMIP: Ericsson(2)
When it moves, the mobile checks the routes to determine if it is in the same hierarchy @FA7,@FA3,@FA1@GFA (for FA7) @FA6,@FA4,@FA2,@GFA (for FA6) Fast handoffs : a mobile may register with several FAs The packets are bicasted by the GFA

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Solutions de micro mobilit


Enregistrements rgionaux HMIP Cellular IP Hawaii

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Mobile / IP cellulaire
IP cellulaire n'intervient que sur le rseau d'accs Aucun routeur du rseau de c ur n'a conscience de l'existence d'IP cellulaire Systme peu coteux l'installation car pas de modification pour les routeurs Fonctionnement simple Dfinition d'une passerelle ou GW (Gateway) Accs au rseau Internet Situe la racine du domaine : joue le rle d'agent tranger Possde une adresse IP qui sert de COA (Care-Of Address) tous les visiteurs du domaine la rception de paquets encapsules, la GW te l'en-tte additionnel IP cellulaire met en uvre des techniques qui lui sont propres pour transfrer le paquet vers le mobile adquat Grce aux adresses IP permanentes
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Cellular IP:principes
Caches distribus Position des mobiles Information de routage

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IP cellulaire
Base Stations Wireless Access Points IP routing replaced by Cellular IP routing Gateways Mobile IP support Mobile Nodes use the GW@ as COA Mobile Node Inside the Cellular IP network, mobile nodes are identified with their home address
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Architecture IP cellulaire

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Architecture IP cellulaire
Rseau d'accs contient des stations de base Couverture de microcellules (id GSM) Couverture de picocellules, desservies par de petites antennes dans des espaces privatifs Souplesse de fonctionnement grce IP Mthode de transmission sur l'interface radio indpendante des oprations lies au routage et la gestion de la mobilit Dtection du passage d'une cellule une autre Diffusion priodique d'une signature de chaque station de base : voie balise Signal pilote servant mesurer la puissance du signal radio mis par chaque station de base Stations de base cbles de manire hirarchique Sommet = racine du domaine = passerelle
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Architecture IP cellulaire

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Oprations dans le rseau


3 oprations principales Paging Localisation d'un utilisateur lors de l'arrive de paquets destination Routage Acheminement des paquets vers l'utilisateurs travers les principaux lments du rseau d'accs Handoff Gestion des dplacements de l'utilisateur via le rseau d'accs IP cellulaire se comporte comme un systme sans fil Les terminaux choisissent toujours la station de base qui diffuse le signal pilote le plus puissant Handoff : changement de station de base Mise jour de tous les RC lorsque la route est nouvelle

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Objectifs de Cellular IP
Migration facile Bonne connectivit Support du soft handoff Passage lchelle avec une complexit minimale

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Cellular IP
Rseau distribu Les noeuds ne connaissent pas la topologie Pas de base de donnes centralise Bon passage lchelle

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Cellular IP
Cellular IP nodes do not know the exact location of a mobile Hop by hop routing IP addresses are mapped to ports on Cellular IP nodes Soft state mappings
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Mappings
Paging cache/Routing Cache

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tat de l'utilisateur
tat actif Utilisateur en train d'envoyer ou de recevoir des paquets Initialis la suite d'un paging ou d'une demande d'mission Position du terminal dtermine la cellule prs tat oisif (ou idle) Permet de rduire la signalisation sur le lien radio L'utilisateur peut rester attach au rseau d'accs tout en tant inactif Localis dans un groupement de cellules Permet d'accueillir un grand nombre de visiteurs dans un mme domaine Pas d'enregistrement chaque passage dans chaque cellule Si un utilisateur oisif reoit des paquets, on s'appuie sur un paging l'initiative du n ud cherchant localiser l'utilisateur
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Localisation dun utilisateur


2 exigences pour la russite d'une localisation Laisser toute la libert un terminal oisif Ne pas le contraindre se signaler Mettre en uvre un mcanisme optimal pour atteindre le terminal oisif un cot moindre lorsqu'il devient actif 2 procdures employes pour rpondre ces besoins Enregistrement de la localisation de temps autre en cas d'activit Cache de routage ou RC (Routing Cache) Emploi de paging en cas d'oisivet Cache de paging ou PC (Paging Cache)
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Caches de paging
Libert de mouvement pour les utilisateurs Ne facilite pas leur localisation Il faut retrouver un mobile oisif pour lui transmettre un paquet Surplus de signalisation Caches installs dans certains n uds ou stations de base Connaissance partielle de la localisation des mobiles Complte par le paging Mise jour des Paging Caches Par l'envoi vers la racine d'un paquet vide : paging-update Paging-update transmis de manire priodique

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Identification d'un terminal oisif

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Caches de paging

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Cache de routage
Permet d'acheminer le flux de paquets vers l'utilisateur Routage saut par saut (hop by hop) Enregistrement du chemin l'initiative de l'utilisateur Lorsqu'il envoie un paquet vers la racine, tous les n uds intermdiaires retiennent le chemin pour l'utiliser en sens inverse Si l'utilisateur cesse son activit rseau Possibilit de se maintenir dans les RC Transmission de paquets vides : route-update, vers la racine Sinon, effacement sur temporisation

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Routage

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Route discovery

When the mobile receives PP, it sends a Route-Update Packet to the base station F which forwards it towards GW All the RCs on the route are updated
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Downlink routing
If there is no PC on the GW: GW buffers the packet GW sends a Paging Packet with the mobile's id If the nodes have paging caches, hop by hop routing, otherwise, the packet is broadcast

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Handoff
Initiated by the mobile When a mobile gets close to a new BS, it redirects its packets to the new BS The first packet redirected configures a new route The packets are send to the old and new BS during a certain time
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Summary
Use of the home address No temporary address No encapsulation The mobile sends the gateway address to the HA GW@ is learnt by the BS

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Solutions de micro mobilit


Enregistrements rgionaux HMIP Cellular IP Hawaii

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Hawaii

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Hawaii

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Routing Update ( 1)

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Routing Update ( 2)

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Hawaii

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Plan
Introduction Quest-ce que la mobilit IP ? Architecture Mobile IP Mcanismes de mobilit IP Dcouverte dagent Enregistrement Tunnelage Fonctionnalits avances Micro-mobilit Support de mobilit fourni par IPv6 Mobile IP & 3G Conclusion

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IPv4 vs IPv6

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Mobile IPv6
IPv6 mobility relies on: New functionnalities in IPv6 A native support of mobility A global and unique IPv6 address is assigned to each mobile node: the Home Address This address identifies the mobile A mobile is able to communicate directly with mobile nodes (no triangle routing)
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Main functionnalities in IPv6


The correspondents must Have a binding in their binding cache Learn the location of the mobile by handling Binding Updates Route the packets directly to the mobile (Routing Header) TheHA must Be a router on the mobile's home network Intercept the packets on the home network Tunnel (IPv6 encapsulation) these packets directly to the mobile
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Reaching the mobile


A mobile can always be reached via its HA A mobile on a visited network always has a COA (selfconfiguration) The Router Advertisement indicates the subnetworks prefix Combination of this prefix with the MAC address Movement detection is also accomplished with Neighbor Discovery procedures Multi-homing

136

IPv6 Destination options


Binding Update : To inform the HA or the correspondents of the new COA Binding request Ask for a BU. Used when a correspondent thinks its binding will soon expire Binding Acknowledgement Sent by the HA. Acknowledges a BU containing the COA Home Address Included in every IPv6 packet from the mobile to its correspondent The packet is supposed to be originated from the home network and not the visited network Uses 144 bits in the header of every packet

137

Cache association management


Every time a mobile moves it sends a Binding Update (BU): The BU includes a lifetime The mobile keeps a list of the correspondents to which it sent a BU The temporary address sent to the HA is called the principal COA
138

The IETF model

139

BU format

140

Binding Acknowledge message


ACK message based on a destination header extension

Sent if the A bit is set in the BU sent by the mobile Also includes an authentication header

141

Binding Request & Home address


Allows the correspondents to update their bindings
Store the principal address of the mobile

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IPv6 Nodes
Handling IPv6 mobility forces the nodes to implement some functionnalities: Be able to receive and handle BUs SendBAs Use RoutingHeader Maintain a Binding Cache An IPv6 node must be able to Do IPv6 decapsulation Send BUs and receive BAs Maintain a list of BUs sent
143

IPv6 routers
At least one router on the mobile's home network may act as a HA A HA must: Maintain a Binding table Intercept packets in the mobile's home network Encapsulate these packets and send them to the mobile's COA
144

HA discovery
Modification of the Routing Advertisement (RA) message of Neighbor Discovery Add an option to the RA message Modify the minimal time (3 seconds) between two RAs (1 message/sec) Send a BU (with the H bit set) to the anycast address of the HAs

145

IPv6 and mobility (1)


IPv6 represents an almost perfect protocol basis for mobile networking First, the attendant address configuration protocols allow each Mobile Node to obtain a Care-of Address without the need for Foreign Agents which disappear from the architecture Second, IPsec implementation is mandatory to IPv6 compliant systems. This resolves security pitfalls by providing a widely available and standardized security architecture Particularly, mobility bindings are now done by the Mobile Nodes themselves Third, the destination options IPv6 header extension provides means to sending mobility bindings updates from the Mobile Nodes directly to Correspondent Nodes very efficiently This simplifies the smooth handoff procedure

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IPv6 and mobility (2)

Correspondent Node
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Data mobility perspectives


The Mobile IP architecture is being finalized at the IETF with its basic mechanisms already terminated and some enhanced functionalities being added progressively The market opportunities for this architecture are huge and should follow the explosive growth of both computer/Internet industries on the one hand and mobile telephony on the other hand Some work still has to be done however to integrate both approaches by having a single network infrastructure for both Mobile IP and other mobility approaches such as the third generation of Mobile Cellular Networks (UMTS) This conforms to the global service integration over a consolidated network infrastructure trend for public networks

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HMIPv6
MAP (Mobility Anchor Point) Minimizes interruptions due to handoffs The mobiles use the MAP's IP@ as COA MAP receives the packets and delivers them to the mobile The access routers send the
149

HMIPv6
The access routers send the MAP's IPv6@ in RAs The mobile may roam and keep the same MAP If the mobile changes its MAP, it sends a new BU to its HA and correspondents

150

HMIPv6

IPv6MobHA IPv6MobCOA

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Plan
Introduction Quest-ce que la mobilit IP ? Architecture Mobile IP Mcanismes de mobilit IP Dcouverte dagent Enregistrement Tunnelage Fonctionnalits avances Micro-mobilit Support de mobilit fourni par IPv6 Mobile IP & 3G Conclusion

152

MIP-UMTS standardized architecture

153

MIP-UMTS other solutions (1/2)

154

MIP-UMTS other solutions (2/2)

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3GPP Network Reference Architecture R5

156

Mobile IP in UMTS

157

Data mobility perspectives


The Mobile IP architecture is being finalized at the IETF with its basic mechanisms already terminated and some enhanced functionalities being added progressively The market opportunities for this architecture are huge and should follow the explosive growth of both computer/Internet industries on the one hand and mobile telephony on the other hand Some work still has to be done however to integrate both approaches by having a single network infrastructure for both Mobile IP and other mobility approaches such as the third generation of Mobile Cellular Networks (UMTS) This conforms to the global service integration over a consolidated network infrastructure trend for public networks

158